PLOS Biology is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that features works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science, from molecules to ecosystems, including works at the interface with other disciplines.
Most augmented reality glasses incorporate a tiny projector in one arm of the spectacles. The picture is then reflected from the side into the centre of the lenses, which are etched with a reflective pattern that then beams the image into the eye. That means the image is directly incorporated into what the wearer see when looking directly ahead – unlike Google’s current incarnation of Google Glass, which puts a small video screen in the bottom right-hand corner of the right eye. That requires the wearer to look down to focus on it, taking their attention away from the view ahead.
In this review, many different augmented reality vision devices are shown and their features explained. Welcome to the new world of 2013!
Conjoined twins Tatiana and Krista has unique abilities to see through the other's eyes. Recent functional MRIs demonstrate that physical sensation can be a shared experience too: one can feel the touch of a hand on the other’s kneecap, identify a particular toe being tugged, laugh when her twin is being tickled. They also may share some motor function.
They are conjoined not just by flesh and bone. Their brains are zippered together by a neural bridge between the thalami, the sensory processing hubs of their brains. This bridge, which the girls can flitter across at will, has raised questions and inspired a sense of wonder among even the most seasoned specialists.
How does it work? What are its limits? What could it mean to our understanding of the ability of the brain to change and adapt? What does it mean in terms of how we understand the development of personality, empathy and consciousness?
Doug Cochrane, a neurosurgeon at B.C. Children’s Hospital, was part of a multi-disciplinary team assembled to attend the birth and followup care of the girls in 2006. He had never worked with a set of craniopagus twins; conjoined twins are extremely rare and those joined at the head are the rarest, with an occurrence rate estimated at one in 2.5 million births. Few survive.
Intravital imaging of the superficial brain tissue in mice represents a powerful tool for the dissection of the cellular and molecular cues underlying inflammatory and infectious central nervous system diseases.
A newly identified form of DNA—small circles of non-repetitive sequences—may be widespread in somatic cells of mice and humans, according to a study in this week’s issue of Science. These extrachromosomal bits of DNA, dubbed microDNA, may be the byproducts of microdeletions in chromosomes, meaning that cells all over the body may have their own constellation of missing pieces of DNA.
“It’s an intriguing finding,” said James Lupski, a geneticist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston who did not participate in the research. Most DNA studies use cells drawn from blood, but that snapshot of a person’s genome may not be giving a complete picture, Lupski explained, if cells in other organs have their own set of chromosomal snippets missing.
But the findings do not surprise Sabine Mai, who studies genomic instability at the University of Manitoba. Extrachromosomal DNA is a well-studied phenomenon in cells ranging from plants to humans, she says. This research is just renaming an old phenomenon, previously referred to small polydispersed DNA. Small circles of DNA have been identified before, Mai says, though new deep sequencing techniques will allow for a “deeper characterization” of these extrachromosomal snippets.
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