Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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Introverted, Shy or Highly Sensitive in the Arts

Introverted, Shy or Highly Sensitive in the Arts | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Many creative people are considered shy, sensitive or introverted, or identify themselves as one or all of these.

But shyness – a form of anxiety – should be clearly distinguished from the personality traits of introversion and high sensitivity, although all three can overlap in many ways.

Photo: "Solitude has its own very strange beauty to it." Liv Tyler


Via Douglas Eby
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PLOS Biology: Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art

PLOS Biology: Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter-intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Department of Defense dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security.

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

some ethic issues to be considered in the Defense-Scientific community relationship, more acute than ever

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The Human Brain Project: Future Neuroscience

The future of neuroscience lies in collaboration. The Human Brain Project aims to develop new simulations and brain models that will change the way researchers worldwide analyze and experiment with big data.

 

 

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10 Magical Effects Music Has On the Mind

10 Magical Effects Music Has On the Mind | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Music can improve verbal IQ, aid in heart disease treatment, evoke colours in the mind and even help you see happy faces all around.

 

 

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

babies are programmed to dance on music, sad music is not so sad and more

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8 Common Mistakes in How Our Brains Think and How to Prevent Them

8 Common Mistakes in How Our Brains Think and How to Prevent Them | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Get ready to have your mind blown:

 

1. We surround ourselves with information that matches our beliefs

 

2. We believe in the “swimmer’s body” illusion

 

3. We worry about things we’ve already lost

 

4. We incorrectly predict odds

 

5. We rationalize purchases we don’t want

 

6. We make decisions based on the anchoring effect

 

7. We believe our memories more than facts

 

8. We pay more attention to stereotypes than we think


Via Jim Manske, Alessandro Cerboni, Philippe Vallat
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Troy Crayton's curator insight, October 4, 2013 3:00 PM

Thank you for making us "aware" of this article, Duane....

donhornsby's curator insight, October 7, 2013 9:52 AM

(From the article): Clearly, it’s normal for us to be irrational and to think illogically, especially when language acts as a limitation to how we think, even though we rarely realize we’re doing it. Still, being aware of the pitfalls we often fall into when making decisions can help us to at least recognize them, if not avoid them.

Have you come across any other interesting mistakes we make in the way we think?

Lawrence Lanoff's curator insight, December 30, 2013 12:18 AM

This article is dense, but profound. Worth chomping on if you have some time. 

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Groupthink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Groupthink - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Groupthink being a coinage - and, admittedly, a loaded one - a working definition is in order. We are not talking about mere instinctive conformity - it is, after all, a perennial failing of mankind. What we are talking about is a rationalized conformity - an open, articulate philosophy which holds that group values are not only expedient but right and good as well.

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Mind: An Archaeological Perspective

Mind: An Archaeological Perspective | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

What can relics of the past tell us about the thoughts and beliefs of the people who invented and used them? Recent collaborations at the frontier of archaeology, anthropology, and cognitive science are culminating in speculative but nevertheless increasingly sophisticated efforts to unravel how modern human cognition came about. By considering objects within their archaeological context, we have begun to piece together something of the way of life of people who inhabited particular locales, which in turn reflects their underlying thought processes.

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Human Brain Activity Patterns beyond the Isoelectric Line of Extreme Deep Coma

The electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric) EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human) or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals) leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes). Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region) we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG (beyond the flat-line EEG), originating from hippocampus

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Are classical music competitions judged on looks?

Yo Yo Ma sounds amazing, whichever way you look at it.
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

moral of the story : never read the conclusions of a paper

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Characteristics and Problems of the Gifted: neural propagation depth and flow motivation as a model of intelligence and creativity

Giftedness, the potential for exceptional achievement,
is characterized by high intelligence and creativity. Gifted people
exhibit a complex of cognitive, perceptual, emotional, motivational
and social traits. Extending neurophysiological hypotheses about the
general intelligence (g) factor, a construct is proposed to explain these
traits: neural propagation depth. The hypothesis is that in more
intelligent brains, activation propagates farther, reaching less directly
associated concepts. This facilitates problem-solving, reasoning,
divergent thinking and the discovery of connections. It also explains
rapid learning, perceptual and emotional sensitivity, and vivid
imagination. Flow motivation is defined as the universal desire to
balance skills and challenges. Gifted people, being more cognitively
skilled, will seek out more difficult challenges. This explains their
ambition, curiosity and perfectionism. Balance is difficult to achieve
in interaction with non-gifted peers, though, explaining the gifted’s
autonomy, non-conformism and feeling of alienation. Together with
the difficulty to find fitting challenges this constitutes a major
obstacle to realizing the gifted’s potential. The appendix sketches a
simulation using word association networks to test the propagation
depth model by answering IQ-test-like questions.

