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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness

The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Andrew Anthony: The astonishing story of the British man who began a part-time psychology course in his 50s – and ended up taking on America's academic establishment
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Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis

Graph analysis of dream reports is especially informative about psychosis | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all.

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Gifted Children Get Ignored in School Despite Huge Future Contribution to Society

Gifted Children Get Ignored in School Despite Huge Future Contribution to Society | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Are exceptionally gifted children being failed by the education system?

The authors of the largest ever study of the profoundly gifted question whether the education system is providing enough support for highly talented young people.

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Bodily maps of emotions

Bodily maps of emotions | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

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The movie of emotions: A novel’s experimental modular structure that conveys scientific theories and research findings - Raffaele Calabretta

The movie of emotions: A novel’s experimental modular structure that conveys scientific theories and research findings - Raffaele Calabretta | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

We present the experimental structure of the book Il film delle emozioni (‘The movie of emotions’, 2007), which makes an attempt at using a narrative structure for communicating the most recent scientific knowledge relative to the functioning of the brain (the amygdala) and, particularly, to emotion management. This book can be defined as an essay on emotions in the form of a novel. The book is borderline literature that mixes registers and genres: the novel, an autobiography, a scientific paper about emotions, a diary, an emotional trainer, rich of link and bibliographic references, but also a manual on how to live. The book structure is composite: is not divided in chapters, but is a digital miscellany, made up of a variety of materials (i.e., computer files). A feature of the novel is that its structure is not causal, instead it is conceived and realized to convey the novel’s themes and some scientific findings and theories, whose some examples will be given.

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The Feeling of Being Stared At | The Moral Universe, Scientific American Blog Network

The Feeling of Being Stared At | The Moral Universe, Scientific American Blog Network | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Perhaps my favorite psychology article of all time, is Edward Titchener’s, “The Feeling of Being Stared At,” which appeared in Science on December 23, 1898 (almost 115 years ago exactly!).  I give it a good read any time I am in need of inspiration, which has been lacking majorly during these dreary winter days.  Despite Titchener’s vast contributions to psychology, this particular article has been cited only 38 times–it is an unheralded classic.

In it, Titchener describes a phenomenon with which many of us are familiar: the idea that we know when we are being watched from behind.  

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What Anesthesia Can Teach Us About Consciousness

What Anesthesia Can Teach Us About Consciousness | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Going under for surgery raises a surprisingly thorny philosophical issue.
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Bad neuroscience and gender: reading this will change your brain

Bad neuroscience and gender: reading this will change your brain | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Warning: reading this post will change your brain. So will choosing not to read it, though, so you might as well continue and learn something. There’s been yet another neuroscience study claiming to have found important, systematic differences between male and female brains. I can’t critique the 

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

I share the analysis and conclusion of the author, with a twist: don't ignore this paper, just be aware of the sensationalism involved in scientific publishing

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Lauren Biegert's curator insight, December 12, 2013 4:55 AM

Great topic for social science presentation.

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Men, Women, and Big PNAS Papers - Neuroskeptic

Men, Women, and Big PNAS Papers - Neuroskeptic | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

If sex has an independent effect, after covarying for the potential confounding factors, then the paper’s conclusions will stand on strong ground. But if it turns out that men and women’s brains differ only in motion and size, well, it would have been better to know that from the start.

 

 

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How Growing Up in Poverty May Affect a Child’s Developing Brain

How Growing Up in Poverty May Affect a Child’s Developing Brain | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
A mounting body of research shows that the circumstances and chronic stresses of poverty interrupt the development of the brain
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Memories Are 'Geotagged,' Enabling You To Create A Mental Map Of Your Life Experiences

Memories Are 'Geotagged,' Enabling You To Create A Mental Map Of Your Life Experiences | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Scientists used a video game to understand how our brains map our memories of events, and associate them with other events that took place in the same area.
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To create a super-intelligent machine, start with an equation

To create a super-intelligent machine, start with an equation | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Intelligence is a very difficult concept and, until recently, no one has succeeded in giving it a satisfactory formal definition.

Most researchers have given up grappling with the notion of intelligence in full generality, and instead focus on related but more limited concepts – but I argue that mathematically defining intelligence is not only possible, but crucial to understanding and developing super-intelligent machines.

 

 

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A brief network analysis of Artificial Intelligence publication

In this paper, we present an illustration to the history of Artificial Intelligence(AI) with a statistical analysis of publish since 1940. We collected and mined through the IEEE publish data base to analysis the geological and chronological variance of the activeness of research in AI. The connections between different institutes are showed. The result shows that the leading community of AI research are mainly in the USA, China, the Europe and Japan. The key institutes, authors and the research hotspots are revealed. It is found that the research institutes in the fields like Data Mining, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and some other fields of Machine Learning are quite consistent, implying a strong interaction between the community of each field. It is also showed that the research of Electronic Engineering and Industrial or Commercial applications are very active in California. Japan is also publishing a lot of papers in robotics. Due to the limitation of data source, the result might be overly influenced by the number of published articles, which is to our best improved by applying network keynode analysis on the research community instead of merely count the number of publish.

