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Neurotechnology | Council on Bioethics

Neurotechnology | Council on Bioethics | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Technologies that intervene in the brain offer the potential to help those with conditions that affect the brain, such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, chronic pain and severe depression.
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"Working Group consisted of experts from a range of disciplines including neuroscience, law, ethics and cybernetics. The resulting report, Novel Neurotechnologies: intervening in the brain, explores the potential benefits and risks of contemporary technologies."

Full report, in PDF: http://bit.ly/11aLzgh

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Could we all be astrologers? how publication bias can delay scientific revolutions.

Could we all be astrologers? how publication bias can delay scientific revolutions. | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Nima Dehghani's insight:

My dear friend, Arash Afraz, has written an interesting piece titled "We could all be astrologers how publication bias can delay scientific revolutions". I highly recommend reading it. http://bit.ly/1G67q8Q
Though I agree with him that the lack of visibility of the negative results, certainly, misleads us to hold on to certain ideas for longer than we should, (and perhaps even to extend them into arbitrary directions), but I do believe that there is a distinct contrast between how ancient scholars deduced facts and how post-enightenment era led (and leads) to flourishing theories that are fundamentally better. Arash ascribes much of the success of the new age theories to statistical proofs. That could be a misstep. It is not far fetched to assume that, statistically, one can prove that Baron Münchhausen pulled himself out of a swamp by pulling his own hair. But Münchhausen trilemma fails to stand fallibalism and the relative objectivity of truth in the light of uncertainty. At the end, Popper wins that argument.... What contrasts the new age of scientific explorations from that of the ancient scholars, roots in a different dimension. It is the search for the difficult to alter reasoning that is the root of advancement that happened during and after enlightenment. Untestable theories of the ancient scholars and the observation of statistical trend have one thing in common, "explanations that can easily be altered", as David Deutsch puts it elegantly. Thus they both are not adding any closer-to-truth explanatory information about the world. It is only when one provides the hard to vary assertions about the truth that his theory is worth being considered a step forward. Thus the triumph of the modern age science is not due to statistically significant observations, but rather it is the rendition of such observations into a robust construct that separates the elegant scientists from astrologers (of the modern day and the ancient times). I believe that biological sciences have been vastly centered around the statistical trends of observations rather than solid theories. That is where the contrast of biological sciences and physical sciences becomes vividly apparent. There are very few hard theories in biology, partly due to its inherent complexity and in part due to the difficulty of (not just good experimentation but also) theoretically-driven experimentation. Perhaps we are at the dawn of seeing a transition from scattered fragments of observation to the formation of real theories in biological sciences. In my own field, lately, there has been a parallel birth of momentous forward-thinking projects; the U.S. BRAIN Initiative, Europe’s Human Brain Project and Japan’s Brain/MINDS http://ow.ly/Epnnl . Though these projects will enhance the pace of discoveries and will push our knowledge forward, they do not provide the path for departure from beholding the statistical trends in observations as the truth to real hard theories. Perhaps the pioneers that will light the way in biological sciences (and in neuroscience) will be those who will have the deep insight in how to weave the products of such upcoming observations into cohesive hard-to-vary explanations. What happened in the 20th century in Physics, is a dream to come true for the 21st century in Biology.

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Why the Chess Computer Deep Blue Played Like a Human? "Randomness"

Why the Chess Computer Deep Blue Played Like a Human? "Randomness" | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
When IBM’s Deep Blue beat chess Grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997 in a six-game chess match, Kasparov came to believe he was facing…
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Spectral Signatures of Reorganised Brain Networks in Disorders of Consciousness

Spectral Signatures of Reorganised Brain Networks in Disorders of Consciousness | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
PLOS Computational Biology is an open-access
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I Contain Multitudes | Quanta Magazine

I Contain Multitudes |  Quanta Magazine | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Our bodies are a genetic patchwork, possessing variation from cell to cell. Is that a good thing?
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How do genes affect intelligence? The genetic architecture of pediatric cognitive abilities.

How genes affect intelligence is complicated. Multiple genes, many yet unknown, are thought to interact among themselves and with environmental factors to influence the diverse abilities involved in intelligence.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

if behind paywall, read this:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-08/chop-cet081114.php

http://machineslikeus.com/news/how-do-genes-affect-intelligence?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=twitter&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+MachinesLikeUs+%28Machines+Like+Us+-+Top+Stories%29

 

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How do you explain consciousness?

How do you explain consciousness? | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Our consciousness is a fundamental aspect of our existence, says philosopher David Chalmers: “There’s nothing we know about more directly…. but at the same time it’s the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe.” He shares some ways to think about the movie playing in our heads.
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Interesting exchange between Tononi and Aaronson. "Integrated Information Theory" , Shtetl-Optimized.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

Interesting exchange between Tononi and Aaronson.

