Neuroscience_topics
Follow
Find
19.1K views | +5 today
Neuroscience_topics
Neuroscience: CNS disease, pain, brain research, ion channels, synaptic transmission, channelopathies, neuronal network
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

12 talks on understanding the brain

12 talks on understanding the brain | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Videos] Read Montague is interested in the human dopamine system -- or, as he puts it in this illuminating talk from TEDGlobal 2012, that which makes us "chase sex, food and salt" and therefore survive. (...) - by Kate Torgovnick, TED blog, September 24, 2012

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Brain spikes: Synchrony may be key to cracking brain's neural code

Brain spikes: Synchrony may be key to cracking brain's neural code | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

In a perspective article published in the journal Nature Neuroscience on Feb. 25, 2013, biomedical engineering professor Garrett Stanley detailed research progress toward "reading and writing the neural code." This encompasses the ability to observe the spiking activity of neurons in response to outside stimuli and make clear predictions about what is being seen, heard, or felt, and the ability to artificially introduce activity within the brain that enables someone to see, hear, or feel something that is not experienced naturally through sensory organs.(...) - Science Dailay, March 12, 2013tti

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

Journal Reference:


Garrett B Stanley. Reading and writing the neural code.Nature Neuroscience, 2013; 16 (3): 259 DOI:10.1038/nn.3330

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

A comparative analysis of models of Na+ channel gating for mammalian and invertebrate nonmyelinated axons: Relationship to energy efficient action potentials

A comparative analysis of models of Na+ channel gating for mammalian and invertebrate nonmyelinated axons: Relationship to energy efficient action potentials | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

The rapidly activating, voltage gated Na+ current, INa, has recently been measured in mammalian nonmyelinated axons. Those results have been incorporated in simulations of the action potential, results that demonstrate a significant separation in time during the spike between INa and the repolarizing K+ current,IK. The original Hodgkin and Huxley (1952) model of Na+ channel gating, m3h, where m and h are channel activation and inactivation, respectively, has been used in this analysis. This model was originally developed for invertebrate nonmyelinated axons, squid giant axons in particular. The model has not survived challenges based on results from invertebrate preparations using a double-step voltage clamp protocol and measurements of gating currents, results that demonstrate a kinetic link between activation and inactivation leading to a delayed onset of inactivation following a voltage step. These processes are independent of each other in the Hodgkin and Huxley (1952) model. Application of the double-step protocol to the m3h model for mammalian INa results reveals a surprising prediction, an apparent delay in onset of inactivation even though activation and inactivation are uncoupled in the model. (...) The information obtained will be significant in determining the way in which the Na+ channel is sequestered away from its open state during repolarization, thereby allowing for a separation in time between INa and IK during a spike, an energetically efficient mechanism of neuronal signaling in the mammalian brain. (...) by John R. ClayProgress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyVolume 111, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 1–7

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Scientists construct first map of how the brain organizes everything we see

Scientists construct first map of how the brain organizes everything we see | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Our eyes may be our window to the world, but how do we make sense of the thousands of images that flood our retinas each day? Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have found that the brain is wired to put in order all the categories of objects and actions that we see. They have created the first interactive map of how the brain organizes these groupings. (...) - By Yasmin Anwar, Media Relations UC Berkeley News Center, December 19, 2012 

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

Here's the interactive map: http://gallantlab.org/semanticmovies/


More about this: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21728984.400-take-a-peek-inside-the-brains-filing-cabinet.html

more...
Emre Erdogan's curator insight, March 12, 2013 2:14 AM

Concepts and our brain

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Current status of chemokines in the adult CNS

Current status of chemokines in the adult CNS | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Highlights

  • A better understanding of the role of chemokines and their receptors in the CNS in addition to the immune system.
  • This review focuses on recent data about three couples CXCL12/CXCR4, CCL2/CCR2, and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in the adult CNS.
  • Description of their cellular expression, distributions, and roles in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
  • This review summarizes current evidence on the role of these chemokine systems in the pathogenesis of CNS disorders.

by Réaux-Le Goazigo A. et al.Progress in Neurobiology, In Press, Available online 27 February 2013


more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Signalling bias in new drug discovery: detection, quantification and therapeutic impact

