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Cognitive dissonance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions: ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel "disequilibrium": frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc.[1] The phrase was coined by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When Prophecy Fails, which chronicled the followers of a UFO cult as reality clashed with their fervent belief in an impending apocalypse.[2][3] Festinger subsequently (1957) published a book called A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in which he outlines the theory. Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.

The theory of cognitive dissonance in social psychology proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by altering existing cognitions, adding new ones to create a consistent belief system, or alternatively by reducing the importance of any one of the dissonant elements.[1] Cognitive dissonance is the distressing mental state that people feel when they "find themselves doing things that don't fit with what they know, or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold."[4] A key assumption is that people want their expectations to meet reality, creating a sense of equilibrium.[5] Likewise, another assumption is that a person will avoid situations or information sources that give rise to feelings of uneasiness, or dissonance.[1]

Cognitive dissonance theory explains human behavior by positing that people have a bias to seek consonance between their expectations and reality. According to Festinger, people engage in a process he termed "dissonance reduction," which can be achieved in one of three ways: lowering the importance of one of the discordant factors, adding consonant elements, or changing one of the dissonant factors.[6] This bias sheds light on otherwise puzzling, irrational, and even destructive behavior.

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Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
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Humans Need Not Apply - YouTube

Discuss this video: http://www.reddit.com/r/CGPGrey/comments/2dfh5v/humans_need_not_apply/ http://www.CGPGrey.com/ https://twitter.com/cgpgrey ## Robots, Etc...
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[1505.04265] Cognitive Development of the Web

[1505.04265] Cognitive Development of the Web | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
The sociotechnological system is a system constituted of human individuals and their artifacts: technological artifacts, institutions, conceptual and representational systems, worldviews, knowledge systems, culture and the whole biosphere as a volutionary niche. In our view the sociotechnological system as a super-organism is shaped and determined both by the characteristics of the agents involved and the characteristics emergent in their interactions at multiple scales. Our approach to sociotechnological dynamics will maintain a balance between perspectives: the individual and the collective. Accordingly, we analyze dynamics of the Web as a sociotechnological system made of people, computers and digital artifacts (Web pages, databases, search engines, etc.). Making sense of the sociotechnological system while being part of it, is also a constant interplay between pragmatic and value based approaches. The first is focusing on the actualities of the system while the second highlights the observer's projections. In our attempt to model sociotechnological dynamics and envision its future, we take special care to make explicit our values as part of the analysis. In sociotechnological systems with a high degree of reflexivity (coupling between the perception of the system and the system's behavior), highlighting values is of critical importance. In this essay, we choose to see the future evolution of the web as facilitating a basic value, that is, continuous open-ended intelligence expansion. By that we mean that we see intelligence expansion as the determinant of the 'greater good' and 'well being' of both of individuals and collectives at all scales. Our working definition of intelligence here is the progressive process of sense-making of self, other, environment and universe. Intelligence expansion, therefore, means an increasing ability of sense-making.

  

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Short-term debt and depressive symptoms may go hand-in-hand

Short-term debt and depressive symptoms may go hand-in-hand | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Results to be published in the Journal of Family and Economic Issues suggest that having short-term household debt — credit cards and overdue bills — increases depressive symptoms.

Via Jocelyn Stoller
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List of cognitive biases - RationalWiki

List of cognitive biases - RationalWiki | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Cognitive bias describes the inherent thinking errors that humans make in processing information. Some of these have been verified empirically in the field of psychology, while others are considered general categories of bias. These thinking errors prevent one from accurately understanding reality, even when confronted with all the needed data andevidence to form an accurate view. Many conflicts between science and religion are due to cognitive biases preventing people from coming to the same conclusions with the same evidence. Cognitive bias is intrinsic to human thought, and therefore any systematic system of acquiring knowledge that attempts to describe reality must include mechanisms to control for bias or it is inherently invalid.

