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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Network and Graph Theory
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A brief network analysis of Artificial Intelligence publication

In this paper, we present an illustration to the history of Artificial Intelligence(AI) with a statistical analysis of publish since 1940. We collected and mined through the IEEE publish data base to analysis the geological and chronological variance of the activeness of research in AI. The connections between different institutes are showed. The result shows that the leading community of AI research are mainly in the USA, China, the Europe and Japan. The key institutes, authors and the research hotspots are revealed. It is found that the research institutes in the fields like Data Mining, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and some other fields of Machine Learning are quite consistent, implying a strong interaction between the community of each field. It is also showed that the research of Electronic Engineering and Industrial or Commercial applications are very active in California. Japan is also publishing a lot of papers in robotics. Due to the limitation of data source, the result might be overly influenced by the number of published articles, which is to our best improved by applying network keynode analysis on the research community instead of merely count the number of publish.

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The Neuroscience of Wine Tasting: Dissecting the Intricacies of the Minds' Eye | The Academic Wino

The Neuroscience of Wine Tasting: Dissecting the Intricacies of the Minds' Eye | The Academic Wino | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

According to Gaiser, the challenge of teaching wine tasting to individuals is complex: 1) we have to try and present to students our own vocabulary and experiences for wine, which may or may not resonate with each individual mind; 2) each individual student has a different neurology from everyone else, as well as different memories and experiences; and 3) we have to come up with a way to find the common denominator for tasting, so that each student may more easily learn using their own personal experiences instead of using other people’s experiences that have been impressed upon them. Thus, the overall goal of the research is to improve upon the way we teach wine tasting so that the students learn in a shorter period of time and learn to utilize their own memories and experiences.

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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Network and Graph Theory
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Technique visualizes networks processing theory of mind

Technique visualizes networks processing theory of mind | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Pairing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simple videos that mimic social interactions helps researchers visualize brain regions involved in the ability to infer others’ desires, beliefs and feelings, called the theory of mind.

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Neuroplasticity is a dirty word

Neuroplasticity is a dirty word | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The latest refrain in popular science is that 'your brain is plastic', that experience has the potential to 'rewire' your brain, and that many previous mysteries in cognitive can be explained by 'neuroplasticity'. What they don't tell you is that these phrases are virtually meaningless.

 

 

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How the mind creates out of body experiences

How the mind creates out of body experiences | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The brain relies on a complex interplay of information from different senses to produce the experience of being in a body, even someone else's.
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

how the brain creates out of body experiences can help find out how it creates in-the-body experience, also known as everyday experience

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Introducing Computational Creativity Research

Introducing Computational Creativity Research | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
What is computational creativity research? Tracing the aims, directions and development of computational creativity as a research field.
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Simply Psychology

Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Simply Psychology | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance).

Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc.

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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Philosophy and Complexity
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How Molecules Matter to Mental Computation

This was just a brilliant paper, talking about exactly what I found wrong with (yet) current computational models: http://t.co/pxP6MZMa7T

Via John Symons
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ComplexInsight's curator insight, November 11, 2013 12:13 PM

I remember reading this when first published and its a great paper. Any computational model of human cognition needs to integrate both chemical and eletrical mechanisms into a integrated whole. Great scoop and awesome paper.

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New Dilemmas for the Prisoner » American Scientist

New Dilemmas for the Prisoner » American Scientist | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of inquiry for more than 60 years, not just by game theorists but also by psychologists, economists, political scientists, and evolutionary biologists. Yet the game has not given up all its secrets. A startling discovery last year revealed a whole new class of strategies, including some bizarre ones. For example, over a long series of games one player can unilaterally dictate the other player’s score (within a certain range). Or a crafty player can control the ratio of the two scores. But not all the new strategies are so manipulative; some are “generous” rules that elicit cooperation and thereby excel in an evolutionary context.

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Switching on Compassion: The News from Neuroscience - Reprise

Switching on Compassion: The News from Neuroscience - Reprise | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
There’s lots of compelling information emerging from neuroscience about compassion. That’s good news because, frankly, we need it. You see, the really good news is that we’re hard-wired for compass...
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from cognition
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Why Can't We All Just Get Along? The Uncertain Biological Basis of Morality

Why Can't We All Just Get Along? The Uncertain Biological Basis of Morality | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Squaring recent research suggesting we're "naturally moral" with all the strife in the world. 

In 1999, Joshua Greene—then a philosophy graduate student at Princeton, now a psychology professor at Harvard—had a very fertile idea. He took a pretty well-known philosophical thought experiment and infused it with technology in a way that turned it into a very well-known philosophical thought experiment—easily the best-known, most-pondered such mental exercise of our time. In the process, he raised doubts, in inescapably vivid form, about the rationality of human moral judgment.

The thought experiment—called the trolley problem—has over the past few years gotten enough attention to be approaching “needs no introduction” status. But it’s not quite there, so: An out-of-control trolley is headed for five people who will surely die unless you pull a lever that diverts it onto a track where it will instead kill one person. Would you—should you—pull the lever?


Via Alessandro Cerboni, FastTFriend
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Systems Theory
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The Man Who Would Teach Machines to Think

The Man Who Would Teach Machines to Think | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Douglas Hofstadter, the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, thinks we've lost sight of what artificial intelligence really means. His stubborn quest to replicate the human mind.

Via Ben van Lier
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Your Metaphor Is Misleading Me

Your Metaphor Is Misleading Me | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
When Federal Reserve Chief Ben Bernanke appeared on 60 Minutes to persuade us to bail out the banking system, he didn't bother with charts, figures or lengthy argument. Instead, he used something far more powerful: Analogy and metaphor.
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

Beware of the metaphor ! Actually, just be aware your (or other's) choice of metaphor is framing your arguments

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When You’re Poor, Bad Decisions Are Rational

When You’re Poor, Bad Decisions Are Rational | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Being poor messes with a person’s cognitive capacity. If you’re a child, it can impact your brain development. If you’re an adult, it can cloud your long term judgement.

A landmark study in August showed that the effect was equivalent to knocking off thirteen points from your IQ, that being poor produced a predilection for poor decision making, a vicious cycle that’s nearly impossible for the impoverished to break out of.

But what’s most depressing about the whole ordeal isn’t that those living in poverty are constantly making bad decisions, it’s that those bad decisions might actually be the most rational path to take. A poignant contribution by Linda Tirado to Gawker’s Kinja platform provides an eye-opening first-hand perspective to these scientific developments. Being poor is a soul-sucking vacuum where the normal rules to life simply don’t apply. Being poor means living without hope.

 

 

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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Cerveau intelligence
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Dossier sur les neurosciences et l'éducation - ...

Dossier sur les neurosciences et l'éducation - ... | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Dossier sur les neurosciences et l'éducation -septembre-2013.pdf on Elearning pédagogie technologie et numérique...

Via Louis Levy
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The Benjamin Franklin Effect

The Benjamin Franklin Effect | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The Misconception: You do nice things for the people you like and bad things to the people you hate. The Truth: You grow to like people for whom you do nice things and hate people you harm.

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A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious - Wired Science

A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious - Wired Science | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

It’s a question that’s perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? We know it exists, at least in ourselves. But how it arises from chemistry and electricity in our brains is an unsolved mystery.

Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he might know the answer. According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. That’s just the way the universe works.

 

 

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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Psyche & Neuroscience
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8 Subconscious Mistakes Our Brains Make Every Day--And How To Avoid Them

8 Subconscious Mistakes Our Brains Make Every Day--And How To Avoid Them | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The swimmers body illusion and other ways our brains play tricks on us.

Via Anne Leong
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Jean-Marc Phelippeau's curator insight, November 12, 2013 3:34 PM

Quelques exemples flagrants de décisions intuitives absurdes et de comportements irrationnels classiques...

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Toujours convaincus de votre totale rationalité?

Marc Legru's curator insight, November 14, 2013 4:11 PM

Excellent article about biases, with references to Dan Ariely. A must read !

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"Hidden Caves" in the Brain Open Up During Sleep to Wash Away Toxins

"Hidden Caves" in the Brain Open Up During Sleep to Wash Away Toxins | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
"Hidden caves" that open up in the brain may help explain sleep's amazing restorative powers.
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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Complex World
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A Big Data Approach to Computational Creativity

A Big Data Approach to Computational Creativity | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Computational creativity is an emerging branch of artificial intelligence that places computers in the center of the creative process. Broadly, creativity involves a generative step to produce many ideas and a selective step to determine the ones that are the best. Many previous attempts at computational creativity, however, have not been able to achieve a valid selective step. This work shows how bringing data sources from the creative domain and from hedonic psychophysics together with big data analytics techniques can overcome this shortcoming to yield a system that can produce novel and high-quality creative artifacts. Our data-driven approach is demonstrated through a computational creativity system for culinary recipes and menus we developed and deployed, which can operate either autonomously or semi-autonomously with human interaction. We also comment on the volume, velocity, variety, and veracity of data in computational creativity.


Via Claudia Mihai
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A la naissance, le cerveau subirait une modification de structure

A la naissance, le cerveau subirait une modification de structure | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Au moment de la naissance, notre cerveau subit des modifications de structure qui le préparent à affronter le monde.
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Brain Psychology and Leadership Skills: The Rest of the Story | aboutleaders.com

Brain Psychology and Leadership Skills: The Rest of the Story | aboutleaders.com | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Leadership Skills and The Rest of the Story. I'll never forget early in 2004 when the bubble of a major epiphany I had, burst.  After having exp...
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The French Unhappiness Puzzle: the Cultural Dimension of Happiness

The French Unhappiness Puzzle: the Cultural Dimension of Happiness | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

This article sheds light on the important differences in self-declared happiness across countries of similar affluence. It hinges on the different happiness statements of natives and immigrants in a set of European countries to disentangle the influence of objective circumstances versus psychological and cultural factors. The latter turn out to be of non-negligible importance in explaining international heterogeneity in happiness. In some countries, such as France, they are responsible for the best part of the country's unobserved idiosyncratic source of unhappiness. Early schooling plays an important role in shaping these attitudes. I show that these gaps in self-declared happiness have a real emotional counterpart and do not boil down to purely nominal differences.

 

 

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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Creativity - Problem Solving
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Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching 'applied creativity' and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present two sets of empirical data, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests: 1) an experiment demonstrating how an ANC lecture on the neurobiology of creativity significantly decreased the number of fixations in a creative task, 2) pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%.

 

 

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A Computer Program That Hacks Language & Exposes US Secrets - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus

A Computer Program That Hacks Language & Exposes US Secrets - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Many academics, like Columbia University historian Matthew Connelly, would like to be able to access the information that’s hidden by the government but doesn’t really need to be. That’s why he is leading a project called the Declassification Engine, an effort to find out more from documents that are declassified but have significant portions redacted, with words, phrases, and sometimes whole paragraphs blacked out. Considering that the declassified archive includes hundreds of millions of pages, going through them all by hand isn’t a feasible option. So Connelly is working with computer scientists to try to automatically pull useful information from the documents.

 

 

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