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Persistence (psychology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In psychology, persistence (PS) is a personality trait. It is measured in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and is considered one of the four temperament traits. Persistence refers to perseverance in spite of fatigue or frustration.[1] Cloninger's research found that persistence, like the other temperament traits, is highly heritable. The subscales of PS in TCI-R consist of

A study comparing the Temperament and Character Inventory to the five factor model of personality found that persistence was substantially associated with conscientiousness.[2] Additionally, persistence was moderately positively associated with the TCI trait of self-transcendence. Research has also found that persistence is positively correlated with Activity in Zuckerman's "Alternative Five" model, and is negatively correlated with psychoticism in Eysenck's model.[2]

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Cognitive Dissonance - Dilbert comic - Scott Adams

Cognitive Dissonance - Dilbert comic - Scott Adams | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Dilbert comic strip for 08/09/1992 from the official Dilbert comic strips archive.

 

 

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Probabilistic Fallacies - Gauging the Strength of Evidence | Decision Academy Part 4

In the video below, Julia Galef, the president and co-founder of the Center for Applied Rationality, offers an introduction to Bayes' Rule — the statistical law that describes the way evidence really works.

 

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

go to http://bigthink.com/big-think-mentor/probabilistic-fallacies-gauging-the-strength-of-evidence-decision-academy-part-4

 

to learn what this is all about and to take this mini-course

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The Curious Case of Robert Ley’s Brain | Brain Blogger

The Curious Case of Robert Ley’s Brain | Brain Blogger | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Six years ago, while researching the life of an American psychiatrist who studied the top Nazi leaders during their imprisonment and trial in Nuremberg, I came across a small box among the physician’s possessions. The box held a set of glass photographic transparencies, with each slide showing a cross-section of a brain. Labels on the slides identified the brain’s former owner as Robert Ley...

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The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you from being rational

The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you from being rational | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The human brain is capable of 1016 processes per second, which makes it far more powerful than any computer currently in existence. But that doesn't mean our brains don't have major limitations. The lowly calculator can do math thousands of times better than we can, and our memories are often less than useless — plus, we're subject to cognitive biases, those annoying glitches in our thinking that cause us to make questionable decisions and reach erroneous conclusions. Here are a dozen of the most common and pernicious cognitive biases that you need to know about.

 

 

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

Even if we can know about our biases, we can't prevent them (all)

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How Mindfulness Can Help Your Creativity - World of Psychology

How Mindfulness Can Help Your Creativity - World of Psychology | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Much of the focus on mindfulness and meditation has been on stress management. Few things help one deal better with the stressors of everyday life. Meditation each day may reduce blood pressure, improve sleep, and mitigate the severity of episodes and symptoms of mental illnesses.

But there is more. Meditation quiets the mind, and a quieter mind is more likely to have room for new and better ideas about the challenges one faces in life, business, and art.

Researchers at the Institute for Psychological Research and Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition of Leiden University in the Netherlands found a tremendous impact of focused-attention (mindfulness) and open-monitoring meditation (observing without judging) on creativity.

 

 

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Bernard Ryefield's curator insight, October 6, 2013 7:46 AM

meditation as a mean to activate the Default Mode Network of the brain

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The Real Link Between Creativity and Mental Illness | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network

The Real Link Between Creativity and Mental Illness | Beautiful Minds, Scientific American Blog Network | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

By Scott Barry Kaufman |  “There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad.” —Salvador Dali / "The romantic notion that mental illness and creativity are linked is so prominent in the public consciousness that it is rarely challenged. So before I continue, let me nip this in the bud: Mental illness is neither necessary nor sufficient for creativity."


Via Douglas Eby
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

"...creative people include more events/stimuli in their mental processes than less creative people." "Because you never know: sometimes the most bizarre associations can turn into the most productively creative ideas."

"The latest research suggests that mental illness may be most conductive to creativity indirectly, by enabling the relatives of those inflicted to open their mental flood gates but maintain the protective factors necessary to steer the chaotic, potentially creative storm."