The best known system for vetting and limiting the consequences of cognitive bias is the scientific method, as it places evidence and methodology behind the idea under open scrutiny. By this, many opinions and separate analyses can be used to compensate for the bias of any one individual. It is important to remember, however, that in every day life, just knowing about these biases doesn't necessarily free you from them.

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Innovation Suppression and Clique Evolution in Peer-Review-Based, Competitive Research Funding Systems

Innovation Suppression and Clique Evolution in Peer-Review-Based, Competitive Research Funding Systems | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Peer review is ubiquitous in modern science: from the evaluation of publications to the distribution of funding. While there is a long tradition of, and many arguments for, peer review as a beneficial and necessary component of scientific processes, the exponential growth of the research community, the 'publish or perish' pressures and increasing insecurity and competition for research grants have led to an increasing number of voices describing the weaknesses of the system. One of the most frequent accusations against the peer review system is that it inhibits true innovation. The availability of better data mining tools allows interested stakeholders, in principle, to monitor many aspects of the process and to promote a better understanding of the interplay of various factors. 'In principle' – because a lot of information is hidden behind the screens of anonymity and confidentiality. Our work presents an attempt at a theoretical understanding of some aspects of the process via an idealized agent-based model, which describes the effects of the peer review done by 'imperfect' agents, in particular with respect to promotion of mediocrity and to formation of self-serving cliques. The results of the model suggest that both phenomena can be quite robust and require careful monitoring of the system to combat their negative effects. Some mitigating measures are simulated and discussed.

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The Last Word On Nothing | The trolley and the psychopath

The Last Word On Nothing | The trolley and the psychopath | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Stop me if you’ve heard this one. A trolley carrying five school children is headed for a cliff. You happen to be standing at the switch, and you could save their lives by diverting the trolley to another track. But there he is – an innocent fat man, picking daisies on that second track, oblivious to the rolling thunder (potentially) hurtling his way. Divert the trolley, and you save the kids and kill a person. Do nothing, and you have killed no one but five children are dead. Which is the greater moral good?

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[1503.01368] Time and the Unconscious Mind

[1503.01368] Time and the Unconscious Mind | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Most of us think we know some basic facts about how time works. The facts we believe we know are based on a few intuitions about time, which are, in turn, based on our conscious waking experiences. As far as I can tell, these intuitions about time are something like this: 1) There is a physical world in which events occur, 2) These events are mirrored by our perceptual re-creation of them in essentially the same order in which they occur in the physical world, 3) This re-creation of events occurs in a linear order based on our conscious memory of them (e.g., event A is said to occur before event B if at some point we do remember event A but we don not yet remember event B, and at another point we remember both events), 4) Assuming we have good memories, what we remember has occurred in the past and what we don not remember but we can imagine might: a) never occur, b) occur when we are not conscious, or c) occur in the future. These intuitions are excellent ones for understanding our conscious conception of ordered events. However, they do not tell us anything about how the non-conscious processes in our brains navigate events in time. Currently, neuroscientists assume that neural processes of which we are unaware, that is, non-conscious processes, create conscious awareness as a reflection of physical reality (Singer, 2015). Thus, if we wish to understand how events unfold in time in the physical world, we would do well to attempt to get some hints about how these events are navigated by non-conscious processes.

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The Man Who Destroyed America’s Ego — Matter — Medium

The Man Who Destroyed America's Ego - Matter - Medium
The Man Who Destroyed America’s Ego
How a rebel psychologist challenged one of the 20th century’s biggest—and most dangerous—ideas.
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The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic - Issue 21: Information - Nautilus

