Non-Equilibrium S...
Follow
17.6K views | +0 today
Non-Equilibrium Social Science
This is the Scoop.it! for NESS - Non-Equilibrium Social Sciences. For more about the NESS community please go to our website http://www.nessnet.eu
Curated by NESS
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by NESS from CxConferences
Scoop.it!

Dynamics of Multi-Level Systems (DYMULT15)

Dynamics of Multi-Level Systems
Seminar/School — 01 - 12 June 2015
Workshop — 15 - 19 June 2015

Scientific Coordinators:
Fatihcan Atay (Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig, Germany)
Kristian Lindgren (Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden)
Eckehard Olbrich (Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig, Germany)

 

http://www.pks.mpg.de/~dymult15/


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Étoile Platform
Scoop.it!

World Changing Ideas 2014

World Changing Ideas 2014 | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

Predicting which scientific discoveries will change the world is, arguably, a fool's game. Who knows what the future will bring? Yet every year a handful of developments—say, the arrival of the quickest, cheapest genome-editing tool yet—get us so excited that we cannot help ourselves. This year those breakthroughs include tools for reprogramming living cells and rendering lab animals transparent; ways of powering electronics with sound waves and saliva; smartphone screens that correct for the flaws in your vision; Lego-like atomic structures that could produce major advances in superconductivity research; and others. Read about them now, then pay attention in the coming years to see what they do.


Via Jorge Louçã
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Papers
Scoop.it!

Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy

Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy - Foundations & Frontiers - Medium

By W. Brian Arthur; External Professor, Santa Fe Institute; Visiting Researcher, Palo Alto Research Center. 

Economics is a stately subject, one that has altered little since its modern foundations were laid in Victorian times. Now it is changing radically. Standard economics is suddenly being challenged by a number of new approaches: behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, new institutional economics. One of the new approaches came to life at the Santa Fe Institute: complexity economics.

Complexity economics got its start in 1987 when a now-famous conference of scientists and economists convened by physicist Philip Anderson and economist Kenneth Arrow met to discuss the economy as an evolving complex system. That conference gave birth a year later to the Institute’s first research program – the Economy as an Evolving Complex System – and I was asked to lead this. That program in turn has gone on to lay down a new and different way to look at the economy.


Via Alessandro Cerboni, Complexity Digest
more...
Fàtima Galan's curator insight, December 10, 8:43 AM

"Where does complexity economics find itself now? Certainly, many commentators see it as steadily moving toward the center of economics. And there’s a recognition that it is more than a new set of methods or theories: it is a different way to see the economy. It views the economy not as machine-like, perfectly rational, and essentially static, but as organic, always exploring, and always evolving – always constructing itself."

Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Why social science should stop using the qualitative/quantitative dichotomy

Why social science should stop using the qualitative/quantitative dichotomy | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

Qualitative and quantitative research methods have long been asserted as distinctly separate, but to what end? Howard Aldrich argues the simple dichotomy fails to account for the breadth of collection and analysis techniques currently in use. But institutional norms and practices keep alive the implicit message that non-statistical approaches are somehow less rigorous than statistical ones.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Big Data and the attention economy

You want to reveal the hidden power of your Big Data, but the volumes are so large that people can’t find what they need, when they need it. 

Join Bernardo Huberman, HP Senior Fellow, as he describes HP Labs’ research into novel algorithms and easy-to-use interfaces designed to mitigate the attention deficit Big Data can create.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

How to escape the debt trap

How to escape the debt trap | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
The only way to stimulate growth without generating more debt is to run increased fiscal deficits financed by central-bank money, writes Adair Turner.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Being Bad Europeans

Being Bad Europeans | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

The U.S. economy finally seems to be climbing out of the deep hole it entered during the global financial crisis. Unfortunately, Europe, the other epicenter of crisis, can’t say the same. Unemployment in the euro area is stalled at almost twice the U.S. level, while inflation is far below both the official target and outright deflation has become a looming risk.

Investors have taken notice: European interest rates have plunged, with German long-term bonds yielding just 0.7 percent. That’s the kind of yield we used to associate with Japanese deflation, and markets are indeed signaling that they expect Europe to experience its own lost decade.

Why is Europe in such dire straits?

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Papers
Scoop.it!

Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

 

Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes
Phys. Rev. X 4, 041036 – Published 21 November 2014
Tobias Kuhn, Matjaž Perc, and Dirk Helbing

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041036

 


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Papers
Scoop.it!

