Neuroscience_topics
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Neuroscience_topics
Neuroscience: CNS disease, pain, brain research, ion channels, synaptic transmission, channelopathies, neuronal network
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Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
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Age-Dependent MicroRNA Control of Synaptic Plasticity in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Schizophrenia

Age-Dependent MicroRNA Control of Synaptic Plasticity in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Schizophrenia | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by multiple physical and psychiatric abnormalities and is caused by the hemizygous deletion of a 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22. It constitutes one of the strongest known genetic risks for schizophrenia; schizophrenia arises in as many as 30% of patients with 22q11DS during adolescence or early adulthood. A mouse model of 22q11DS displays an age-dependent increase in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2), which is responsible for loading Ca2+ into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is elevated in this mouse model. The resulting increase in ER Ca2+ load leads to enhanced neurotransmitter release and increased LTP. However, the mechanism by which the 22q11 microdeletion leads to SERCA2 overexpression and LTP increase has not been determined. Screening of multiple mutant mouse lines revealed that haploinsufficiency of Dgcr8, a microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis gene in the 22q11DS disease-critical region, causes age-dependent, synaptic SERCA2 overexpression and increased LTP. We found that miR-25 and miR-185, regulators of SERCA2, are depleted in mouse models of 22q11DS. Restoration of these miRNAs to presynaptic neurons rescues LTP in Dgcr8+/− mice. Finally, we show that SERCA2 is elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, providing a link between mouse model findings and the human disease. We conclude that miRNA-dependent SERCA2 dysregulation is a pathogenic event in 22q11DS and schizophrenia. - by Earls LR et al., The Journal of Neuroscience, 10 October 2012, 32(41): 14132-14144

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MicroRNAs Shape the Neuronal Landscape

MicroRNAs Shape the Neuronal Landscape | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Review] The nervous system equips us with capability to adapt to many conditions and circumstances. We rely on an armamentarium of intricately formed neural circuits for many of our adaptive strategies. However, this capability also depends on a well-conserved toolkit of different molecular mechanisms that offer not only compensatory responses to a changing world, but also provide plasticity to achieve changes in cellular state that underlie a broad range of processes from early developmental transitions to life-long memory. Among the molecular tools that mediate changes in cellular state, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression is expanding rapidly. Part of the “epigenetic landscape” that shapes the deployment and robust regulation of gene networks during the construction and the remodeling of the brain is the microRNA system controlling both levels and translation of messenger RNA. Here we consider recent advances in the study of microRNA-mediated regulation of synaptic form and function. - By McNeil E & Vactor D van in Neuron 75(3), 9 August 2012

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