The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic - Issue 21: Information - Nautilus | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Not wanting to risk another run-in that night, Pitts stayed hidden until the library closed for the evening. Alone, he wandered through the stacks of books until he came across Principia Mathematica, a three-volume tome written by Bertrand Russell and Alfred Whitehead between 1910 and 1913, which attempted to reduce all of mathematics to pure logic. Pitts sat down and began to read. For three days he remained in the library until he had read each volume cover to cover—nearly 2,000 pages in all—and had identified several mistakes. Deciding that Bertrand Russell himself needed to know about these, the boy drafted a letter to Russell detailing the errors. Not only did Russell write back, he was so impressed that he invited Pitts to study with him as a graduate student at Cambridge University in England. Pitts couldn’t oblige him, though—he was only 12 years old. But three years later, when he heard that Russell would be visiting the University of Chicago, the 15-year-old ran away from home and headed for Illinois. He never saw his family again.

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Empathy as a consciousness movement

Empathy  as a consciousness movement | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Since that day, empathy has become my touchstone in everything I do. I have created lessons, given talks, conducted workshops, and been interviewed numerous times on the subject of empathy.

 

Often, when working with others on this topic, it feels as if on that early winter’s day in 1989, in that small elementary school built in the 1930’s, I was given a glimpse into my life’s work: to teach how empathy in practice brings to life one of life’s greatest lessons: To treat others the way you would like to be treated.

 

David Levine

https://teachingempathy.wordpress.com/

 

 


Via Edwin Rutsch, Jocelyn Stoller
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Frontiers | Multiscale Enaction Model (MEM): the case of complexity and “context-sensitivity” in vision | Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology

I review the data on human visual perception that reveal the critical role played by non-visual contextual factors influencing visual activity. The global perspective that progressively emerges reveals that vision is sensitive to multiple couplings with other systems whose nature and levels of abstraction in science are highly variable. Contrary to some views where vision is immersed in modular hard-wired modules, rather independent from higher-level or other non-cognitive processes, converging data gathered in this article suggest that visual perception can be theorized in the larger context of biological, physical, and social systems with which it is coupled, and through which it is enacted. Therefore, any attempt to model complexity and multiscale couplings, or to develop a complex synthesis in the fields of mind, brain, and behavior, shall involve a systematic empirical study of both connectedness between systems or subsystems, and the embodied, multiscale and flexible teleology of subsystems. The conceptual model (MEM) that is introduced in this paper finally relates empirical evidence gathered from psychology to biocomputational data concerning the human brain. Both psychological and biocomputational descriptions of MEM are proposed in order to help fill in the gap between scales of scientific analysis and to provide an account for both the autopoiesis-driven search for information, and emerging perception.
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The science of why cops shoot young black men

The science of why cops shoot young black men | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
And how to reform our bigoted brains.
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Keeping The Brain Stable While Learning

Keeping The Brain Stable While Learning | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
A mathematical model has helped scientists resolve a decades-old paradox of how the brain remains stable while learning new information.
Bernard Ryefield's insight:

Paper available at:

http://toyoizumilab.brain.riken.jp/taro/publication.html

 

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[1502.06719] Presence of an Ecosystem: An Answer to "Why is Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts" in the Knowledge Building Process

[1502.06719] Presence of an Ecosystem: An Answer to "Why is Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts" in the Knowledge Building Process | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

The phenomenal success of certain crowdsourced online platforms, such as Wikipedia, is accredited to their ability to tap the crowd's potential to collaboratively build knowledge. While it is well known that the crowd's collective wisdom surpasses the cumulative individual expertise, little is understood on the dynamics of knowledge building in a crowdsourced environment. Our experiment shows that an important reason for the rapid knowledge building in such an environment is due to variance in expertise. A proper understanding of the dynamics of knowledge building in a crowdsourced environment would enable one in the better designing of wiki styled environments to solicit knowledge from the crowd. We use, as our test bed, a customized Crowdsourced Annotation System (CAS) which provides a group of users the facility to annotate a given document. Our results show the presence of different genres of proficiency which accelerate the process of knowledge building by the synergetic interaction amongst the users. We observe that the crowdsourced knowledge ecosystem comprises of four categories of contributors, namely: Probers, Solvers, Articulators and Explorers. We infer from our experiment that the knowledge garnering mainly happens due to the synergetic interaction across these categories.

