Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions.
What are the thermodynamic properties of matter at extreme densities, even exceeding nuclear matter density severely? How can we describe the composition of matter for such conditions, the resulting pressure, and the maximum mass of cold neutron stars? How is this affected by finite temperatures, as they occur in core collapse supernovae and in compact star mergers? This review addresses these points within the framework of constraints from experiments as well as astronomical observations.
From 1945 until 1962, the United States conducted 210 atmospheric nuclear tests—the kind with the big mushroom cloud and all that jazz. Above-ground nuke testing was banned in 1963, but there are thousands of films from those tests that have just been rotting in secret vaults around the country. But starting today you can see many of them on YouTube.
Over three and a half decades of collinear laser spectroscopy and the COLLAPS setup have played a major role in the ISOLDE physics programme. Based on a general experimental principle and diverse approaches towards higher sensitivity, it has provided unique access to basic nuclear properties such as spins, magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments as well as isotopic variations of nuclear mean square charge radii. While previous methods of outstanding sensitivity were restricted to selected chemical elements with special atomic properties or nuclear decay modes, recent developments have yielded a breakthrough in sensitivity for nuclides in wide mass ranges. These developments include the use of bunched beams from the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler–buncher ISCOOL, which allows a suppression of background by several orders of magnitude. Very recently, the combination of collinear laser spectroscopy with the principle of laser resonance ionisation took shape in the new CRIS setup, providing a very selective and efficient detection of optical resonance. We outline the basic experimental developments and discuss important results on nuclei or chains of isotopes in different mass ranges.
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