Nearly 269,000 tons of plastic pollution may be floating in the world's oceans, according to a new study. Microplastic pollution is found in varying concentrations throughout the oceans, but estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics, both micro and macroplastic, lack sufficient data to support them. To better estimate the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans, scientists from six countries contributed data from 24 expeditions collected over a six-year period from 2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, coastal Australia, Bay of Bengal, and the Mediterranean Sea.
Microplastic pollution is found in varying concentrations throughout the oceans, but estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics, both micro and macroplastic, lack sufficient data to support them. To better estimate the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans, scientists from six countries contributed data from 24 expeditions collected over a six-year period from 2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, coastal Australia, Bay of Bengal, and the Mediterranean Sea. The data included information about microplastics collected using nets and large plastic debris from visual surveys, which were then used to calibrate an ocean model of plastic distribution.
Based on the data and model, the authors of the study estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion plastic particles weighing nearly 269,000 tons in the world's oceans. Large plastics appear to be abundant near coastlines, degrading into microplastics in the 5 subtropical gyres, and that the smallest microplastics were present in more remote regions, such as the subpolar gyres, which the authors did not expect. The distribution of the smallest microplastics in remote regions of the ocean may suggest that gyres act as 'shredders' of large plastic items into microplastics, after which they eject them across the ocean.
"Our findings show that the garbage patches in the middle of the five subtropical gyres are not the final resting places for the world's floating plastic trash. The endgame for micro-plastic is interactions with entire ocean ecosystems," says Marcus Eriksen, PhD, Director of Research for the 5 Gyres Institute.
TEST 5 Strategies For Better Teacher Professional Development by Joel Zarrow Just as a teacher has to create conditions that support and encourage student success, school districts have to support teachers’ professional development.
Diane Johnson's insight:
Effective implementation of the NGSS will require effective, ongoing professional learning opportunities for teachers.
As part of a project demonstrating new 3-D printing techniques, Princeton researchers have embedded tiny light-emitting diodes into a standard contact lens, allowing the device to project beams of colored […]...
TEST 10 Sample Student Learning Objectives For The Teacher That’s Not So Sure About This Hour Of Code Thing by TeachThought Staff You keep hearing about this hour of code thing, but you’re not a “hacker,” and aren’t real comfortable with teaching...
TEST Experiential Learning: Just Because It’s Hands-On Doesn’t Mean It’s Minds-On by Grant Wiggins, Authentic Education I recently visited Thetford Academy in Vermont (one of the few and interesting public-private academies in New England) where...
Take the connectome of a worm and transplant it as software in a Lego Mindstorms EV3 robot - what happens next? It is a deep and long standing philosophical question. Are we just the sum of our neural networks. Of course, if you work in AI you take the answer mostly for granted, but until someone builds a human brain and switches it on we really don't have a concrete example of the principle in action.
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is tiny and only has 302 neurons. These have been completely mapped and the OpenWorm project is working to build a complete simulation of the worm in software. One of the founders of the OpenWorm project, Timothy Busbice, has taken the connectome and implemented an object oriented neuron program.
The model is accurate in its connections and makes use of UDP packets to fire neurons. If two neurons have three synaptic connections then when the first neuron fires a UDP packet is sent to the second neuron with the payload "3". The neurons are addressed by IP and port number. The system uses an integrate and fire algorithm. Each neuron sums the weights and fires if it exceeds a threshold. The accumulator is zeroed if no message arrives in a 200ms window or if the neuron fires. This is similar to what happens in the real neural network, but not exact.
The software works with sensors and effectors provided by a simple LEGO robot. The sensors are sampled every 100ms. For example, the sonar sensor on the robot is wired as the worm's nose. If anything comes within 20cm of the "nose" then UDP packets are sent to the sensory neurons in the network.
The same idea is applied to the 95 motor neurons but these are mapped from the two rows of muscles on the left and right to the left and right motors on the robot. The motor signals are accumulated and applied to control the speed of each motor. The motor neurons can be excitatory or inhibitory and positive and negative weights are used.
And the result? It is claimed that the robot behaved in ways that are similar to observed C. elegans. Stimulation of the nose stopped forward motion. Touching the anterior and posterior touch sensors made the robot move forward and back accordingly. Stimulating the food sensor made the robot move forward.
TEST 52 Of The Best Apps For Your Classroom In 2015 by TeachThought Staff What are the best apps for your classroom? The best little bits of software to use tomorrow, in your school, to make your classroom go?
Diane Johnson's insight:
Contains mostly productivity apps, a few reference apps, and one science specific app. Nice to have a range in ine list.
TEST The Big Picture Of Education Technology: The Padagogy Wheel by TeachThought Staff Teaching is a matter of design. That’s not new, but in an era of change and possibility, it’s more apparent now than ever.
TEST 4 Coding Resources From The Khan Academy by TeachThought Staff The Hour of Code–or rather, week of code that is itself composed of hours–began yesterday. There are, according to the HoC website, 75004 individual events happening worldwide,...