Behavioural economics offers a fascinating possibility for tackling the problem of insurance fraud. Most insurance fraud isn’t carried out by weathered criminals, it’s conducted by ordinary people who exaggerate on their claim forms. Although it might be viewed as a small slice of the total claim amount, this adds up to a major problem for insurers and customers alike, for each year the cost translates into seemingly ever-increasing premiums.
There is a growing evidence-base for the power of context in influencing honesty, so we wanted to explore how these psychological principles could be applied to enhance the effectiveness of customer communications.
We all view the world through different lenses. This has to do with our upbringing, our collective experiences, and our subconscious behavioral biases.
Until we take a deep look into why we see the world the way we do, we'll never have the capacity for real change.
Inherent biases cause us to make snap judgments based on bad information, to be unfair and to waste time. This is clearly problematic for investors, managers and people in general.
We've collected a long list of cognitive biases from the Singularity Institute, Tim Richard's Psy-Fi Blog and more, to bring these biases to light so we can disrupt our thinking and come to terms with reality.
When Toos Reid was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia a year ago, she says she was forced to readjust to her life.
Each week brought visits to Toronto’s Princess Margaret Hospital for check-ups, blood transfusions and heavy doses of medication. During one visit, Reid says she was playing around with a instrumental keyboard and she was asked if she would like to meet the music therapist.
After her first session, Reid says she noticed a difference.
Ed ecco così che per il mezzo di una semplice impressione personale si ritorna al cuore della tematica simoniana della razionalità limitata: prendere decisioni ottime costa a volte molto di più che prendere decisioni solo ...
Risk management is recognised as an essential tool to tackle the inevitable uncertainty associated with business and projects at all levels. But it frequently fails to meet expectations, with projects continuing to run late, over budget or under performing, and business not gaining the expected benefits. The evident disconnect which often occurs between strategic vision and tactical project delivery typically arises from poorly defined project objectives and inadequate attention to the proactive management of risks that could affect those objectives. One of the main failings in the traditional approach to risk management arises from a narrow focus on the downside, restricted to the technical or operational field, addressing tactical threats to processes, performance or people. This shortcoming can be overcome by widening the scope of risk management to encompass both strategic risks and upside opportunities, creating an integrated approach which can bridge the gap between strategy and tactics. Integrated risk management addresses risks across a variety of levels in the organisation, including strategy and tactics, and covering both opportunity and threat. Effective implementation of integrated risk management can produce a number of benefits to the organisation which are not available from the typical limited-scope risk process. This paper explores how to expand risk management to deliver strategic advantage while retaining its use as a tactical tool. http://test5.lathyrus.net/pdf-files/adv13.pdf
El Neuromarketing es una nueva disciplina que estudia la aplicación de la neurociencia al mundo del marketing con el objeto de ofrecer una interpretación de la conducta de los consumidores y ofrecer un producto más adaptado a sus necesidades. El neuromarketing se está convirtiendo en una potente herramienta de investigación de mercados cada vez más presente en el mercado actual y con un futuro prometedor.
El Curso Online de Neuromarketing ofrece una visión global de esta disciplina centrándose en todas sus aplicaciones y potencialidades. El curso estudia desde un punto de vista científico el papel de los últimos avances de la neurociencia en el mundo del marketing y permite al alumno lograr una interpretación más rigurosa de la conducta de los consumidores.
Le recenti scoperte in neuroscienze e psicologia morale hanno dimostrato che il processo di presa di decisione morale è fortemente determinato da processi inconsci, automatici ed emotivi, dalle cosiddette intuizioni. Il ruolo del ragionamento cosciente sembrerebbe, per tanto, fortemente ridimensionato.
Dopo la critica di J. Haidt al modello razionalista in psicologia morale bisogna ammettere che il ruolo del ragionamento cosciente nel processo di presa di decisione morale è stato, da parte della psicologia, scarsamente chiarito.
