Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
Early psychiatry investigated dreams to understand psychopathologies. Contemporary psychiatry, which neglects dreams, has been criticized for lack of objectivity. In search of quantitative insight into the structure of psychotic speech, we investigated speech graph attributes (SGA) in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I, and non-psychotic controls as they reported waking and dream contents. Schizophrenic subjects spoke with reduced connectivity, in tight correlation with negative and cognitive symptoms measured by standard psychometric scales. Bipolar and control subjects were undistinguishable by waking reports, but in dream reports bipolar subjects showed significantly less connectivity. Dream-related SGA outperformed psychometric scores or waking-related data for group sorting. Altogether, the results indicate that online and offline processing, the two most fundamental modes of brain operation, produce nearly opposite effects on recollections: While dreaming exposes differences in the mnemonic records across individuals, waking dampens distinctions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of the differential diagnosis of psychosis based on the analysis of dream graphs, pointing to a fast, low-cost and language-invariant tool for psychiatric diagnosis and the objective search for biomarkers. The Freudian notion that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” is clinically useful, after all.
Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.
We present the experimental structure of the book Il film delle emozioni (‘The movie of emotions’, 2007), which makes an attempt at using a narrative structure for communicating the most recent scientific knowledge relative to the functioning of the brain (the amygdala) and, particularly, to emotion management. This book can be defined as an essay on emotions in the form of a novel. The book is borderline literature that mixes registers and genres: the novel, an autobiography, a scientific paper about emotions, a diary, an emotional trainer, rich of link and bibliographic references, but also a manual on how to live. The book structure is composite: is not divided in chapters, but is a digital miscellany, made up of a variety of materials (i.e., computer files). A feature of the novel is that its structure is not causal, instead it is conceived and realized to convey the novel’s themes and some scientific findings and theories, whose some examples will be given.
Perhaps my favorite psychology article of all time, is Edward Titchener’s, “The Feeling of Being Stared At,” which appeared in Science on December 23, 1898 (almost 115 years ago exactly!). I give it a good read any time I am in need of inspiration, which has been lacking majorly during these dreary winter days. Despite Titchener’s vast contributions to psychology, this particular article has been cited only 38 times–it is an unheralded classic.
In it, Titchener describes a phenomenon with which many of us are familiar: the idea that we know when we are being watched from behind.
Warning: reading this post will change your brain. So will choosing not to read it, though, so you might as well continue and learn something. There’s been yet another neuroscience study claiming to have found important, systematic differences between male and female brains. I can’t critique the
Bernard Ryefield's insight:
I share the analysis and conclusion of the author, with a twist: don't ignore this paper, just be aware of the sensationalism involved in scientific publishing
If sex has an independent effect, after covarying for the potential confounding factors, then the paper’s conclusions will stand on strong ground. But if it turns out that men and women’s brains differ only in motion and size, well, it would have been better to know that from the start.
Intelligence is a very difficult concept and, until recently, no one has succeeded in giving it a satisfactory formal definition.
Most researchers have given up grappling with the notion of intelligence in full generality, and instead focus on related but more limited concepts – but I argue that mathematically defining intelligence is not only possible, but crucial to understanding and developing super-intelligent machines.
In this paper, we present an illustration to the history of Artificial Intelligence(AI) with a statistical analysis of publish since 1940. We collected and mined through the IEEE publish data base to analysis the geological and chronological variance of the activeness of research in AI. The connections between different institutes are showed. The result shows that the leading community of AI research are mainly in the USA, China, the Europe and Japan. The key institutes, authors and the research hotspots are revealed. It is found that the research institutes in the fields like Data Mining, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and some other fields of Machine Learning are quite consistent, implying a strong interaction between the community of each field. It is also showed that the research of Electronic Engineering and Industrial or Commercial applications are very active in California. Japan is also publishing a lot of papers in robotics. Due to the limitation of data source, the result might be overly influenced by the number of published articles, which is to our best improved by applying network keynode analysis on the research community instead of merely count the number of publish.
The human connectome has been widely studied over the past decade. A principal finding is that it can be decomposed into communities of densely interconnected brain regions. Past studies have often used single-scale modularity measures in order to infer the connectome's community structure, possibly overlooking interesting structure at other organizational scales. In this report, we used the partition stability framework, which defines communities in terms of a Markov process (random walk), to infer the connectome's multi-scale community structure. Comparing the community structure to observed resting-state functional connectivity revealed communities across a broad range of scales that were closely related to functional connectivity. This result suggests a mapping between communities in structural networks, models of influence-spreading and diffusion, and brain function. It further suggests that the spread of influence among brain regions may not be limited to a single characteristic scale.
Multi-scale community organization of the human structural connectome and its relationship with resting-state functional connectivity RICHARD F. BETZEL, ALESSANDRA GRIFFA, ANDREA AVENA-KOENIGSBERGER, JOAQUÍN GOÑI, JEAN-PHILIPPE THIRAN, PATRIC HAGMANN, OLAF SPORNS Network Science , Volume 1 , Issue 03 , December 2013, pp 353 - 373 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2013.19
The signatories of this declaration call upon nation states to take action. Intelligence agencies must be subjected to transparency and accountability. People must be free from blanket mass surveillance conducted by intelligence agencies from their own or foreign countries. States must effectively protect everyone's fundamental rights and freedoms, and particularly everyone's privacy.
If you are an academic and you would like to sign the declaration, please email info (at) academicsagainstsurveillance.net with your name, academic function and university in the subject line.
Conveying scientific content with accuracy and fluency takes practice and requires deep understanding of the concepts being conveyed. This depth of knowledge comes from internalizing information and constructing it into a form that is unique and coherent to the individual. Often in science classrooms there is little or no opportunity for students to practice this type of thinking, activities that we believe are fundamental to effective science communication. This article describes the use of haiku – a 17 syllable poem – as a means for students to convey neurobiological concepts in a succinct manner by forcing them to focus on the most salient features of the observed processes. In our assignments haiku writing was successfully paired with explanations of the students’ thought processes (Addiction course) or the scientific evidence to support claims (Neurodegenerative Disease course). We provide examples of student haiku and explanations as evidence of the power of this approach. The coupling of poetry and prose together create rich, accurate descriptions of scientific phenomena by encouraging higher-order thinking. Poetry writing can thus be used across the curriculum to forge comprehension of complex ideas in any discipline and to bridge the arts and the sciences.
Tomorrow (Tue 16th Dec at 8 am PST) the journal PeerJ will host a live ‘Ask Me Anything’ session with us, and our collaborator Hector Rieiro (a PhD candidate in the Macknik Lab). We’ll be accepting questions about our recent study on Penn & Teller’s ‘cups and balls’ illusion, filmed in their theater in Las Vegas.
If you want to learn how this trick hacks your brain, or if you are just curious about visual neuroscience in general, then visit us here and leave your questions at any time—before, during, and after tomorrow’s event—and get all your questions answered by us!
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load is the load related to the executive control of working memory (WM). Theories contend that during complex learning activities the amount of information and interactions that must be processed simultaneously can either under-load, or overload the finite amount of working memory one possesses.
Yet psychologists have long known that rewards are overrated. The carrot, of carrot-and-stick fame, is not as effective as we’ve been led to believe. Rewards work under some circumstances but sometimes they backfire. Spectacularly.
You are hardly alone if you believe that humanity is divided into two great camps: the left-brain and the right-brain thinkers – those who are logical and analytical versus those who are intuitive and creative. For years, an industry of books, tests and videos has flourished on this concept. It seems to be natural law.