Agonists of seven-transmembrane receptors, also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), do not uniformly activate all cellular signalling pathways linked to a given seven-transmembrane receptor (a phenomenon termed ligand or agonist bias); this discovery has changed how high-throughput screens are designed and how lead compounds are optimized for therapeutic activity. The ability to experimentally detect ligand bias has necessitated the development of methods for quantifying agonist bias in a way that can be used to guide structure–activity studies and the selection of drug candidates. Here, we provide a viewpoint on which methods are appropriate for quantifying bias, based on knowledge of how cellular and intracellular signalling proteins control the conformation of seven-transmembrane receptors. We also discuss possible predictions of how biased molecules may perform in vivo, and what potential therapeutic advantages they may provide. (...) - by Kenakin T. & Christopoulos A.Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 12205-216 (March 2013)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Major step toward an Alzheimer's vaccine

A team of researchers from Université Laval, CHU de Québec, and pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has discovered a way to stimulate the brain's natural defense mechanisms in people with Alzheimer's disease. This major breakthrough, details of which are presented today in an early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), opens the door to the development of a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and a vaccine to prevent the illness. (...) - eurekalert, 15/02/2013

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

Ce communiqué de presse disponible aussi en français

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Obama Seeking to Boost Study of Human Brain

Obama Seeking to Boost Study of Human Brain | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

The Obama administration is planning a decade-long scientific effort to examine the workings of the human brain and build a comprehensive map of its activity. (...) - by John Markoff, The New York Times, February 17,2013

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Ligand action on sodium, potassium, and calcium channels: role of permeant ions

Ligand action on sodium, potassium, and calcium channels: role of permeant ions | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Ion channels are targets for many naturally occurring toxins and small-molecule drugs. Despite great progress in the X-ray crystallography of ion channels, we still do not have a complete understanding of the atomistic mechanisms of channel modulation by ligands. In particular, the importance of the simultaneous interaction of permeant ions with the ligand and the channel protein has not been the focus of much attention. Considering these interactions often allows one to rationalize the highly diverse experimental data within the framework of relatively simple structural models. This has been illustrated in earlier studies on the action of local anesthetics, sodium channel activators, as well as blockers of potassium and calcium channels. Here, we discuss the available data with a view to understanding the use-, voltage-, and current carrying cation-dependence of the ligand action, paradoxes in structure–activity relationships, and effects of mutations in these ion channels. (...) - by Zhorov BS & Tikhonov DB, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, In Press, Available online 1 February 2013

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions

Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Antidepressant treatments enhance plasticity and increase neurogenesis in the adult brain, but it has been unclear how these effects influence mood. We propose that, like environmental enrichment and exercise, antidepressant treatments enhance adaptability by increasing structural variability within the nervous system at many levels, from proliferating precursors to immature synaptic contacts. Conversely, sensory deprivation and chronic stress reduce this structural variability. Activity-dependent competition within the mood-related circuits, guided by rehabilitation, then selects for the survival and stabilization of those structures that best represent the internal or external milieu. Increased variability together with competition-mediated selection facilitates normal function, such as pattern separation within the dentate gyrus and other mood-related circuits, thereby enhancing adaptability toward novel experiences. - by Castren E. & Hen R.Trends in Neurosciences04 February 2013

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Connectomics: Jeff Lichtman at TEDxCaltech

Jeff Lichtman is Jeremy R. Knowles Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology at Harvard. He received an A.B. from Bowdoin (1973), and an M.D. and Ph.D. from Washington University in St. Louis (1980) where he worked for 30 years before moving to Cambridge (2004). He is a member of Harvard's newly established Center for Brain Science. Jeff's research interests revolve around the question of how mammalian brain circuits are physically altered by experiences, especially in early life. He has focused on the dramatic re-wiring of neural connections in early postnatal development. More recently his research has focused on developing new electron microscopy methods to map the entire wiring diagram of the developing and adult brain. One of the principal aims of this "connectomics" approach is to uncover the ways information is stored in neural networks. (...) 

more...
Jim Siders's curator insight, February 11, 2013 1:42 PM

Practical and engaging overview of neural connections

Emre Erdogan's curator insight, April 17, 2013 1:36 AM

Our early childhood experiences shape our brain... 