Impact, productivity, and scientific excellence

Citation metrics are becoming pervasive in the quantitative evaluation of scholars, journals and institutions. More then ever before, hiring, promotion, and funding decisions rely on a variety of impact metrics that cannot disentangle quality from productivity, and are biased by factors such as discipline and academic age. Biases affecting the evaluation of single papers are compounded when one aggregates citation-based metrics across an entire publication record. It is not trivial to compare the quality of two scholars that during their careers have published at different rates in different disciplines in different periods of time. We propose a novel solution based on the generation of a statistical baseline specifically tailored on the academic profile of each researcher. By decoupling productivity and impact, our method can determine whether a certain level of impact can be explained by productivity alone, or additional ingredients of scientific excellence are necessary. The method is flexible enough to allow for the evaluation of, and fair comparison among, arbitrary collections of papers --- scholar publication records, journals, and entire institutions; and can be extended to simultaneously suppresses any source of bias. We show that our method can capture the quality of the work of Nobel laureates irrespective of productivity, academic age, and discipline, even when traditional metrics indicate low impact in absolute terms. We further apply our methodology to almost a million scholars and over six thousand journals to quantify the impact required to demonstrate scientific excellence for a given level of productivity.

 

Impact, productivity, and scientific excellence
Jasleen Kaur, Emilio Ferrara, Filippo Menczer, Alessandro Flammini, Filippo Radicchi

http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.7357


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

The Urban Village

“I want to be a part of it – New York, New York,” Frank Sinatra sang of the city that has attracted so many of the world’s most ambitious people, from artists and performers to businesspeople and bankers. In a sense, this is not a difficult phenomenon to explain; metropolises like New York City, with their multicultural populations, multinational corporations, and multitude of talented individuals, are rife with opportunities. But the impact of large cities runs deeper than economic or even cultural power; cities can fundamentally change people’s lives – and even the people themselves.

 

by Carlo Ratti and Matthew Claudel

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Top 10 most gender equal countries in the world

Top 10 most gender equal countries in the world | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
5 Nordic countries, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, dominate rankings of the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap 2014 report.

The report ranks 142 countries on their ability to close the gender gap – making sure women are not held back – in four fundamental areas: economic participation and opportunity, education, health and survival, and political empowerment.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

The world reshaped

The world reshaped | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

In 2015 demographers, teachers and politicians will stop talking about the population pyramid and start referring to the population dome. The change in terminology will reflect a profound shift in the shape and structure of societies—a shift that has been going on for 50 years and is only half complete. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings: We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect|when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy)|and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions: The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.


by A.E. Allahverdyan, Aram Galstyan

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

While we gain from digital connectivity, the accompanying invasion into our private lives makes our personal data ripe for abuse

While we gain from digital connectivity, the accompanying invasion into our private lives makes our personal data ripe for abuse | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

We use these apps and websites because of their benefits. We discover new music, restaurants and movies; we meet new friends and reconnect with old ones; we trade goods and services. The paradox of this situation is that while we gain from digital connectivity, the accompanying invasion into our private lives makes our personal data ripe for abuse — revealing things we thought we had not even disclosed.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

The Psychology of Writing and the Cognitive Science of the Perfect Daily Routine

The Psychology of Writing and the Cognitive Science of the Perfect Daily Routine | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

How to sculpt an environment that optimizes creative flow and summons relevant knowledge from your long-term memory through the right retrieval cues.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Social Choice and Social Welfare

Social Choice and Social Welfare | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
Human beings have always lived in groups, and their individual lives have invariably depended on group decisions. But, given the daunting challenges of group choice, owing to the divergent interests and concerns of the group’s members, how should collective decision-making be carried out?
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

A planet of suburbs

A planet of suburbs | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

THIRTY kilometres south of central Chennai, just out of earshot of the honking, hand-painted lorries roaring up Old Mahabalipuram Road, you seem to have reached rural India. The earth road buckles and heaves. Farmers dressed in Madras-checked dhotis rest outside huts roofed with palm leaves. Goats wander about. Then you turn a corner, go through a gate, and arrive in California.
Lakewood Enclave is a new development of 28 large two-storey houses, wedged tightly together. The houses are advertised as “Balinese-style”, although in truth they are hard to tell apart from any number of suburban homes around the world. Outside, the houses are painted a pale pinkish-brown; inside, the walls are white, the floors are stone and the design is open-plan. They each have three bedrooms (middle-class Tamil families are small these days) and a covered driveway to protect a car from the melting sun. Just one detail makes them distinctively Indian: a cupboard near the door for Hindu gods. (...)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

A Unifying Framework for Measuring Weighted Rich Clubs

A Unifying Framework for Measuring Weighted Rich Clubs | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
Network analysis can help uncover meaningful regularities in the organization of complex systems. Among these, rich clubs are a functionally important property of a variety of social, technological and biological networks. Rich clubs emerge when nodes that are somehow prominent or ‘rich’ (e.g., highly connected) interact preferentially with one another. The identification of rich clubs is non-trivial, especially in weighted networks, and to this end multiple distinct metrics have been proposed. Here we describe a unifying framework for detecting rich clubs which intuitively generalizes various metrics into a single integrated method. This generalization rests upon the explicit incorporation of randomized control networks into the measurement process. We apply this framework to real-life examples, and show that, depending on the selection of randomized controls, different kinds of rich-club structures can be detected, such as topological and weighted rich clubs.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Daily Magazine
Scoop.it!