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Paul Grout's curator insight, October 4, 2013 10:30 AM
Madness and creativity: Do we need to be crazy? I believe that we do not need to be crazy to be creative, just open to new possibilities which may step out of the normal way of thinking. Thats what creativity is all about. Being flexible and allowing puzzles to be fixed together to form a representation of one's inner values and insights. Creative people are often dreamers and sometimes may appear to have lost touch of reality, which in turn may contribute towards a crazy appearance :) http://creativeflowevolution.com/ ;
Douglas Eby's curator insight, November 8, 2013 10:37 PM

“So many good things have happened to me because of how unhealthy I’ve been mentally.” Producer, director Judd Apatow - in my article The upside of our dysfunctions http://talentdevelop.com/197/the-upside-of-our-dysfunctions/

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Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience - Wikibooks, open books for an open world | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Cognitive Psychology and the Brain

Problem Solving from an Evolutionary Perspective

Evolutionary Perspective on Social Cognitions

Behavioural and Neuroscience Methods

Motivation and Emotion

Memory

Memory and Language

Imagery

Comprehension

Neuroscience of Text Comprehension

Situation Models and Inferencing

Knowledge Representation and Hemispheric Specialisation

Reasoning and Decision Making

Present and Future of Research

Index

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Wisdom from a MacArthur Genius: Psychologist Angela Duckworth on Why Grit, Not IQ, Predicts Success

Wisdom from a MacArthur Genius: Psychologist Angela Duckworth on Why Grit, Not IQ, Predicts Success | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

“Character is at least as important as intellect.”

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Applying Complexity Theory to a Dynamical Process Model of the Development of Pathological Belief Systems

A general dynamical process model of psychiatric disorders is proposed that specifies the basic cognitive processes involved in the transition from beliefs about self, others and world that are normal and adaptive, to beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and maladaptive. The relevant thought trajectories are self-confirming, and are considered to underlie the corresponding trajectories in symptoms. In contrast with previous work, the model focuses on underlying mechanisms, and it provides an evolutionary basis for the widespread susceptibility to psychiatric symptoms and disorders without the problematic claim that such disorders were selected by evolutionary forces. The model thereby incorporates both normality and abnormality in the same framework.

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Students: just say no to sugar

Students: just say no to sugar | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Forget illegal drugs, students are overdosing on sugar. Little do they know that binging on sweet food is a serious form of substance abuse
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Positivity: Retract The Bathwater, Save The Baby - Neuroskeptic

Positivity: Retract The Bathwater, Save The Baby - Neuroskeptic | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Last week I covered a new paper Brown et al (2013) in the journal American Psychologist. The article was strongly critical of a highly-cited paper that
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Gifted People and their Problems

Highly gifted people have a number of personality traits that set them apart, and that are not obviously connected to the traits of intelligence, IQ, or creativity that are most often used to define the category. Many of these traits have to do with their particularly intense feelings and emotions, others with their sometimes awkward social interactions. These traits make that these people are typically misunderstood and underestimated by peers, by society, and usually even by themselves. As such, most of their gifts are actually under utilized, and they rarely fulfill their full creative potential. This is particularly true for gifted women, as they don’t fit the stereotypes that society has either of women or of gifted people (typically seen as men).

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Michael Gove is right: some poor families do budget badly - but it's not their fault

Michael Gove is right: some poor families do budget badly - but it's not their fault | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
As the new book Scarcity shows, a severe lack of money, systematically impairs our ability to focus, make decisions and control our impulses.
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Sleights of Mind

Sleights of Mind | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Stephen Macknik and Susana Martinez-Conde, the founders of the exciting new discipline of neuromagic, have convinced some of the world's greatest magicians to allow scientists to study their techniques for tricking the brain. This book is the result of the authors' yearlong, world-wide exploration of magic and how its principles apply to our behavior. Magic tricks fool us because humans have hardwired processes of attention and awareness that are hackable—a good magician uses your mind's own intrinsic properties against you in a form of mental jujitsu.

Now magic can reveal how our brains work in everyday situations. For instance, if you've ever bought an expensive item you'd sworn you'd never buy, the salesperson was probably a master at creating the "illusion of choice," a core technique of magic. The implications of neuromagic go beyond illuminating our behavior; early research points to new approaches for everything from the diagnosis of autism to marketing techniques and education. Sleights of Mind makes neuroscience fun and accessible by unveiling the key connections between magic and the mind.

 

 

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

warning : your world will never be the same after reading this book !

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Alexander Vorobiev-Char's curator insight, February 3, 2014 3:42 PM

Новое направление нейромагии, позволяющее использовать наработки профессиональных иллюзионистов в профессииональной деятельности