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Rescooped by Bernard Ryefield from Network and Graph Theory
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Spatial Neural Networks and their Functional Samples: Similarities and Differences

Models of neural networks have proven their utility in the development of learning algorithms in computer science and in the theoretical study of brain dynamics in computational neuroscience. We propose in this paper a spatial neural network model to analyze the important class of functional networks, which are commonly employed in computational studies of clinical brain imaging time series. We developed a simulation framework inspired by multichannel brain surface recordings (more specifically, EEG -- electroencephalogram) in order to link the mesoscopic network dynamics (represented by sampled functional networks) and the microscopic network structure (represented by an integrate-and-fire neural network located in a 3D space -- hence the term spatial neural network). Functional networks are obtained by computing pairwise correlations between time-series of mesoscopic electric potential dynamics, which allows the construction of a graph where each node represents one time-series. The spatial neural network model is central in this study in the sense that it allowed us to characterize sampled functional networks in terms of what features they are able to reproduce from the underlying spatial network. Our modeling approach shows that, in specific conditions of sample size and edge density, it is possible to precisely estimate several network measurements of spatial networks by just observing functional samples.

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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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Why You’re Biased About Being Biased - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus

Why You’re Biased About Being Biased - Facts So Romantic - Nautilus | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
In a classic experiment in 1953, students spent an hour doing repetitive, monotonous tasks, such as rotating square pegs a quarter…
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Is Advertising Morally Justifiable? The Importance of Protecting Our Attention – Opinion – ABC Religion & Ethics (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

Is Advertising Morally Justifiable? The Importance of Protecting Our Attention – Opinion – ABC Religion & Ethics (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Since advertisers pay less to access your attention than your attention is worth, an excessive amount of advertising is produced. We are continuously swamped by attempts to distract us with messages we don't want or need.
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‘My dentist saved my tooth, but wiped my memory’

‘My dentist saved my tooth, but wiped my memory’ | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
After simple dental surgery, William lost his ability to form new memories. This real-life medical mystery should change the way we think about the brain, says David Robson.
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What the textbooks don't tell you about psychology's most famous case study

What the textbooks don't tell you about psychology's most famous case study | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
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14 Lies Your Mind Tells You to Prevent Life Changes | High Existence

14 Lies Your Mind Tells You to Prevent Life Changes | High Existence | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
14 common ways that our minds sabotage our attempts to make positive changes.
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Do we see reality as it is?

Do we see reality as it is? | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman is trying to answer a big question: Do we experience the world as it really is ... or as we need it to be? In this ever so slightly mind-blowing talk, he ponders how our minds construct reality for us.
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A Computer Just Came Up With a Scientific Theory

A Computer Just Came Up With a Scientific Theory | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
A new biology study argues that computers can independently invent scientific ideas—not just crunch numbers.
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Consciousness Began When the Gods Stopped Speaking - Issue 24: Error - Nautilus

Consciousness Began When the Gods Stopped Speaking - Issue 24: Error - Nautilus | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, when it finally came out in 1976, did not look like a best-seller. But sell it did. It was reviewed in science magazines and psychology journals, Time, The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times. It was nominated for a National Book Award in 1978. New editions continued to come out, as Jaynes went on the lecture circuit. Jaynes died of a stroke in 1997; his book lived on. In 2000, another new edition hit the shelves. It continues to sell today.

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[1502.06719] Presence of an Ecosystem: An Answer to "Why is Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts" in the Knowledge Building Process

[1502.06719] Presence of an Ecosystem: An Answer to "Why is Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts" in the Knowledge Building Process | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The phenomenal success of certain crowdsourced online platforms, such as Wikipedia, is accredited to their ability to tap the crowd's potential to collaboratively build knowledge. While it is well known that the crowd's collective wisdom surpasses the cumulative individual expertise, little is understood on the dynamics of knowledge building in a crowdsourced environment. Our experiment shows that an important reason for the rapid knowledge building in such an environment is due to variance in expertise. A proper understanding of the dynamics of knowledge building in a crowdsourced environment would enable one in the better designing of wiki styled environments to solicit knowledge from the crowd. We use, as our test bed, a customized Crowdsourced Annotation System (CAS) which provides a group of users the facility to annotate a given document. Our results show the presence of different genres of proficiency which accelerate the process of knowledge building by the synergetic interaction amongst the users. We observe that the crowdsourced knowledge ecosystem comprises of four categories of contributors, namely: Probers, Solvers, Articulators and Explorers. We infer from our experiment that the knowledge garnering mainly happens due to the synergetic interaction across these categories.