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Want to Learn How to Think? Read Fiction - New Canadian research finds reading a literary short story increases one’s comfort with ambiguity.

Want to Learn How to Think? Read Fiction - New Canadian research finds reading a literary short story increases one’s comfort with ambiguity. | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Are you uncomfortable with ambiguity? It’s a common condition, but a highly problematic one. The compulsion to quell that unease can inspire snap judgments, rigid thinking, and bad decision-making.

Fortunately, new research suggests a simple antidote for this affliction: Read more literary fiction.

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Brains Vs. AI | Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science

Brains Vs. AI | Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Brains Vs. Artificial Intelligence: Carnegie Mellon Computer Faces Poker Pros in Epic No-Limit Texas Hold’Em Competition 

80,000 Hands Will Be Played in Two-Week Contest at Rivers Casino in Pittsburgh

In a contest that echoes Deep Blue's chess victory over Garry Kasparov and Watson beating two Jeopardy! Champions, computer poker software developed at Carnegie Mellon University will challenge four of the world's best professional poker players in a "Brains Vs. Artificial Intelligence" competition beginning Friday, April 24, at Rivers Casino.

Over the course of two weeks, the CMU computer program Claudico will play 20,000 hands of heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em with each of the four poker pros. The pros – Doug Polk, Dong Kim, Bjorn Li and Jason Les — will receive appearance fees derived from a prize purse of $100,000 donated by Microsoft Research and Rivers Casino. The Carnegie Mellon scientists will compete for something more precious.

"Poker is now a benchmark for artificial intelligence research, just as chess once was," said Tuomas Sandholm, a professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon who has led development of Claudico. "It's a game of exceeding complexity that requires a machine to make decisions based on incomplete and often misleading information, thanks to bluffing, slow play and other decoys. And to win, the machine has to outsmart its human opponents."

"Computing the world's strongest strategies for this game was a major achievement — with the algorithms having future applications in business, military, cybersecurity and medical arenas."

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The surprising downsides of being clever

The surprising downsides of being clever | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Can a high IQ be a burden rather than a boon? David Robson investigates.
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Summary of 'Computing Machinery and Intelligence' (1950) by Alan Turing

Summary of 'Computing Machinery and Intelligence' (1950) by Alan Turing | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Can Machines Think?

This question begins Alan Turing's paper 'Computing Machinery and Intelligence' (1950). However he found the form of the question unhelpful, that even the process of defining 'machines' and 'think' in common terms would be dangerous, as it could mistakenly lead one to think the answer can be obtained from some kind of statistical survey.

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5 Logical Fallacies That Make Humans Terrible at Democracy

5 Logical Fallacies That Make Humans Terrible at Democracy | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

Did you know that 63-65 percent of Americans think we're spending too little on welfare? Well, as long as the polls calls it "assistance to the poor." Use the word "welfare", and that number drops to 20-25 percent. Yeah, as we've mentioned before, just the way you word a question can change people's opinion on important matters, but, at least, this isn't a U.S.-only problem: The entire human race sucks at democracy. And we can't even help it because ...

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Perceptual elements in Penn & Teller’s “Cups and Balls” magic trick

