Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." Wikipedia (en)
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load is the load related to the executive control of working memory (WM). Theories contend that during complex learning activities the amount of information and interactions that must be processed simultaneously can either under-load, or overload the finite amount of working memory one possesses.
Yet psychologists have long known that rewards are overrated. The carrot, of carrot-and-stick fame, is not as effective as we’ve been led to believe. Rewards work under some circumstances but sometimes they backfire. Spectacularly.
You are hardly alone if you believe that humanity is divided into two great camps: the left-brain and the right-brain thinkers – those who are logical and analytical versus those who are intuitive and creative. For years, an industry of books, tests and videos has flourished on this concept. It seems to be natural law.
Being poor messes with a person’s cognitive capacity. If you’re a child, it can impact your brain development. If you’re an adult, it can cloud your long term judgement.
A landmark study in August showed that the effect was equivalent to knocking off thirteen points from your IQ, that being poor produced a predilection for poor decision making, a vicious cycle that’s nearly impossible for the impoverished to break out of.
But what’s most depressing about the whole ordeal isn’t that those living in poverty are constantly making bad decisions, it’s that those bad decisions might actually be the most rational path to take. A poignant contribution by Linda Tirado to Gawker’s Kinja platform provides an eye-opening first-hand perspective to these scientific developments. Being poor is a soul-sucking vacuum where the normal rules to life simply don’t apply. Being poor means living without hope.
It’s a question that’s perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? We know it exists, at least in ourselves. But how it arises from chemistry and electricity in our brains is an unsolved mystery.
Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he might know the answer. According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. That’s just the way the universe works.
Computational creativity is an emerging branch of artificial intelligence that places computers in the center of the creative process. Broadly, creativity involves a generative step to produce many ideas and a selective step to determine the ones that are the best. Many previous attempts at computational creativity, however, have not been able to achieve a valid selective step. This work shows how bringing data sources from the creative domain and from hedonic psychophysics together with big data analytics techniques can overcome this shortcoming to yield a system that can produce novel and high-quality creative artifacts. Our data-driven approach is demonstrated through a computational creativity system for culinary recipes and menus we developed and deployed, which can operate either autonomously or semi-autonomously with human interaction. We also comment on the volume, velocity, variety, and veracity of data in computational creativity.
Warning: reading this post will change your brain. So will choosing not to read it, though, so you might as well continue and learn something. There’s been yet another neuroscience study claiming to have found important, systematic differences between male and female brains. I can’t critique the
Bernard Ryefield's insight:
I share the analysis and conclusion of the author, with a twist: don't ignore this paper, just be aware of the sensationalism involved in scientific publishing
If sex has an independent effect, after covarying for the potential confounding factors, then the paper’s conclusions will stand on strong ground. But if it turns out that men and women’s brains differ only in motion and size, well, it would have been better to know that from the start.
Intelligence is a very difficult concept and, until recently, no one has succeeded in giving it a satisfactory formal definition.
Most researchers have given up grappling with the notion of intelligence in full generality, and instead focus on related but more limited concepts – but I argue that mathematically defining intelligence is not only possible, but crucial to understanding and developing super-intelligent machines.
In this paper, we present an illustration to the history of Artificial Intelligence(AI) with a statistical analysis of publish since 1940. We collected and mined through the IEEE publish data base to analysis the geological and chronological variance of the activeness of research in AI. The connections between different institutes are showed. The result shows that the leading community of AI research are mainly in the USA, China, the Europe and Japan. The key institutes, authors and the research hotspots are revealed. It is found that the research institutes in the fields like Data Mining, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition and some other fields of Machine Learning are quite consistent, implying a strong interaction between the community of each field. It is also showed that the research of Electronic Engineering and Industrial or Commercial applications are very active in California. Japan is also publishing a lot of papers in robotics. Due to the limitation of data source, the result might be overly influenced by the number of published articles, which is to our best improved by applying network keynode analysis on the research community instead of merely count the number of publish.
According to Gaiser, the challenge of teaching wine tasting to individuals is complex: 1) we have to try and present to students our own vocabulary and experiences for wine, which may or may not resonate with each individual mind; 2) each individual student has a different neurology from everyone else, as well as different memories and experiences; and 3) we have to come up with a way to find the common denominator for tasting, so that each student may more easily learn using their own personal experiences instead of using other people’s experiences that have been impressed upon them. Thus, the overall goal of the research is to improve upon the way we teach wine tasting so that the students learn in a shorter period of time and learn to utilize their own memories and experiences.
Pairing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simple videos that mimic social interactions helps researchers visualize brain regions involved in the ability to infer others’ desires, beliefs and feelings, called the theory of mind.
The latest refrain in popular science is that 'your brain is plastic', that experience has the potential to 'rewire' your brain, and that many previous mysteries in cognitive can be explained by 'neuroplasticity'. What they don't tell you is that these phrases are virtually meaningless.
Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance).
Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc.