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Neurotechnology | Council on Bioethics

Neurotechnology | Council on Bioethics | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Technologies that intervene in the brain offer the potential to help those with conditions that affect the brain, such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, chronic pain and severe depression.
Nima Dehghani's insight:

"Working Group consisted of experts from a range of disciplines including neuroscience, law, ethics and cybernetics. The resulting report, Novel Neurotechnologies: intervening in the brain, explores the potential benefits and risks of contemporary technologies."

Full report, in PDF: http://bit.ly/11aLzgh

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Can robots have intelligence?

Can robots have intelligence? | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
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The long reach of reason

The long reach of reason | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Here's a TED first: an animated Socratic dialog! In a time when irrationality seems to rule both politics and culture, has reasoned thinking finally lost its power?
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Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.
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Is our tech making the world too complex? – Samuel Arbesman – Aeon

Is our tech making the world too complex? – Samuel Arbesman – Aeon | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Human ingenuity has created a world that the mind cannot master. Have we finally reached our limits?
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Thinking Machines |

Can machines think? Contrasting answers to that question come from John Searle and Herbert Simon.
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Marja Oilinki's curator insight, January 14, 7:21 AM

Yhdistä englannin kuulun ymmärtäminen ja filosofian kysymys: ajattelevatko koneet?

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Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review

Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Microchips modeled on the brain may excel at tasks that baffle today’s computers.
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The Infinite Monkey Theorem Comes To Life

The Infinite Monkey Theorem Comes To Life | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Can a monkey randomly striking keys on a typewriter write Hamlet? Watch and find out.
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Pedro Tavares's curator insight, December 12, 2013 2:48 AM

 a quantidade de macacos modifica a qualidade ..do que?

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Lawsuits Could Turn Chimpanzees Into Legal Persons

Lawsuits Could Turn Chimpanzees Into Legal Persons | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Cases are first salvos in a nationwide campaign that could affect a variety of animals
Nima Dehghani's insight:

A related discussion:

"should animals be granted legal rights?"

http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-animals/2013/12/live-chat-should-animals-be-granted-legal-rights

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Fearful memories haunt mouse descendants

Fearful memories haunt mouse descendants | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Genetic imprint from traumatic experiences carries through at least two generations.
Nima Dehghani's insight:

It is quite interesting that there are two camps of viewpoints on this issue. As young kids, how do we know what is dangerous and what is not?  Part of it is surly learned through observing others, being protected by adults. Though it is interesting to observe that children (at very young age) have instinctive aversion of certain things. How did they gain such knowledge? The article by Dias, points to possible underlying mechanism. 

 

ps. This commentary is on an article published in nature neuro:

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nn.3594.html

 

 

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On The Inadequacy Of The Empiricist Tradition In Western Philosophy

On The Inadequacy Of The Empiricist Tradition In Western Philosophy | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

The empiricist tradition of philosophy needs a rethink, according to theoretical biologist Stuart Kauffman.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

Among the theoretical biologists, Kauffman surly stands out as a revolutionary thinker. Undoubtedly, the common roots of the scientific vision, that he advocates, and his philosophical perspective are intertwined. This piece reflects upon that notion.

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Time's Arrow: The Reality & Nature of Time Explained

Time's Arrow: The Reality & Nature of Time Explained | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
What is time? A dimension, a place, a social construct, or something more mysterious? Philosophy meets physics to debate the reality & nature of time
Nima Dehghani's insight:

Great debate. It surly misses the Priogogine(ian) concept:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NCdpMlYJxQ

 

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Sleep: The Brain's Housekeeper?