How to Increase Conversion Rates by Decreasing Choices [Infographic]

How to Increase Conversion Rates by Decreasing Choices [Infographic] | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
Learn why too many choices could be a bad thing for your conversions.

Via Official AndreasCY
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Technology is making us blind: The dangerous complacency of the iPhone era

Technology is making us blind: The dangerous complacency of the iPhone era | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

The technology pages of news media can make for scary reading these days. From new evidence of government surveillance to the personal data collection capabilities of new devices, to the latest leaks of personal information, we hear almost daily of new threats to personal privacy. It’s difficult to overstate the implications of this: The separation of the private and public that’s the cornerstone of liberal thought, not to mention the American Constitution, is being rapidly eroded, with potentially profound consequences for our freedom.

 

As much as we may register a certain level of dismay at this, in practice, our reaction is often indifference. How many of us have taken to the streets in protest, started a petition, canvassed a politician, or even changed our relationship with our smartphone, tablet or smartwatch? The question is why are we so unconcerned?

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by NESS from Papers
Scoop.it!

Social media for large studies of behavior

CONCLUSIONS. The biases and issues highlighted above will not affect all research in the same way. Well-reasoned judgment on the part of authors, reviewers, and editors is warranted here. Many of the issues discussed have well-known solutions contributed by other fields such as epidemiology, statistics, and machine learning. In some cases, the solutions are difficult to fit with practical realities (e.g., as in the case of proper significance testing) whereas in other cases the community simply has not broadly adopted best practices (e.g., independent data sets for testing machine learning techniques) or the existing solutions may be subject to biases of their own. Regardless, a crucial step is to resolve the disconnect that exists between this research community and other (often related) fields with methods and practices for managing analytical bias.

 

Social media for large studies of behavior
Derek Ruths, Jürgen Pfeffer

Science 28 November 2014:
Vol. 346 no. 6213 pp. 1063-1064
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.346.6213.1063

 


Via Complexity Digest
more...
tom cockburn's curator insight, November 30, 5:26 AM

Seems a sensible conclusion regarding big data

Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

World Population Will Soar Higher Than Predicted

World Population Will Soar Higher Than Predicted | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

United Nations leaders have worried for decades about the pace of population growth. A few years ago leading calculations had global population peaking at nine billion by 2070 and then easing to 8.4 billion by 2100. Currently it stands at 7.2 billion. Recently the U.N. revised these numbers steeply upward: the population is now expected to rise to 9.6 billion by 2050 and continue to 10.9 billion by 2100 (black line, below). What caused this drastic revision? Almost all the increase comes from Africa (pink line). Earlier models “had anticipated that fertility rates in Africa would drop quickly, but they haven’t,” says Adrian Raftery, a statistician at the University of Washington, who assessed the revised estimates. How the world will feed a few billion more people is the question of the day.  

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions

Cooperation among unrelated individuals is frequently observed in social groups when their members combine efforts and resources to obtain a shared benefit that is unachievable by an individual alone. However, understanding why cooperation arises despite the natural tendency of individuals toward selfish behavior is still an open problem and represents one of the most fascinating challenges in evolutionary dynamics. Recently, the structural characterization of the networks in which social interactions take place has shed some light on the mechanisms by which cooperative behavior emerges and eventually overcomes the natural temptation to defect. In particular, it has been found that the heterogeneity in the number of social ties and the presence of tightly knit communities lead to a significant increase in cooperation as compared with the unstructured and homogeneous connection patterns considered in classical evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate the role of social-ties dynamics for the emergence of cooperation in a family of social dilemmas. Social interactions are in fact intrinsically dynamic, fluctuating, and intermittent over time, and they can be represented by time-varying networks. By considering two experimental data sets of human interactions with detailed time information, we show that the temporal dynamics of social ties has a dramatic impact on the evolution of cooperation: the dynamics of pairwise interactions favors selfish behavior.

 

Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions
Phys. Rev. E 90, 052825 – Published 25 November 2014

Alessio Cardillo, Giovanni Petri, Vincenzo Nicosia, Roberta Sinatra, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, and Vito Latora

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Defining the internet of things – time to focus on the data

Defining the internet of things – time to focus on the data | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it
As the internet of things passes into mainstream consciousness, more specific definitions are needed in order to secure it. The data it creates could be a good place to start
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by NESS
Scoop.it!

Do we need to shake up the social sciences?

Do we need to shake up the social sciences? | Non-Equilibrium Social Science | Scoop.it

In July 2013 Nicholas Christakis, sociologist and physician, published a provocative opinion piece in the New York Times arguing for the need to shake up the social sciences. We’ve blogged about it in the past and Christakis certainly provoked a lot of discussion with the case he made. The LSE recently ran a panel discussion exploring these themes when he visited the UK  (link) and we’ve attached the podcast and information about the event - See more at: http://sociologicalimagination.org/archives/16351#sthash.wLMPqkzT.dpuf

more...
No comment yet.