Perceptual elements in Penn & Teller’s “Cups and Balls” magic trick | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Magic illusions provide the perceptual and cognitive scientist with a toolbox of experimental manipulations and testable hypotheses about the building blocks of conscious experience. Here we studied several sleight-of-hand manipulations in the performance of the classic “Cups and Balls” magic trick (where balls appear and disappear inside upside-down opaque cups). We examined a version inspired by the entertainment duo Penn & Teller, conducted with three opaque and subsequently with three transparent cups. Magician Teller used his right hand to load (i.e. introduce surreptitiously) a small ball inside each of two upside-down cups, one at a time, while using his left hand to remove a different ball from the upside-down bottom of the cup. The sleight at the third cup involved one of six manipulations: (a) standard maneuver, (b) standard maneuver without a third ball, (c) ball placed on the table, (d) ball lifted, (e) ball dropped to the floor, and (f) ball stuck to the cup. Seven subjects watched the videos of the performances while reporting, via button press, whenever balls were removed from the cups/table (button “1”) or placed inside the cups/on the table (button “2”). Subjects’ perception was more accurate with transparent than with opaque cups. Perceptual performance was worse for the conditions where the ball was placed on the table, or stuck to the cup, than for the standard maneuver. The condition in which the ball was lifted displaced the subjects’ gaze position the most, whereas the condition in which there was no ball caused the smallest gaze displacement. Training improved the subjects’ perceptual performance. Occlusion of the magician’s face did not affect the subjects’ perception, suggesting that gaze misdirection does not play a strong role in the Cups and Balls illusion. Our results have implications for how to optimize the performance of this classic magic trick, and for the types of hand and object motion that maximize magic misdirection.
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Does money make you mean?

Does money make you mean? | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
It's amazing what a rigged game of Monopoly can reveal. In this entertaining but sobering talk, social psychologist Paul Piff shares his research into how people behave when they feel wealthy. (Hint: badly.) But while the problem of inequality is a complex and daunting challenge, there's good news too. (Filmed at TEDxMarin.)
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The Critical Few: Anticonformists at the Crossroads of Minority Opinion Survival and Collapse

The Critical Few: Anticonformists at the Crossroads of Minority Opinion Survival and Collapse | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

To maintain stability yet retain the flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, social systems must strike a balance between the maintenance of a shared reality and the survival of minority opinion. A computational model is presented that investigates the interplay of two basic, oppositional social processes—conformity and anticonformity—in promoting the emergence of this balance. Computer simulations employing a cellular automata platform tested hypotheses concerning the survival of minority opinion and the maintenance of system stability for different proportions of anticonformity. Results revealed that a relatively small proportion of anticonformists facilitated the survival of a minority opinion held by a larger number of conformists who would otherwise succumb to pressures for social consensus. Beyond a critical threshold, however, increased proportions of anticonformists undermined social stability. Understanding the adaptive benefits of balanced oppositional forces has implications for optimal functioning in psychological and social processes in general.

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The Lovelace 2.0 Test of Artificial Creativity and Intelligence

Observing that the creation of certain types of artistic artifacts necessitate intelligence, we present the Lovelace 2.0 Test of creativity as an alternative to the Turing Test as a means of determining whether an agent is intelligent. The Lovelace 2.0 Test builds off prior tests of creativity and additionally provides a means of directly comparing the relative intelligence of different agents.

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Frontiers | Blinded by magic: eye-movements reveal the misdirection of attention | Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology

Frontiers | Blinded by magic: eye-movements reveal the misdirection of attention | Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it
Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn and Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer's gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness (IB). In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the “secret” event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin), as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several “practice” videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie and Tsal, 1994).
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Stephen Hawking's AI fears stir scientific debate | The Japan Times

Stephen Hawking's AI fears stir scientific debate | The Japan Times | Cognitive Science - Artificial Intelligence | Scoop.it

PARIS – There was the psychotic HAL 9000 computer in “2001: A Space Odyssey.”

The humanoids that attacked their flesh-and-blood masters in “I, Robot.”

And, of course, “The Terminator,” where a robot is sent into the past to kill a woman whose son will end the tyranny of the machines in the future.

Never far from the surface, a dark, dystopian view of artificial intelligence (AI) has returned to the headlines thanks to British physicist Stephen Hawking.

“The primitive forms of artificial intelligence we already have, have proved very useful. But I think the development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race,” Hawking told the BBC.

“Once humans develop artificial intelligence it would take off on its own and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate,” he said.

But experts were divided.

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