We knew that sleep relates to plasticity. Now evidence emerge pointing to another vital role of sleep.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

"Humans spend on average one-third of their lives sleeping. If we don’t, a slew of symptoms ensue including mental fatigue, poor decision-making, impaired learning, and heightened risk for migraines. Yet, we still don’t know why we need sleep. Now Lilu Xie and colleagues have found new evidence for why getting our nightly shuteye is vital. During sleep, mice have a greater flow of fluid moving in the areas between brain cells. Much like an aquatic garbage truck, this fluid cleans the brain of toxic metabolites—waste that brain cells secrete during waking hours. One such waste product is β-amyloid, a protein implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. When the researchers marked the β-amyloid with fluorescent tags, they observed the protein moving out of the brain two times faster in sleeping mice than in those that are awake. In fact, the total flow of fluid when awake is only 5 percent of what it is when asleep. As it turns out, sleep literally clears the mind. To learn more, read the Report: http://scim.ag/19Mjf3j, the News story:http://scim.ag/19Mj3RC, and the Perspective:http://scim.ag/19Mj7Rn";

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Pedro Tavares's curator insight, October 19, 2013 10:21 AM

What happens when Chemical Dependencies doesnt sleep, using drugs?

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What Are Mini-Brains (cerebral organoids)?

A potential application for generating human cerebral organoids (brainlike structures) will be the ability to study brain development, model disease, and gain a better understanding of actual brain physiology.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

A news/views on a paper that was published last month in nature (Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly)

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v501/n7467/full/nature12517.html

 

here are some excerpts from the commentary:

Lancaster et al. have provided a major leap by developing a method to grow miniature human brain-like structures (cerebral organoids) from embryonic stem cells in vitro. The “minibrains” recapitulate a surprising number of features of human embryonic brain development, heralding a new phase of modeling human disease. ...Even regions within a cerebral organoid show the normal process of neocortical development intriguingly well. For example, the horizontal, oblique, and vertical orientations of dividing stem cell progenitors closely resemble the trend in the human brain rather than in the mouse brain... Lancaster et al. further show that human cerebral organoids model some human diseases better than do mice....They do not grow beyond a 4-mm-diameter size, apparently because the lack of a blood supply limits access to nutrients. They lack many brain parts and cell types. And it is not yet clear how close the electrical potentials in organoids are to brain potentials, nor whether organoid neurons connect with the regions seen in an actual brain. Ethicists need not worry just yet, and may never need to worry, about the philosophical implications of “consciousness in a dish.”

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Physics Buzz: Podcast: Beating the Game of Go

Physics Buzz: Podcast: Beating the Game of Go | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

Computers can beat chess masters, but they still haven't mastered the game of Go. Can they?

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Artificial intelligence: examining the interface between brain and machine.

Artificial intelligence: examining the interface between brain and machine. | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Blurring the lines: the changing dynamics between man and machine
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Quantum Physics Woo - Sixty Symbols - YouTube

The Mail Online article: http://bit.ly/quantumwoo --- Obviously Dr Lanza did not write the article. Read Dr Lanza's own words on Biocentrism here: http://the...
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Public Policy Meets Brain Science | Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University

Public Policy Meets Brain Science | Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Can neuroscience be harnessed to make public policies more effective and attractive?
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Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review

Processors That Work Like Brains Will Accelerate Artificial Intelligence | MIT Technology Review | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Microchips modeled on the brain may excel at tasks that baffle today’s computers.
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"Human + machine: intuition and calculation in a new era of decision-making" by Garry Kasparov

"Human + machine: intuition and calculation in a new era of decision-making" by Garry Kasparov | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

 The latest generation of intelligent machines are running into a surprising challenge – how best to integrate with the human mind. The next great challenge of the digital age is how to get the most from our amazing machines without discarding the unparalleled power of the human mind. Kasparov, a veteran of working with and against computers, talks about the cutting edge of 21st-century decision-making and the technology that will make it possible.

 
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Ramon Gabara's curator insight, December 21, 2013 5:52 AM

Encara cal saber molt més de la potencialitat d'interacció entre persona i ordinador ....

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On the intelligence of birds. Polly want a vocabulary?

On the intelligence of birds. Polly want a vocabulary? | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

"Griffin knows the names of a dozen objects. He can identify five colors and six shapes, and grasps his numbers up to eight. He can ask for his favorite treats and tell you where he’d like to go. And if he likes you, he’ll let you tickle his head."..

Nima Dehghani's insight:

It is remarkable to see how intelligent are other animals (like these parrots) which are in a far distant evolutionary tree from us, other primates and mammals in general. That a completely different brain structure leads to the emergence of intelligent behavior, as sophisticated (or even better in certain cases) as that of higher level mammals, should hint to some neuroscientist and neurophilosophers that banking on mammalian cognitive functions as the holy grain to understand mind is misleading.

