Since the late 1990s, European higher education has moved towards greater integration, increasing student mobility and more comparable national systems. The past two decades have also seen a gradual rise in the role of market elements in higher education. Pedro Teixeira finds that this greater integration may be leading to a greater concentration of funding across certain countries and academic disciplines. He writes that an EU that is increasingly concerned with global relevance may now be more willing to concentrate resources in a smaller number of elite institutions.
This animation shows the global pattern of human land use over the last eight thousand years, a time when human populations began expanding following the origins of agriculture. The earliest areas of human land use are in Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent areas of southwest Asia, followed by increasing areas of land use in China, India, and Europe. Watch for the areas of intensive land use developing in India, especially along the Ganges River plane, and in Northern China along the lower Yellow and Yangtze rivers. As time goes on, you will see areas of land use developing in South America, along the Andes, and in Africa, especially in the Sahel region. By classical times, land use in Europe is very intense with up to 60% of the land under human uses, but we start to see fluctuations around this time too, with some areas abandoned corresponding with wars, famine, and other historical events that affected human populations. As time continues through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, land use in Europe and Chine increase greatly following the development of cities and towns. Now pay careful attention to South America. Following the first contact with Europeans around 1500, nearly 90% of the indigenous people of the Americas were killed, mainly by disease. This collapse in populations led to massive regrowth of natural vegetation, especially forests in the Amazon, Andes, and Mesoamerica. As we race towards modern times we see the settlement of the Americas and Australia by Europeans spreading across the continents, and the development of the human-dominated world we have today.
Oral narrative strategies have rarely been applied in the positive psychology domain. Traditional folk and fairy tales are concerned with several concepts that are now scientifically investigated by research on positive psychology, such as resilience, self-realization, personal growth and meaning in life. The aim of this pilot study was to apply a new narrative approach based on fairy tales (Märchen, tales of magic, rise tales) told, discussed, and written in a group context for the purpose of promoting psychological well-being and growth.
This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.
Online social networks (OSNs) are changing the way information spreads throughout the Internet. A deep understanding of information spreading in OSNs leads to both social and commercial benefits. In this paper, dynamics of information spreading (e.g., how fast and widely the information spreads against time) in OSNs are characterized, and a general and accurate model based on Interactive Markov Chains (IMCs) and mean-field theory is established. This model shows tight relations between network topology and information spreading in OSNs, e.g., the information spreading ability is positively related to the heterogeneity of degree distributions whereas negatively related to the degree-degree correlations in general. Further, the model is extended to feature the time-varying user behavior and the ever-changing information popularity. By leveraging the mean-field theory, the model is able to characterize the complicated information spreading process (e.g., the dynamic patterns of information spreading) with six parameters. Extensive evaluations based on Renren's data set illustrate the accuracy of the model, e.g., it can characterize dynamic patterns of video sharing in Renren precisely and predict future spreading dynamics successfully.
This article is an attempt to capture, in a reasonable space, some of the major developments and currents of thought in information theory and the relations between them. I have particularly tried to include changes in the views of key authors in the field. The domains addressed range from mathematical-categorial, philosophical and computational approaches to systems, causal-compositional, biological and religious approaches and messaging theory. I have related key concepts in each domain to my non-standard extension of logic to real processes that I call Logic in Reality (LIR). The result is not another attempt at a General Theory of Information such as that of Burgin, or a Unified Theory of Information like that of Hofkirchner. It is not a compendium of papers presented at a conference, more or less unified around a particular theme. It is rather a highly personal, limited synthesis which nonetheless may facilitate comparison of insights, including contradictory ones, from different lines of inquiry. As such, it may be an example of the concept proposed by Marijuan, still little developed, of the recombination of knowledge. Like the best of the work to which it refers, the finality of this synthesis is the possible contribution that an improved understanding of the nature and dynamics of information may make to the ethical development of the information society.
Submissions for contributed talks/posters will be open until April 15 2014. Acceptance will be communicated on April 30 2014 at the latest. Contributions must be submitted through EasyChair.org at the page https://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=eccs14
As part of my job at the World Bank helping to advise governments on what works, and what doesn't, related to the use of new technologies in education around the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries, I spend a fair amount of time trying to track down information about projects -- sometimes quite large in scale and invariably described as 'innovative' in some way -- that were announced with much fanfare which received a great deal of press attention, but about which very little information is subsequently made widely available. (...)
Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global–scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global–scale networks.
by Manuel Garcia-Herranz, Esteban Moro, Manuel Cebrian, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler
Sony Kapoor and Re-Define are among the most fresh thinkers within economic reforms, with a strong focus on how Europe can get out of the crisis, how climate change can be halted and how banks can become more functional. Here, Sony presents his "carbon stress test" for banks, how green investments become lucrative and not least - how they happen.
Cooperation is a widespread natural phenomenon yet current evolutionary thinking is dominated by the paradigm of selfish competition. Recent advanced in many fronts of Biology and Non-linear Physics are helping to bring cooperation to its proper place. In this contribution, the most important controversies and open research avenues in the field of social evolution are reviewed. It is argued that a novel theory of social evolution must integrate the concepts of the science of Complex Systems with those of the Darwinian tradition. Current gene-centric approaches should be reviewed and com- plemented with evidence from multilevel phenomena (group selection), the constrains given by the non-linear nature of biological dynamical systems and the emergent nature of dissipative phenomena.
Chapter in forthcoming open access book "Frontiers in Ecology, Evolution and Complexity"
Economics is a stately subject, prim and respectable, one that’s altered little since its modern foundations were laid in Victorian times. Now it is changing rapidly, thanks to the work of a small group of researchers over the last two decades in New Mexico. (...)
The world needs changing in all sorts of urgent ways: the great question is how to do it. The most popular and appealing answer has long been that one should try to write a book, retreat to a mountain-top, lay down one’s thoughts with passion and cogency, try hard to sell as many copies as possible and wait for change to emerge.
Immense prestige has surrounded this activity for the last 200 years at least and it can seem, from a distance, that it has been deeply successful as well. Some books have undeniably made a splash (Das Capital, Thus Spake Zarathustra, Silent Spring, The God Delusion…) (...)
A book by Hilton L. Root. The MIT Press. 2013, Hardcover, 332 pages. Reviewed by David Hales (University of Szeged, Hungary)
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, in 1989, prominent Western Liberal intellectuals declared the “end of history”. The West had won. Liberal democracy, driven by open markets and global capital, was inevitable and the historic destiny of all nations. The only question was how long it would take them to get there. Hence international development became a process, for the West, of helping all nations along the road towards the final utopia. A utopia the Western powers had already attained.
For over a hundred thousand years, humans evolved in small, roving bands of a few dozen people. But then, about ten thousand years ago, we started living in cities that were far bigger than any tribe or band. Our minds had to change to cope with the population overload.
Please upload one (1) page of extended abstracts (figures/ref included) in pdf. Longer contributions will not be considered.
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ECCS’14 will be a major international conference and event in the area of complex systems and interdisciplinary science in general. It will offer unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. The conference will take place at the IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca campus; all IMT structures are located in the historical center of Lucca and make up an integrated campus for advanced studies and research.
The conference will cover a broad range of subjects on all aspects of Complex Systems, as reflected by the following conference tracks: Foundations of Complex Systems Information and Communication Technologies Infrastructures, Planning and Environment Biological Complexity Language, Linguistics Cognition and Social Systems Economics and Finance
The Web is perhaps the most complex system that we know. Its massive scale, complex dynamism, open richness, and social character mean that it may be more profitable to study it using tools and concepts appropriate for understanding nervous systems, organisms, ecosystems and society, rather than approaches more traditionally employed to engineer technology. Simultaneously, the scientists trying to understand this wide array of complex natural systems may have much to gain by considering the emergingstudy of the Web.
Massive Data Flow: Understanding the Complex Dynamics of the Web Workshop at the ACM Web Science Conference 2014 (http://www.websci14.org ) 10:00 - 18:00, June 23rd, 2014 Indiana University, Bloomington
Many of China’s problems today stem from too much market and too little government. Or, to put it another way, while the government is clearly doing some things that it should not, it is also not doing some things that it should.