Neuroscience_topics
Follow
Find tag "neurons"
17.9K views | +2 today
Neuroscience_topics
Neuroscience: CNS disease, pain, brain research, ion channels, synaptic transmission, channelopathies, neuronal network
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Gephyrin: a master regulator of neuronal function : Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Gephyrin: a master regulator of neuronal function : Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Review] The neurotransmitters GABA and glycine mediate fast synaptic inhibition by activating ligand-gated chloride channels — namely, type A GABA (GABAA) and glycine receptors. Both types of receptors are anchored postsynaptically by gephyrin, which self-assembles into a scaffold and interacts with the cytoskeleton. Current research indicates that postsynaptic gephyrin clusters are dynamic assemblies that are held together and regulated by multiple protein–protein interactions. Moreover, post-translational modifications of gephyrin regulate the formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses by altering the clustering properties of postsynaptic scaffolds and thereby the availability and function of receptors and other signalling molecules. Here, we discuss the formation and regulation of the gephyrin scaffold, its role in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic function and the implications for the pathophysiology of brain disorders caused by abnormal inhibitory neurotransmission. - by Tyagarajan SK & Fritschy JM, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 141–156 (2014)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Control of neuronal voltage-gated calcium ion channels from RNA to protein

[Review] Highlights:
  • How many different voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels are there and should one care?
  • All mammalian Cacna1 genes have the potential to generate hundreds of CaV channels.
  • Cell specific mechanisms control CaV channel function at RNA and protein levels according to cell type.
  • Cell specific protein–protein interactions control subcellular CaV channel trafficking and function.
  • Cell specific and subcellular expression patterns of CaV isoforms are important for disease and treatment development.

(...) - by Lipscombe D et al., Trends in Neurosciences, available online 30 July 2013

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Acid-sensing ion channels in pain and disease

Acid-sensing ion channels in pain and disease | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Why do neurons sense extracellular acid? In large part, this question has driven increasing investigation on acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system for the past two decades. Significant progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of ASICs at the molecular level. Studies aimed at clarifying their physiological importance have suggested roles for ASICs in pain, neurological and psychiatric disease. This Review highlights recent findings linking these channels to physiology and disease. In addition, it discusses some of the implications for therapy and points out questions that remain unanswered. (...) - by Wemmie JA et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14, 461–471 (2013)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Brain mapping reveals neurological basis of decision-making in rats

Brain mapping reveals neurological basis of decision-making in rats | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Scientists at UC San Francisco have discovered how memory recall is linked to decision-making in rats, showing that measurable activity in one part of the brain occurs when rats in a maze are playing out memories that help them decide which way to turn. The more they play out these memories, the more likely they are to find their way correctly to the end of the maze. (...) - by UCSF, ScienceBlog

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Neurophysiology of HCN channels: From cellular functions to multiple regulations

Neurophysiology of HCN channels: From cellular functions to multiple regulations | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it
Highlights
  • Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels are involved in multiple physiological processes.
  • HCN channels are excellent targets of various cellular signals to finely regulate neuronal responses to external stimuli.
  • Dysregulation of HCN channels is involved in a variety of neurological disorders.
by He C et al.Progress in NeurobiologyVolume 112, January 2014, Pages 1–23
Julien Hering, PhD's insight:

An interesting review about HCN these must-known ion channels that are involved in numerous physiological processes and brain diseases.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Very long-term memories may be stored in the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net

Very long-term memories may be stored in the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

A hypothesis and the experiments to test it propose that very long-term memories, such as fear conditioning, are stored as the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net (PNN), a specialized ECM that envelops mature neurons and restricts synapse formation. The 3D intertwining of PNN and synapses would be imaged by serial-section EM. Lifetimes of PNN vs. intrasynaptic components would be compared with pulse-chase 15N labeling in mice and 14C content in human cadaver brains. Genetically encoded indicators and antineoepitope antibodies should improve spatial and temporal resolution of the in vivo activity of proteases that locally erode PNN. Further techniques suggested include genetic KOs, better pharmacological inhibitors, and a genetically encoded snapshot reporter, which will capture the pattern of activity throughout a large ensemble of neurons at a time precisely defined by the triggering illumination, drive expression of effector genes to mark those cells, and allow selective excitation, inhibition, or ablation to test their functional importance. The snapshot reporter should enable more precise inhibition or potentiation of PNN erosion to compare with behavioral consequences. Finally, biosynthesis of PNN components and proteases would be imaged. (...) - By Roger Y. TsienPNAS July 23, 2013 vol. 110 no. 3012456-12461

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

Big boost in drug discovery: New use for stem cells identifies a promising way to target ALS

Big boost in drug discovery: New use for stem cells identifies a promising way to target ALS | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Using a new, stem cell-based, drug-screening technology that could reinvent and greatly reduce the cost of developing pharmaceuticals, researchers at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) have found a compound that is more effective in protecting the neurons killed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than are two drugs that failed in human clinical trials after large sums were invested in them.

The new screening technique developed by Lee Rubin, a member of HSCI’s executive committee and a professor in Harvard’s Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology (SCRB), had predicted that the two drugs that eventually failed in the third and final stage of human testing would do just that. (...) - By Joseph Caputo (Harvard Staff Writer), HarvardScience, April 18, 2013

more...
Anvith Deeconda's curator insight, December 10, 2014 11:37 PM

This has been a hot topic in the science field, and this is helpful to our topic at hand, because it look at the medical use of drugs, and how ground-breaking discoveries are happening in front of our eyes. These researchers from Harvard are looking into a new way to treating ALS. People would be interested, after reading this, in learning more about ALS and its subsequent treatment. 

Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
Scoop.it!

MicroRNAs Shape the Neuronal Landscape

MicroRNAs Shape the Neuronal Landscape | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Review] The nervous system equips us with capability to adapt to many conditions and circumstances. We rely on an armamentarium of intricately formed neural circuits for many of our adaptive strategies. However, this capability also depends on a well-conserved toolkit of different molecular mechanisms that offer not only compensatory responses to a changing world, but also provide plasticity to achieve changes in cellular state that underlie a broad range of processes from early developmental transitions to life-long memory. Among the molecular tools that mediate changes in cellular state, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression is expanding rapidly. Part of the “epigenetic landscape” that shapes the deployment and robust regulation of gene networks during the construction and the remodeling of the brain is the microRNA system controlling both levels and translation of messenger RNA. Here we consider recent advances in the study of microRNA-mediated regulation of synaptic form and function. - By McNeil E & Vactor D van in Neuron 75(3), 9 August 2012

more...
No comment yet.