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Want to Learn How to Think? Read Fiction - New Canadian research finds reading a literary short story increases one’s comfort with ambiguity.

Want to Learn How to Think? Read Fiction - New Canadian research finds reading a literary short story increases one’s comfort with ambiguity. | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Are you uncomfortable with ambiguity? It’s a common condition, but a highly problematic one. The compulsion to quell that unease can inspire snap judgments, rigid thinking, and bad decision-making.

Fortunately, new research suggests a simple antidote for this affliction: Read more literary fiction.

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Brains Vs. AI | Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science

Brains Vs. AI | Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Brains Vs. Artificial Intelligence: Carnegie Mellon Computer Faces Poker Pros in Epic No-Limit Texas Hold’Em Competition 

80,000 Hands Will Be Played in Two-Week Contest at Rivers Casino in Pittsburgh

In a contest that echoes Deep Blue's chess victory over Garry Kasparov and Watson beating two Jeopardy! Champions, computer poker software developed at Carnegie Mellon University will challenge four of the world's best professional poker players in a "Brains Vs. Artificial Intelligence" competition beginning Friday, April 24, at Rivers Casino.

Over the course of two weeks, the CMU computer program Claudico will play 20,000 hands of heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em with each of the four poker pros. The pros – Doug Polk, Dong Kim, Bjorn Li and Jason Les — will receive appearance fees derived from a prize purse of $100,000 donated by Microsoft Research and Rivers Casino. The Carnegie Mellon scientists will compete for something more precious.

"Poker is now a benchmark for artificial intelligence research, just as chess once was," said Tuomas Sandholm, a professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon who has led development of Claudico. "It's a game of exceeding complexity that requires a machine to make decisions based on incomplete and often misleading information, thanks to bluffing, slow play and other decoys. And to win, the machine has to outsmart its human opponents."

"Computing the world's strongest strategies for this game was a major achievement — with the algorithms having future applications in business, military, cybersecurity and medical arenas."

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The surprising downsides of being clever

The surprising downsides of being clever | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Can a high IQ be a burden rather than a boon? David Robson investigates.
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Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
This longitudinal cohort study investigates whether atypical structural development in areas of the brain tied to school readiness skills mediates the relationship between childhood poverty and impaired academic performance.
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The Long-Lasting Effects of Nazi Indoctrination

The Long-Lasting Effects of Nazi Indoctrination | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Is it possible to change public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs, through schooling, advertisement, or any other means? A study published two weeks ago in PNAS shows that Nazi indoctrination of antisemitic attitudes in Germany was extremely effective.
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4 Weird Audio Illusions! - YouTube

Do you trust your ears? Over on Reactions: Why Do We Love Music? https://youtu.be/XA7NrrIZtT4 ↓ MORE LINKS BELOW ↓ SUBSCRIBE to BrainCraft! Click here: http:...
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A walk in the park increases poor research practices and decreases reviewer critical thinking

A walk in the park increases poor research practices and decreases reviewer critical thinking | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Or so i'm going to claim because science is basically about making up whatever qualitative opinion you like and hard-selling it to a high impact journal right? Last night a paper appeared in PNAS e...
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Evidence for "Unconscious Learning" Questioned - Neuroskeptic

Evidence for "Unconscious Learning" Questioned - Neuroskeptic | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Can we learn without being aware of what we’re learning? Many psychologists say that ‘unconscious’, or implicit, learning exists. But in a new paper, London-based psychologists Vadillo, Konstantinidis, and Shanks call the evidence for this into question. Vadillo et al. focus on one particular example of implicit learning, the contextual cueing paradigm. This involves a …
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Your Facial Bone Structure Has a Big Influence on How People See You

Your Facial Bone Structure Has a Big Influence on How People See You | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
New research shows that although we perceive character traits like trustworthiness based on a person’s facial expressions, our perceptions of abilities like strength are influenced by facial structure
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The Real Lesson of the Stanford Prison Experiment - The New Yorker