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

S-nitrosylation of AMPA receptor GluA1 regulates phosphorylation, single-channel conductance, and endocytosis

[Abstract] NMDA receptor activation can elicit synaptic plasticity by augmenting conductance of the AMPA receptor GluA1 subsequent to phosphorylation at S831 by Ca2+-dependent kinases. NMDA receptor activation also regulates synaptic plasticity by causing endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluA1. We demonstrate a unique signaling cascade for these processes mediated by NMDA receptor-dependent NO formation and GluA1 S-nitrosylation. Thus, S-nitrosylation of GluA1 at C875 enhances S831 phosphorylation, facilitates the associated AMPA receptor conductance increase, and results in endocytosis by increasing receptor binding to the AP2 protein of the endocytotic machinery. - by Selvakumar B et al., PNASvol. 110 no. 3,  10771082


more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Neurobiology conferences in 2013

These are all the meetings where neurobiology is a major topic reported on biomeeter.com platform.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - From antipsychotic to anti-schizophrenia drugs: role of animal models

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - From antipsychotic to anti-schizophrenia drugs: role of animal models | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Abstract] Current drugs for treating schizophrenia are mostly variations on a theme that was started over 50 years ago. Sadly, clinical efficacy has not improved substantially over the years. We argue that both clinical and preclinical researchers have focused too much on psychosis, which is only one of the hallmarks of schizophrenia. This narrow focus has hampered the development of relevant animal models and human experimental medicine paradigms. Other fields in psychiatry, most notably in the realms of addiction and anxiety, have prospered from results obtained in parallel studies using animal models and experimental human studies. Lessons to be learned from those models and recent genetic and cognitive insights in schizophrenia can be utilized to develop better animal and human models and, potentially, novel treatment strategies. - by Geyer MA et al.Trends in Pharmacological SciencesVolume 33, Issue 10, 515-521, 17 July 2012

more...
Keely Contadeluci's curator insight, April 2, 2013 10:06 AM

Good for IB Bio LOA principles and ethics.

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

An NMR investigation of the structure, function and role of the hERG channel selectivity filter in the long QT syndrome

An NMR investigation of the structure, function and role of the hERG channel selectivity filter in the long QT syndrome | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Highlights:

  • hERG's L622-K638 segment comprising the selectivity filter is unstructured in water.
  • This segment has the potential to perturb the lipid membrane.
  • Its membrane affinity is affected by K+ ions and drugs.
  • It is a potential target for promethazine in the ALQTS mechanism.
  • Non-specific drug–membrane interactions could play a role in the ALQTS.

(...) - by Gravel AE et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Available online 5 March 2013, In Press, Uncorrected Proof

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Metabotropic NMDA receptor function is required for NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation controls long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission, cellular models of learning and memory. A long-standing view proposes that a high level of Ca2+ entry through NMDARs triggers LTP; lower Ca2+ entry triggers LTD. Here we show that ligand binding to NMDARs is sufficient to induce LTD; neither ion flow through NMDARs nor Ca2+ rise is required. However, basal levels of Ca2+ are permissively required. Lowering, but not maintaining, basal Ca2+levels with Ca2+ chelators blocks LTD and drives strong synaptic potentiation, indicating that basal Ca2+levels control NMDAR-dependent LTD and basal synaptic transmission. Our findings indicate that metabotropic actions of NMDARs can weaken active synapses without raising postsynaptic calcium, thereby revising and expanding the mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity. (...) - by Nabavi S. et al.PNAS 2013 110 (10) 4027-4032

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

A great article from R. Malinov's team about fine mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity through levels of calcium 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Metabotropic NMDA receptor function is required for β-amyloid–induced synaptic depression

The mechanisms by which β-amyloid (Aβ), a peptide fragment believed to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease, leads to synaptic deficits are not known. Here we find that elevated oligomeric Aβ requires ion flux-independent function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) to produce synaptic depression. Aβ activates this metabotropic NMDAR function on GluN2B-containing NMDARs but not on those containing GluN2A. Furthermore, oligomeric Aβ leads to a selective loss of synaptic GluN2B responses, effecting a switch in subunit composition from GluN2B to GluN2A, a process normally observed during development. Our results suggest that conformational changes of the NMDAR, and not ion flow through its channel, are required for Aβ to produce synaptic depression and a switch in NMDAR composition. This Aβ-induced signaling mediated by alterations in GluN2B conformation may be a target for therapeutic intervention of Alzheimer’s disease. (...) - by Kessels HW et al.PNASMarch 5, 2013 vol. 110 no. 104033-4038

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information

A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real-Time Sharing of Sensorimotor Information | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

A brain-to-brain interface (BTBI) enabled a real-time transfer of behaviorally meaningful sensorimotor information between the brains of two rats. In this BTBI, an “encoder” rat performed sensorimotor tasks that required it to select from two choices of tactile or visual stimuli. While the encoder rat performed the task, samples of its cortical activity were transmitted to matching cortical areas of a “decoder” rat using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). The decoder rat learned to make similar behavioral selections, guided solely by the information provided by the encoder rat's brain. These results demonstrated that a complex system was formed by coupling the animals' brains, suggesting that BTBIs can enable dyads or networks of animal's brains to exchange, process, and store information and, hence, serve as the basis for studies of novel types of social interaction and for biological computing devices. (...) - by Pais-Vieira M. et al.Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1319, 28 February 2013

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

En francais, vulgarisé par Le Monde : http://www.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2013/02/28/deux-rats-separes-par-un-continent-mais-relies-par-le-cerveau_1840845_1650684.html

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Physical Therapy In Autism Spectrum Disorders

Physical Therapy In Autism Spectrum Disorders | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

The CDC estimated a 1% worldwide prevalence for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the United States, 1 out of 88 kids is diagnosed with ASD (according to data from a survey conducted in 2008). Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by diminished social interaction skills, stereotypic engagement in repetitive tasks, lengthy visual engagement with a target, refusal to deviate from set rituals and diminished spontaneity in expressing emotions. In addition to behavioral difficulties, reduced motor abilities are also reported. (...) - by Shefali Sabharanjak, PhDBrain Blogger, February 27, 2013

more...
Saman Zafar's curator insight, May 4, 2013 9:50 AM

hence, therapeutic sessions where the participants are asked to observe and learn from the actions of therapist are likely to succeed in children suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder. 

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

The alterations of Ca2+/calmodulin/CaMKII/CaV1.2 signaling in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

The alterations of Ca2+/calmodulin/CaMKII/CaV1.2 signaling in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it
Highlights
  • CaM was up-regulated in the hippocampus of both APP/PS1 mice and VD gerbils.
  • The expression of CaV1.2 protein was increased in VD gerbils and in cultured neurons but decreased in APP/PS1 mice.
  • The number of CaMKII and CaV1.2 co-localization positive neurons was decreased in AD and VD models.

    (...) - by Min D et al., Neuroscience LettersIn Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 February 2013
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Ion channels in genetic and acquired forms of epilepsy

Ion channels in genetic and acquired forms of epilepsy | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Genetic mutations causing dysfunction of both voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels make a major contribution to the cause of many different types of familial epilepsy. Key mechanisms comprise defective Na+ channels of inhibitory neurons, or GABAA receptors affecting pre- or postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition, or a dysfunction of different types of channels at axon initial segments. Many of these ion channel mutations have been modelled in mice, which has largely contributed to the understanding of where and how the ion channel defects lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. Animal models of febrile seizures or mesial temporal epilepsy have shown that dendritic K+ channels, hyperpolarization-activated cation channels and T-type Ca2+ channels play important roles in the generation of seizures. For the latter, it has been shown that suppression of their function by pharmacological mechanisms or in knock-out mice can antagonize epileptogenesis. Defects of ion channel function are also associated with forms of acquired epilepsy. Autoantibodies directed against ion channels or associated proteins, such as K+ channels, LGI1 or NMDA receptors, have been identified in epileptic disorders that can largely be included under the term limbic encephalitis which includes limbic seizures, status epilepticus and psychiatric symptoms. We conclude that ion channels and associated proteins are important players in different types of genetic and acquired epilepsies. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for most common forms of epilepsy are not yet clear, and evidence to be discussed indicates just how much more we need to understand about the complex mechanisms that underlie epileptogenesis. - Lerche H et al.The Journal of Physiology, 591, 753-764., February 15, 2013

more...
Janys Venne's curator insight, October 26, 2013 2:02 AM


I'll appreciate your time & help to visit my website on #seizures #epilepsy at http://seizures.dolyan.com/. Thank you :)

