A study published in the May 2013 issue of PLoS One may indicate a novel, unrecognized interaction between viruses and the glucocorticoid (GC)-signaling system that results in the induction of interleukin (IL)-10 production by dendritic cells (DCs).
Consider this: In over five million years of human evolution, only one organ has come to exist for the sole purpose of providing pleasure – the clitoris. It is not required for reproduction. It doesn’t have a urethra running through it like the penis, and thus, does not urinate. Its sole function – its singular, wonderful purpose – is to make a woman feel good!!
Sadly, it is precisely because the clitoris has no function apart from female pleasure that science has neglected to study it as intricately as the penis...
In this chapter we attempt to uncover the different roles of tachykinins in human disease homeostatic conditions in particular hematopoiesis within the bone marrow cavity. We also discuss normal synthesis of tachykinins and their receptors, yet focus on their regulation by microRNA, messenger RNA stabilizing proteins, and transcription factors like Restrictive Element-1 Silencing Factor (REST). We discuss the consequence of the tachykinins to pathological conditions such as breast cancer development. We also review the normal processes during their role as neurotransmitters.
Among the growing number of molecules known to be involved in both neuronal and immune modulation, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) seems to have a role in this complex network of bi-directional signals between the nervous and immune systems.
Herein is an overview of our observations on the inhibition of the induction of splenic CD4 and CD8+ regulatory T cells, thymic and hepatic regulatory T cells by the ablation of the sympathetic nervous system by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In contrast, sympathectomy with 6-OHDA induces an elevation in CD4, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes that can mitigate the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We suggest that the sympathetic influence on the activation and maintenance of different regulatory T cells is a major neuronal influence of the immune system that could be a major factor in chronic stress.
Nearly half of our everyday behaviors tend to be repeated in the same location almost every day, according to research out of Duke University. That means most of the time we are running on autopilot.
On average, a habit takes more like 66 days to form, with more intensive habits like doing 50 sit-ups every morning taking around 84 days to form, according to research out of University College of London that Dean references in his book. But these figures will often vary greatly from person to person.
Forming habits that stick isn't about finding a magic number. It's about being aware of your behaviors and environment and their effects on your brain. Here are some steps to get started:
US and European research programmes will begin coordinating research.
It seems a natural pairing, almost like the hemispheres of a human brain: two controversial and ambitious projects that seek to decipher the body's control center are poised to join forces.
The European Union’s €1-billion (US$1.3-billion) Human Brain Project (HBP) and the United States’ $1-billion Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative will launch a collaboration later this year, according to government officials involved in both projects.(...) - by Sara Reardon, Nature, 18 March 2014
ScienceAlert Immune enhancing pathway found ScienceAlert Melbourne researchers have found that even our immune system is subject to performance enhancement, giving immune cells the boost they need to ensure the best team is selected to fight...
A hypothesis and the experiments to test it propose that very long-term memories, such as fear conditioning, are stored as the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net (PNN), a specialized ECM that envelops mature neurons and restricts synapse formation. The 3D intertwining of PNN and synapses would be imaged by serial-section EM. Lifetimes of PNN vs. intrasynaptic components would be compared with pulse-chase 15N labeling in mice and 14C content in human cadaver brains. Genetically encoded indicators and antineoepitope antibodies should improve spatial and temporal resolution of the in vivo activity of proteases that locally erode PNN. Further techniques suggested include genetic KOs, better pharmacological inhibitors, and a genetically encoded snapshot reporter, which will capture the pattern of activity throughout a large ensemble of neurons at a time precisely defined by the triggering illumination, drive expression of effector genes to mark those cells, and allow selective excitation, inhibition, or ablation to test their functional importance. The snapshot reporter should enable more precise inhibition or potentiation of PNN erosion to compare with behavioral consequences. Finally, biosynthesis of PNN components and proteases would be imaged. (...) - By Roger Y. Tsien, PNAS July 23, 2013 vol. 110 no. 3012456-12461
Granulocytes express adrenergic receptors and the number and proportion of granulocytes increase by a stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, there are several physiological variations of leukocytes, including neonatal granulocytosis, and a circadian rhythm of granulocytes and lymphocytes (i.e., granulocytosis at daytime and lymphocytosis at night). Severe granulocytosis induced by stress is also associated with the onset of tissue-destructive and autoimmune diseases. We reveal herein that the onset of many common diseases in humans is intimately related to their lifestyle, stress, the subsequent sympathetic nerve activation and granulocytosis.
Afferent vagal pathways transmit information to the brain related to peripheral inflammation so as to participate in the activation of adaptive reactions, including fever and sickness behavior. On the other side, efferent vagal pathways inhibit the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peripheral immune cells.
The pioneering work of the Nelson Vaz group published the first evidence of behavioral changes as a consequence of allergic reactions, showing that ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic mice avoided drinking an otherwise preferred artificially sweetened solution containing OVA. This aversion is specific, since peanut- or cashew nut-sensitized mice, when offered with a mixture of the grains in natura avoided only the grains containing the allergen they were sensitized to.
LinkedIn has announced it is launching a new Linkedin Contacts that aims to create a “personal assistant” for users.
You might be thinking you already have a Contacts section in your LinkedIn account – and you’d be right. However, this goes well beyond what LinkedIn offers today under the “Contacts” tab. The new LinkedIn Contacts will reside within LinkedIn and also as a standalone app for iPhone.
What’s new about it? With the new LinkedIn Contacts you will be able to see information not only about your LinkedIn connections, but also everybody in your address book, calendars and emails. You can have all your professional contacts in one place, instead of scattered around among LinkedIn, email, and other places.
On the official LinkedIn blog, Engineer and Product Specialist Sachin Rekhi writes:
“LinkedIn Contacts brings together all your address books, emails, and calendars, and keeps them up to date in one place. From these sources, we’ll automatically pull in the details of your past conversations and meetings, and bring these details directly onto your contact’s profile.”
(...) - By Joshua Sophy, Small Business Trends, April 29, 2013