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Multi-scale community organization of the human structural connectome and its relationship with resting-state functional connectivity

The human connectome has been widely studied over the past decade. A principal finding is that it can be decomposed into communities of densely interconnected brain regions. Past studies have often used single-scale modularity measures in order to infer the connectome's community structure, possibly overlooking interesting structure at other organizational scales. In this report, we used the partition stability framework, which defines communities in terms of a Markov process (random walk), to infer the connectome's multi-scale community structure. Comparing the community structure to observed resting-state functional connectivity revealed communities across a broad range of scales that were closely related to functional connectivity. This result suggests a mapping between communities in structural networks, models of influence-spreading and diffusion, and brain function. It further suggests that the spread of influence among brain regions may not be limited to a single characteristic scale.

 

Multi-scale community organization of the human structural connectome and its relationship with resting-state functional connectivity
RICHARD F. BETZEL, ALESSANDRA GRIFFA, ANDREA AVENA-KOENIGSBERGER, JOAQUÍN GOÑI, JEAN-PHILIPPE THIRAN, PATRIC HAGMANN, OLAF SPORNS
Network Science , Volume 1 , Issue 03 , December 2013, pp 353 - 373
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2013.19


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▶ Noam Chomsky On Artificial Intelligence , Cognitive Science , and Neuroscience - YouTube

Brains, Minds and Machines Symposium, May, 2011, at MIT. Keynote Panel: The Golden Age A Look at the Original Roots of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Sci...
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Academics Against Mass Surveillance

The signatories of this declaration call upon nation states to take action. Intelligence agencies must be subjected to transparency and accountability. People must be free from blanket mass surveillance conducted by intelligence agencies from their own or foreign countries. States must effectively protect everyone's fundamental rights and freedoms, and particularly everyone's privacy.

 

If you are an academic and you would like to sign the declaration, please email info (at) academicsagainstsurveillance.net
with your name, academic function and university in the subject line.

http://www.academicsagainstsurveillance.net


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The Use of Haiku to Convey Complex Concepts in Neuroscience

The Use of Haiku to Convey Complex Concepts in Neuroscience | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Conveying scientific content with accuracy and fluency takes practice and requires deep understanding of the concepts being conveyed. This depth of knowledge comes from internalizing information and constructing it into a form that is unique and coherent to the individual. Often in science classrooms there is little or no opportunity for students to practice this type of thinking, activities that we believe are fundamental to effective science communication. This article describes the use of haiku – a 17 syllable poem – as a means for students to convey neurobiological concepts in a succinct manner by forcing them to focus on the most salient features of the observed processes. In our assignments haiku writing was successfully paired with explanations of the students’ thought processes (Addiction course) or the scientific evidence to support claims (Neurodegenerative Disease course). We provide examples of student haiku and explanations as evidence of the power of this approach. The coupling of poetry and prose together create rich, accurate descriptions of scientific phenomena by encouraging higher-order thinking. Poetry writing can thus be used across the curriculum to forge comprehension of complex ideas in any discipline and to bridge the arts and the sciences.

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Is Free Thinking A Mental Illness?

Is Free Thinking A Mental Illness? | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Is nonconformity and freethinking a mental illness?  According to the newest addition of the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), it certainly is.

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Ask Me Anything: The Neuroscience of Magic at PeerJ | Illusion Chasers, Scientific American Blog Network

Ask Me Anything: The Neuroscience of Magic at PeerJ | Illusion Chasers, Scientific American Blog Network | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Tomorrow (Tue 16th Dec at 8 am PST) the journal PeerJ will host a live ‘Ask Me Anything’ session with us, and our collaborator Hector Rieiro (a PhD candidate in the Macknik Lab). We’ll be accepting questions about our recent study on Penn & Teller’s ‘cups and balls’ illusion, filmed in their theater in Las Vegas.

If you want to learn how this trick hacks your brain, or if you are just curious about visual neuroscience in general, then visit us here and leave your questions at any time—before, during, and after tomorrow’s event—and get all your questions answered by us!

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fun and games and neuroscience !

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Why it's time for brain science to ditch the 'Venus and Mars' cliche

Why it's time for brain science to ditch the 'Venus and Mars' cliche | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Reports trumpeting basic differences between male and female brains are biological determinism at its most trivial, says the science writer of the year
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Lauren Biegert's curator insight, December 12, 2013 4:50 AM

great presentation topic!

 

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Cognitive load - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cognitive load

In cognitive psychology, cognitive load is the load related to the executive control of working memory (WM). Theories contend that during complex learning activities the amount of information and interactions that must be processed simultaneously can either under-load, or overload the finite amount of working memory one possesses.

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Even People With “Perfect Memory” Can Be Tricked Into Recalling Fake Events

Even People With “Perfect Memory” Can Be Tricked Into Recalling Fake Events | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Those who can remember what they ate on a day ten years ago can be fooled by tests that distort memories
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How Rewards Can Backfire and Reduce Motivation

How Rewards Can Backfire and Reduce Motivation | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Yet psychologists have long known that rewards are overrated. The carrot, of carrot-and-stick fame, is not as effective as we’ve been led to believe. Rewards work under some circumstances but sometimes they backfire. Spectacularly.

 

 

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There is No Left Brain/Right Brain Divide | TIME.com

There is No Left Brain/Right Brain Divide | TIME.com | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

You are hardly alone if you believe that humanity is divided into two great camps: the left-brain and the right-brain thinkers – those who are logical and analytical versus those who are intuitive and creative. For years, an industry of books, tests and videos has flourished on this concept. It seems to be natural law.

Except, it isn’t.

 

 

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George Lakoff on Embodied Cognition and Language

Speaker: George Lakoff, Cognitive Science and Linguistics Professor at UC Berkeley Lecture: Cascade Theory: Embodied Cognition and Language from a Neural Per...
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