Neurobiology
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Technique to create transparent brains could transform neuroscience

Technique to create transparent brains could transform neuroscience | Neurobiology | Scoop.it
The mysteries of the human mind might soon be revealed, now that a consortium of experts has figured out how to render entire brains transparent — meaning that researchers will be able to analyze...

Via David McGavock, Justin Rawle
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David McGavock's curator insight, April 13, 2013 9:32 AM

But before the approach can become a mainstay of neuroscientific study, researchers will need to clear one major hurdle: how to handle the huge reams of data that'll emerge from collecting information on these billions of cells, and their complex interactions, that have suddenly become readily accessible for study.

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Multisystem Resiliency Moderates the Major Depression-Telomere Length Association: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study | Brain, Behavior, & Immunity

Multisystem Resiliency Moderates the Major Depression-Telomere Length Association: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study | Brain, Behavior, & Immunity | Neurobiology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder has been associated with reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). It is not known, however, whether psychosocial and behavioral protective factors moderate this association. In the current study, we examine whether multisystem resiliency – defined by healthy emotion regulation, strong social connections, and health behaviors (sleep and exercise) – predicts LTL and mitigates previously demonstrated associations between depression diagnosis and LTL. LTL was measured, using a quantitative PCR assay, in 954 patients with stable cardiovascular disease in the Heart and Soul Study. In a fully adjusted model, high multisystem resiliency predicted longer LTL (b = 80.00, se = 27.17, p = .003), whereas each individual factor did not. Multisystem resiliency significantly moderated the MDD-LTL association (p = .02). Specifically, MDD was significantly related to LTL at 1 SD below the mean of multisystem resiliency (b= -142.86, SE = 56.46, p = .01), but not at 1 SD above the mean of the profile (b = 49.07, se = 74.51, p =.51). This study suggests that MDD associations with biological outcomes should be examined within a psychosocial-behavioral context, because this context shapes the nature of the direct relationship. Further research should explore the cognitive, neural, and other physiological pathways through which multisystem resiliency may confer biological benefit.

 

Puterman, E. et al. (in press). Multisystem Resiliency Moderates the Major Depression-Telomere Length Association: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.05.008

 

Photo credit: Figure 1. from accepted manuscript.


Via Eileen Cardillo
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Eileen Cardillo's curator insight, May 31, 2013 1:06 PM

"Multisystem resiliency" (as characterized by healthy behaviors, social support, and emotion regulation skill) seems like a framework worth applying in contemplative science research as well. 

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Epilepsy Cured in Mice Using A One-Time Transplantation Of MGE Brain Cells

Epilepsy Cured in Mice Using A One-Time Transplantation Of MGE Brain Cells | Neurobiology | Scoop.it

UCSF scientists controlled seizures in epileptic mice with a one-time transplantation of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells, which inhibit signaling in overactive nerve circuits, into the hippocampus, a brain region associated with seizures, as well as with learning and memory. Other researchers had previously used different cell types in rodent cell transplantation experiments and failed to stop seizures.

 

Cell therapy has become an active focus of epilepsy research, in part because current medications, even when effective, only control symptoms and not underlying causes of the disease, according to Scott C. Baraban, PhD, who holds the William K. Bowes Jr. Endowed Chair in Neuroscience Research at UCSF and led the new study. In many types of epilepsy, he said, current drugs have no therapeutic value at all.

 

"Our results are an encouraging step toward using inhibitory neurons for cell transplantation in adults with severe forms of epilepsy," Baraban said. "This procedure offers the possibility of controlling seizures and rescuing cognitive deficits in these patients."

 

In the UCSF study, the transplanted inhibitory cells quenched this synchronous, nerve-signaling firestorm, eliminating seizures in half of the treated mice and dramatically reducing the number of spontaneous seizures in the rest. Robert Hunt, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the Baraban lab, guided many of the key experiments.

 

he mouse model of disease that Baraban's lab team worked with is meant to resemble a severe and typically drug-resistant form of human epilepsy called mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, in which seizures are thought to arise in the hippocampus. In contrast to transplants into the hippocampus, transplants into the amygdala, a brain region involved in memory and emotion, failed to halt seizure activity in this same mouse model, the researcher found.

 

Temporal lobe epilepsy often develops in adolescence, in some cases long after a seizure episode triggered during early childhood by a high fever. A similar condition in mice can be induced with a chemical exposure, and in addition to seizures, this mouse model shares other pathological features with the human condition, such as loss of cells in the hippocampus, behavioral alterations and impaired problem solving.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Justin Rawle
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Biosciencia's curator insight, May 6, 2013 6:38 AM

Cell therapy has become an active focus of epilepsy research, in part because current medications, even when effective, only control symptoms and not underlying causes of the disease.

Brenda Elliott's curator insight, May 8, 2013 7:00 AM

curative_ that's amazing...

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The Morality of Meditation

The Morality of Meditation | Neurobiology | Scoop.it

"MEDITATION is fast becoming a fashionable tool for improving your mind. With mounting scientific evidence that the practice can enhance creativity, memory and scores on standardized intelligence tests, interest in its practical benefits is growing. A number of “mindfulness” training programs, like that developed by the engineer Chade-Meng Tan at Google, and conferences like Wisdom 2.0 for business and tech leaders, promise attendees insight into how meditation can be used to augment individual performance, leadership and productivity.

 

This is all well and good, but if you stop to think about it, there’s a bit of a disconnect between the (perfectly commendable) pursuit of these benefits and the purpose for which meditation was originally intended. Gaining competitive advantage on exams and increasing creativity in business weren’t of the utmost concern to Buddha and other early meditation teachers. As Buddha himself said, “I teach one thing and one only: that is, suffering and the end of suffering.” For Buddha, as for many modern spiritual leaders, the goal of meditation was as simple as that. The heightened control of the mind that meditation offers was supposed to help its practitioners see the world in a new and more compassionate way, allowing them to break free from the categorizations (us/them, self/other) that commonly divide people from one another.

 

But does meditation work as promised? Is its originally intended effect — the reduction of suffering — empirically demonstrable?"


Via Eileen Cardillo
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