The Real Lesson of the Stanford Prison Experiment - The New Yorker | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Was one of psychology’s most controversial studies about individual fallibility or broken institutions?
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Emanuela Russo's curator insight, July 17, 11:13 AM

Che cosa ha dimostrato l'esperimento di Zimbardo e cosa dovrebbero sempre tenere sotto controllo le istituzioni

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Memory Storage Fidelity in the Hippocampal Circuit: The Role of Subregions and Input Statistics

Memory Storage Fidelity in the Hippocampal Circuit: The Role of Subregions and Input Statistics | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Author Summary It is well known that the hippocampus, a mammalian brain region, has a crucial role in memory formation. Furthermore, it has a remarkable anatomical structure and can be divided into several subregions based on physiological properties. Over the last decades a widely accepted model has evolved suggesting individual roles for each subregion in memory storage. The central idea is that region CA3, with its remarkably many synapses that project into the region itself again, stores the memories within these synapses. In this model a memory is impressed onto the hippocampus by neuronal activation in the hippocampal input region. Recently it has been found that such activations have a certain regularity instead of being random as assumed in the standard model. Here we investigate how well the model performs when storing memories of regular inputs. We find that the proposed function of CA3 actually harms memory performance. Moreover, we show that this function is redundant even in the case of random inputs. These findings call the standard model into question and support an alternative view of how the hippocampus may store memories.
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Humans Need Not Apply - YouTube

Discuss this video: http://www.reddit.com/r/CGPGrey/comments/2dfh5v/humans_need_not_apply/ http://www.CGPGrey.com/ https://twitter.com/cgpgrey ## Robots, Etc...
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[1505.04265] Cognitive Development of the Web

[1505.04265] Cognitive Development of the Web | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The sociotechnological system is a system constituted of human individuals and their artifacts: technological artifacts, institutions, conceptual and representational systems, worldviews, knowledge systems, culture and the whole biosphere as a volutionary niche. In our view the sociotechnological system as a super-organism is shaped and determined both by the characteristics of the agents involved and the characteristics emergent in their interactions at multiple scales. Our approach to sociotechnological dynamics will maintain a balance between perspectives: the individual and the collective. Accordingly, we analyze dynamics of the Web as a sociotechnological system made of people, computers and digital artifacts (Web pages, databases, search engines, etc.). Making sense of the sociotechnological system while being part of it, is also a constant interplay between pragmatic and value based approaches. The first is focusing on the actualities of the system while the second highlights the observer's projections. In our attempt to model sociotechnological dynamics and envision its future, we take special care to make explicit our values as part of the analysis. In sociotechnological systems with a high degree of reflexivity (coupling between the perception of the system and the system's behavior), highlighting values is of critical importance. In this essay, we choose to see the future evolution of the web as facilitating a basic value, that is, continuous open-ended intelligence expansion. By that we mean that we see intelligence expansion as the determinant of the 'greater good' and 'well being' of both of individuals and collectives at all scales. Our working definition of intelligence here is the progressive process of sense-making of self, other, environment and universe. Intelligence expansion, therefore, means an increasing ability of sense-making.

  

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Short-term debt and depressive symptoms may go hand-in-hand

Short-term debt and depressive symptoms may go hand-in-hand | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Results to be published in the Journal of Family and Economic Issues suggest that having short-term household debt — credit cards and overdue bills — increases depressive symptoms.

Via Jocelyn Stoller
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List of cognitive biases - RationalWiki

List of cognitive biases - RationalWiki | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Cognitive bias describes the inherent thinking errors that humans make in processing information. Some of these have been verified empirically in the field of psychology, while others are considered general categories of bias. These thinking errors prevent one from accurately understanding reality, even when confronted with all the needed data andevidence to form an accurate view. Many conflicts between science and religion are due to cognitive biases preventing people from coming to the same conclusions with the same evidence. Cognitive bias is intrinsic to human thought, and therefore any systematic system of acquiring knowledge that attempts to describe reality must include mechanisms to control for bias or it is inherently invalid.

The best known system for vetting and limiting the consequences of cognitive bias is the scientific method, as it places evidence and methodology behind the idea under open scrutiny. By this, many opinions and separate analyses can be used to compensate for the bias of any one individual. It is important to remember, however, that in every day life, just knowing about these biases doesn't necessarily free you from them.

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