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Mark Waser's curator insight, December 10, 2013 3:53 PM

Let me restate what Nima says -- strict emulation of human brains is likely to be a counter-productive and misleading side-track (although, yes, obviously, we undoubtedly will learn a lot from that side-track as well).

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When Algorithms Grow Accustomed to Your Face

When Algorithms Grow Accustomed to Your Face | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Companies are developing software to analyze our fleeting facial expressions and to get at the emotions behind them.
Nima Dehghani's insight:

Does it look Orwellian? it surly has the potential for misuse (by NSA for example?! "oh, we do not need to worry about NSA trying to misuse the technology", you may say). ;)

Though such algorithms also have the potentials for being used for good, let's say, to detect depression (or other mood disorders) in early stages through evaluation of microexpressions. Or even it could be used to see if the treatment process of mood disorders is successful or slow.

Another complex aspect would be if it finds its way to the courtrooms just as the brains will go on trial (co-incidentally, NYTimes has another piece on this aspect http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/18/nyregion/the-day-when-neurons-go-on-trial.html?smid=tw-share&_r=0). But is it good to use it , let's say, to test whether the witness feels compassion for the defendant? or even whether the prosecutor harbors negative emotions toward the accused, while he/she is asking for certain punishments? The answer seems to be very complicted. It is neither a straight NO nor a solid YES.

Like many other tools, there are many ways that we can use this sort of technology to improve things rather than to misuse them. It is us as the members of the society which will set the tone of how we are treated by the elements of societal interaction. I belive that scientists and innovators should not leave these aspects off to the external affairs. Rather, they should engage with others such as lawmakers, data-handlers and etc, to make sure that collectively we can shape our society for better.

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As We May Think (Vannevar Bush, 1945)

As We May Think (Vannevar Bush, 1945) | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

Like Emerson's famous address of 1837 on "The American Scholar," this paper by Dr. Bush calls for a new relationship between thinking man and the sum of our knowledge.

Nima Dehghani's insight:

a piece written by Vannevar Bush, 1945...interesting to read it more than a half century later.

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The Brain Mapping Initiatives: Foundational Issues, Bioethics. What are the ethical implications?

The Brain Mapping Initiatives: Foundational Issues, Bioethics. What are the ethical implications? | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
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Million Lines of Code - Information Is Beautiful

Million Lines of Code - Information Is Beautiful | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it
Is a million lines of code a lot? How many lines of code are there in Windows? Facebook? iPhone apps? Let our data-visualization program your brain.
Nima Dehghani's insight:

It is interesting to see that some codes (like Unix) are brief, yet elegant. Some show vast expansion in their revisions (like Linux). Some look mysteriously big (like F-35). Some look ridicolously big (not coincidentally, Microsoft's OS and office). And some have won the competition in size (healthcare.gov), which may reflect the complex stupidity of the human society. But there are two sets of codes missing from this chart. Arguably the 4 letter code of DNA (A, C, G & T) is the most elegant of all. But how many lines of code are there in the genome? We have an estimate of how many genes are there,  but are still dumbfounded in figuring what are they doing exactly. The other mysterious code is the neural one. If one tells you that it only is a binary 1/0, just like the computers, you can answer "maybe yours is". How many lines of code are there that constittue the mind, of a man, of a frog, of a worm? That is only the key to the pandora's box. 

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Murray Gell-Mann on what it means to think like a scientist

Murray Gell-Mann on what it means to think like a scientist | Neurovium: Neuroscience at the intersection of Philosophy, Logic, Biology & Physics | Scoop.it

In a wide ranging radio interview, SFI Distinguished Fellow Murray Gell-Mann discusses what it means to think like a scientist, the value of rejecting orthodoxy, beauty and simplicity, reductionism vs. interdisciplinarity, complex systems science and theory, and intelligent life on other planets, among other topics.

 

http://www.santafe.edu/news/item/ksfr-gell-mann-science-life/


Via Complexity Digest
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