Neuroscience_topics
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Neuroscience_topics
Neuroscience: CNS disease, pain, brain research, ion channels, synaptic transmission, channelopathies, neuronal network
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Scooped by Julien Hering, PhD
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Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions

Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

Antidepressant treatments enhance plasticity and increase neurogenesis in the adult brain, but it has been unclear how these effects influence mood. We propose that, like environmental enrichment and exercise, antidepressant treatments enhance adaptability by increasing structural variability within the nervous system at many levels, from proliferating precursors to immature synaptic contacts. Conversely, sensory deprivation and chronic stress reduce this structural variability. Activity-dependent competition within the mood-related circuits, guided by rehabilitation, then selects for the survival and stabilization of those structures that best represent the internal or external milieu. Increased variability together with competition-mediated selection facilitates normal function, such as pattern separation within the dentate gyrus and other mood-related circuits, thereby enhancing adaptability toward novel experiences. - by Castren E. & Hen R.Trends in Neurosciences04 February 2013

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[Review] Epigenetic Mechanisms of Depression and Antidepressant Action

[Review] Epigenetic Mechanisms of Depression and Antidepressant Action | Neuroscience_topics | Scoop.it

[Abstract] Epigenetic mechanisms, which control chromatin structure and function, mediate changes in gene expression that occur in response to diverse stimuli. Recent research has established that environmental events and behavioral experience induce epigenetic changes at particular gene loci and that these changes help shape neuronal plasticity and function and hence behavior. Some of these changes can be stable and can even persist for a lifetime. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that aberrations in chromatin remodeling and subsequent effects on gene expression within limbic brain regions contribute to the pathogenesis of depression and other stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety syndromes. Likewise, the gradually developing but persistent therapeutic effects of antidepressant medications may be achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of stress-related disorders and focuses on three distinct aspects of stress-induced epigenetic pathology: the effects of stress and antidepressant treatment during adulthood, the lifelong effects of early-life stress on subsequent stress vulnerability, and the possible transgenerational transmission of stress-induced abnormalities. - by Vialou V et al., Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 53(1):59

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