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Neural networks in psychiatry

Neural networks in psychiatry | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Abstract] Over the past three decades numerous imaging studies have revealed structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases. These structural and functional brain changes are frequently found in multiple, discrete brain areas and may include frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices as well as subcortical brain areas. However, while the structural and functional brain changes in patients are found in anatomically separated areas, these are connected through (long distance) fibers, together forming networks. Thus, instead of representing separate (patho)-physiological entities, these local changes in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders may in fact represent different parts of the same ‘elephant’, i.e., the (altered) brain network. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have revealed that the brain's structure and functions have features of complex networks. Here we briefly introduce several recent developments in neural network studies relevant for psychiatry, including from the 2013 special issue on Neural Networks in Psychiatry in European Neuropsychopharmacology. We conclude that new insights will be revealed from the neural network approaches to brain imaging in psychiatry that hold the potential to find causes for psychiatric disorders and (preventive) treatments in the future. - by Pol HH et al., European Neuropsychopharmacology, in Press, Available online 8 February 2013

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

The puzzle of TRPV4 channelopathies

Hereditary channelopathies, that is, mutations in channel genes that alter channel function and are causal for the pathogenesis of the disease, have been described for several members of the transient receptor potential channel family. Mutations in the TRPV4 gene, encoding a polymodal Ca2+ permeable channel, are causative for several human diseases, which affect the skeletal system and the peripheral nervous system, with highly variable phenotypes. In this review, we describe the phenotypes of TRPV4 channelopathies and overlapping symptoms. Putative mechanisms to explain the puzzle, and how mutations in the same region of the channel cause different diseases, are discussed and experimental approaches to tackle this surprising problem are suggested. - by Bernd Nilius & Thomas VoetsEMBO reports (2013) 14, 152 - 163

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

Nice review from top leaders of the field.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

[Review] Kynurenines in the CNS: recent advances and new questions

[Review] Kynurenines in the CNS: recent advances and new questions | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Various pathologies of the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by alterations in tryptophan metabolism. The main metabolic route of tryptophan degradation is the kynurenine pathway; its metabolites are responsible for a broad spectrum of effects, including the endogenous regulation of neuronal excitability and the initiation of immune tolerance. This Review highlights the involvement of the kynurenine system in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders, pain syndromes and autoimmune diseases through a detailed discussion of its potential implications in Huntington's disease, migraine and multiple sclerosis. The most effective preclinical drug candidates are discussed and attention is paid to currently under-investigated roles of the kynurenine pathway in the CNS, where modulation of kynurenine metabolism might be of therapeutic value. - by Vécsei L et al.Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 1264-82 (January 2013) | doi:10.1038/nrd3793

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

Interesting review about the kynurenine system invovled in neurodegenerative disorders, pain syndromes and autoimmune disease in CNS. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

NMDA and GABAB (KIR) Conductances: The “Perfect Couple” for Bistability

[Abstract] Networks that produce persistent firing in response to novel input patterns are thought to be important in working memory and other information storage functions. One possible mechanism for maintaining persistent firing is dendritic voltage bistability in which the depolarized state depends on the voltage dependence of the NMDA conductance at recurrent synapses. In previous models, the hyperpolarized state is dependent on voltage-independent conductances, including GABAA. The interplay of these conductances leads to bistability, but its robustness is limited by the fact that the conductance ratio must be within a narrow range. The GABAB component of inhibitory transmission was not considered in previous analyses. Here, we show that the voltage dependence of the inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) conductance activated by GABAB receptors adds substantial robustness to network simulations of bistability and the persistent firing that it underlies. The hyperpolarized state is robust because, at hyperpolarized potentials, the GABAB/KIR conductance is high and the NMDA conductance is low; the depolarized state is robust because, at depolarized potentials, the NMDA conductance is high and the GABAB/KIR conductance is low. Our results suggest that this complementary voltage dependence of GABAB/KIR and NMDA conductances makes them a “perfect couple” for producing voltage bistability. - Sanders H. et al., The Journal of Neuroscience, 9 January 2013, 33(2): 424-429

Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

The NMDA/GABAB receptor channels bipolar couple is perfect to generate bistability in a narrow window of voltage. 

more...
No comment yet.