Abstract Darkness can conceal identity and encourage moral transgressions; it may also induce a psychological feeling of illusory anonymity that disinhibits dishonest and self-interested behavior regardless of actual anonymity. Three experiments provided empirical evidence for this prediction. In Experiment 1, participants in a slightly dim room cheated more and thus earned more underserved money than those in a well-lit room. In experiment 2, participants wearing sunglasses behaved more selfishly than those wearing clear glasses. Finally, in Experiment 3, an illusory sense of anonymity mediated the relationship between darkness and self-interested behaviors. Across all three experiments, darkness had no bearing on actual anonymity, yet it still increased morally questionable behaviors. We suggest that the experience of darkness, even one as subtle as wearing a pair of sunglasses, may induce a sense of anonymity that is disproportionate from actual anonymity in a given situation.
Music is usedto regulatemoodand arousal in everyday life and to promote physical and psychological health and well-being in clinical settings. However, scientiﬁc inquiry into the neurochemical effects of music is still in its infancy. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that music improves health and well-being through the engagement of neurochemical systems for (i) reward, motivation, and pleasure; (ii) stress and arousal; (iii) immunity; and (iv) social afﬁliation. We discuss the limitations of these studies and outline novel approaches for integration of conceptual and technological advances from the ﬁelds of music cognition and social neuroscience into studies of the neurochemistry of music.
by Christoph Bühren2 and Thorben C. Kundt3 Abstract With the help of a real effort experiment, we analyze if tax evasion depends on the amount of effort invested to generate income. In three treatments, subjects were either endowed with income or had to work moderately or hard to earn it. In line with prospect theory, subjects evaded more taxes when they worked hard for their income. We find little evidence for the prediction that tax evasion in the endowed treatment is higher than in the moderate work treatment.
Abbiamo fin qui visto come la razionalità dell'uomo risulta essere una razionalità limitata, e abbiamo altresì potuto osservare come questa limitazione sia spesso alla base di quelli che possiamo chiamare “tunnel della mente” ...
La teoria neoclassica vedeva gli agenti economici come dei massimizatori perfettamente razionali: dati dei vincoli e un ordinamento di preferenze sono in grado di calcolare e scegliere sempre l’alternativa migliore. Ma la realtà è ben diversa. Ciascun agente opera in un contesto di razionalità limitata, in cui sono limitate le capacità di calcolo, lamemoria, la conoscenza informativa. Le decisioni sono fortemente dipendenti dal contesto nel quale l’agente si trova ad operare. I bias cognitivi rappresentano errori sistematici, causati da giudizi precedentemente formatisi, ma non necessariamente connessi da legami logici.
Legge dei piccoli numeri: la valutazione viene fatta sulla base di esperienze dirette.Perseveranza delle credenze e bias confirmatorio: tendenza a favorire le informazioni che confermano le nostre convinzioni.Ancoraggio e aggiustamento: si tratta della fidelizzazione ad un marchio, a un’immagine, che condiziona giudizi e scelte.Overconfidence: è la tendenza di essere più fiducioso nei giudizi di altri, di quanto sia oggettivamente giustificato.
A psychological bias that illuminates how we negotiate, predict our emotions, agree a price and much more...
To illustrate the anchoring effect, let's say I ask you how old Mahatma Gandhi was when he died.
For half of you I'll preface the question by saying: "Did he die before or after the age of 9?" For the other half I'll say: "Did he die before or after the age of 140?"
Obviously these are not very helpful statements. Anyone who has any clue who Gandhi was will know that he was definitely older than 9; while the oldest person who ever lived was 122. So why bother making these apparently stupid statements?
Because, according to the results of a study conducted by Strack and Mussweiler (1999), these initial statements, despite being unhelpful, affect the estimates people make.
The generally perceived increase in political polarization in the US in recent years, prompted a team of psychological scientists (Fernbach et al) at the Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado, Boulder, to explore some of the possible factors contributing to this increase in extreme/polarizing politics.
“We wanted to know how it’s possible that people can maintain such strong positions on issues that are so complex — such as macroeconomics, health care, foreign relations — and yet seem to be so ill-informed about those issues,” said Philip Fernbach, lead researcher on the study.
An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.
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