First one was here:

Why I Am Not An Integrated Information Theorist (or, The Unconscious Expander)

http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=1799

 

followed by tononi's response:

Why Scott should stare at a blank wall and reconsider (or, the conscious grid): 

http://www.scottaaronson.com/tononi.docx

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Can robots have intelligence?

Can robots have intelligence? | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
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The long reach of reason

The long reach of reason | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Here's a TED first: an animated Socratic dialog! In a time when irrationality seems to rule both politics and culture, has reasoned thinking finally lost its power?
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Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.
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Is our tech making the world too complex? – Samuel Arbesman – Aeon

Is our tech making the world too complex? – Samuel Arbesman – Aeon | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Human ingenuity has created a world that the mind cannot master. Have we finally reached our limits?
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Thinking Machines |

Can machines think? Contrasting answers to that question come from John Searle and Herbert Simon.
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Marja Oilinki's curator insight, January 14, 7:21 AM

Yhdistä englannin kuulun ymmärtäminen ja filosofian kysymys: ajattelevatko koneet?

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"Human + machine: intuition and calculation in a new era of decision-making" by Garry Kasparov

"Human + machine: intuition and calculation in a new era of decision-making" by Garry Kasparov | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

 The latest generation of intelligent machines are running into a surprising challenge – how best to integrate with the human mind. The next great challenge of the digital age is how to get the most from our amazing machines without discarding the unparalleled power of the human mind. Kasparov, a veteran of working with and against computers, talks about the cutting edge of 21st-century decision-making and the technology that will make it possible.

 
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Ramon Gabara's curator insight, December 21, 2013 5:52 AM

Encara cal saber molt més de la potencialitat d'interacció entre persona i ordinador ....

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Halting Problem Proves That A Lethal Robot Cannot Correctly Decide Whether To Kill A Human

Halting Problem Proves That A Lethal Robot Cannot  Correctly Decide Whether To Kill A Human | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
With weaponised robots now capable of acting autonomously, an urgent question is whether they should ever be allowed to.…
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How psychedelics alter functional networks? "Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks."

How psychedelics alter functional networks? "Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks." | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

here is the coverage in media: http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2014/10/29/brain-psychedelic-drugs/#.VFI9076e-BO

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Ingenious: David Deutsch - Uncertainty - Nautilus

Ingenious: David Deutsch - Uncertainty - Nautilus | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
To call David Deutsch a physicist is both completely accurate and woefully incomplete. Certainly, his work has sparked at least one…
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Is this life real or a simulation? – Matthew R Francis – Aeon

Is this life real or a simulation? – Matthew R Francis – Aeon | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Philosophers and physicists say we might be living in a computer simulation, but how can we tell? And does it matter?
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A cochlear implant for a deaf musician – Josephine Dickinson – Aeon

A cochlear implant for a deaf musician – Josephine Dickinson – Aeon | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
And so I entered the cochlear implant world where every tap, squeak, clang, whisper and consonant exploded and sizzled inside my head
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Human language reveals a universal positivity bia

Nima Dehghani's insight:

Interesting...though it is not clear how exactly the "emotional boundaries" in a given language were defined..

 

the paper from arXiv:

http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.3855v1.pdf

 

arXiv blog summary:

https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/data-mining-reveals-how-human-language-is-biased-towards-happiness-773df682c4a7

 

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Stability: how life began and why it can’t rest, a theoretical chemist's viewpoint

Stability: how life began and why it can’t rest, a theoretical chemist's viewpoint | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Why does life resist disorder? Because ever since the first replicating molecules, another kind of stability has beckoned
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Physics Buzz: Podcast: Beating the Game of Go

Physics Buzz: Podcast: Beating the Game of Go | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

Computers can beat chess masters, but they still haven't mastered the game of Go. Can they?

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Artificial intelligence: examining the interface between brain and machine.

Artificial intelligence: examining the interface between brain and machine. | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Blurring the lines: the changing dynamics between man and machine
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Quantum Physics Woo - Sixty Symbols - YouTube

The Mail Online article: http://bit.ly/quantumwoo --- Obviously Dr Lanza did not write the article. Read Dr Lanza's own words on Biocentrism here: http://the...
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Public Policy Meets Brain Science | Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University

Public Policy Meets Brain Science | Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Can neuroscience be harnessed to make public policies more effective and attractive?
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Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review

Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Computation, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Microchips modeled on the brain may excel at tasks that baffle today’s computers.
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