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Neural systems for speech and song in autism

Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched control children using passive auditory stimulation during functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging. Activation in left inferior frontal gyrus was reduced in autistic children relative to controls during speech stimulation, but was greater than controls during song stimulation. Functional connectivity for song relative to speech was also increased between left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus in autism, and large-scale connectivity showed increased frontal–posterior connections. Although fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate fasciculus was decreased in autistic children relative to controls, structural terminations of the arcuate fasciculus in inferior frontal gyrus were indistinguishable between autistic and control groups. Fractional anisotropy correlated with activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for both speech and song conditions. Together, these findings indicate that in autism, functional systems that process speech and song were more effectively engaged for song than for speech and projections of structural pathways associated with these functions were not distinguishable from controls.

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Principles of structural coupling (cf. Maturana and Varela, 1987)

Principles of structural coupling (cf. Maturana and Varela, 1987) | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Principles of structural coupling (cf. Maturana and Varela, 1987): Due to structure determined and structure determining interaction of an unity with its environment or another unity each interacting system is a source (and a target) of pertubations with respect to the other.

 

source (http://www.wischmann.ws/research.html)


Via Gianluca Biotto
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How Music Helps to Heal the Injured Brain - Dana Foundation

How Music Helps to Heal the Injured Brain - Dana Foundation | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
The use of music in therapy for the brain has evolved rapidly as brain-imaging techniques have revealed the brain's plasticity--its ability to change--and have...
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'Explorers,' who embrace the uncertainty of choices, use specific part of cortex

'Explorers,' who embrace the uncertainty of choices, use specific part of cortex | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Life shrouds most choices in mystery. Some people inch toward a comfortable enough spot and stick close to that rewarding status quo. Out to dinner, they order the usual. Others consider their options systematically or randomly.

Via BrainHealth, Sandeep Gautam
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Decision-Making: A Neuroeconomic Perspective - Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Decision-Making: A Neuroeconomic Perspective - Munich Personal RePEc Archive | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

This article introduces and discusses from a philosophical point of view the nascent field of neuroeconomics, which is the study of neural mechanisms involved in decision-making and their economic significance. Following a survey of the ways in which decision-making is usually construed in philosophy, economics and psychology, I review many important findings in neuroeconomics to show that they suggest a revised picture of decision-making and ourselves as choosing agents. Finally, I outline a neuroeconomic account of irrationality.

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Comments on Neuroeconomics - Ariel Rubinstein

Neuroeconomics is examined critically using data on the response times of
subjects who were asked to express their preferences in the context of the Allais
Paradox. Different patterns of choice are found among the fast and slow responders.
This suggests that we try to identify types of economic agents by the time they take to
make their choices. Nevertheless, it is argued that it is far from clear if and how
Neuroeconomics will change Economics.

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Information Search in Heuristic Decision Making - MANDEEP K. DHAMI and CLARE HARRIES

Simple heuristics of the type introduced by Gigerenzer, Todd, and The ABC Research Group (1999) embody principles for information search, stop and decision making. These heuristics suggest that such processes are simple. In an analysis of general practitioners’ (GPs) information search and decision-making behaviour when prescribing a lipid lowering drug, we examined whether information search was simple, and whether a heuristic that predicts a simple decision-making process
was also accurate at describing information search. We found that GPs’ information search behaviour was simple in that it demonstrated characteristics of the matching heuristic (e.g. stopping rule). In addition, although the matching heuristic which correctly predicted on average 75% of GPs’ decisions used significantly fewer cues on average than the GPs did in the information search task, it was reasonably accurate in describing order of information search. These findings have implications for the validity of simple heuristics describing both information search and decision making

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From Recognition to Decisions: Extending and Testing Recognition-Based Models for Multi-Alternative Inference

The recognition heuristic is a noncompensatory strategy for inferring which of two alternatives, one recognized and the other not, scores higher on a criterion. According to it, such inferences are based solely on recognition. We generalize this heuristic to tasks with multiple alternatives, proposing a model of how people identify
the consideration sets from which they make their final decisions. In doing so, we address concerns about theheuristic’s adequacy as a model of behavior: Past experiments have led several authors to conclude that there isno evidence for a noncompensatory use of recognition but clear evidence that recognition is integrated with other information. Surprisingly, however, in no study was this competing hypothesis—the compensatory integration of recognition—formally specified as a computational model. In four studies, we specify five competing models, conducting eight model comparisons. In these model comparisons, the recognition heuristic emerges as the best predictor of people’s inferences.

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The Greek Crisis: Economics, IMF, rationality and the new George Soros institute | Encefalus

The Greek Crisis: Economics, IMF, rationality and the new George Soros institute | Encefalus | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
This article discusses the greek economic crisis, the global financial system and what this has to do with human psychology and the problems that economics face as a science.
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Gallup.Com - The Behavioral Economy by Dennis Jacobe

THE BEHAVIORAL ECONOMY BY DENNIS JACOBE

Dennis Jacobe is Gallup’s Chief Economist. In The Behavioral Economy, he gives you unrivaled insights into the state of mind of U.S. consumers, workers, and job seekers, and the health of the U.S. economy, based on behavioral economic metrics Gallup tracks and analyzes every day.

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Rational Intuition: Strategic thinking & gut instinct for successful leadership

"Academic magician" Professor Todd Landman reveals how successful people make their good decisions. Listen to the audio from the full event: http://www.thers...
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”Structure and function”

I discuss the role of quantum dynamics in brain and living matter
physics. The paper is presented in the form of a letter to Patricia S.
Churchland

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Economics Behaving Badly

Economics Behaving Badly | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The limits of what psychology can tell us about choices. IT seems that every week a new book or major newspaper article appears showing that irrational decision-making helped cause the housing bubble or the rise in health care costs.

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How Arts Training Improves Attention and Cognition - Dana Foundation

How Arts Training Improves Attention and Cognition - Dana Foundation | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Sustained training in music, dance or other arts strengthens the brain’s attention system, which in turn may improve cognition more generally.
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Can we ever trust instinct?

Can we ever trust instinct? | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

DANIEL KAHNEMAN is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs." .....Well, clearly there is a state when we lose our normal grasp on reality, which is mostly defined by what other people do. Under some conditions, people and institutions come to be guided almost exclusively by the worst-case scenario. This can happen at the level of institutions, when banks become afraid of lending to other banks. Understanding these processes is very urgent. We have vague stories but we don’t have good research of the kind we have on individual risk taking.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb said his next book might be called: How to Live in a World we do not Understand. I think that is perfect."

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Paul Zak: Trust, morality -- and oxytocin | Video on TED.com

TED Talks What drives our desire to behave morally? Neuroeconomist Paul Zak shows why he believes oxytocin (he calls it "the moral molecule") is responsible for trust, empathy and other feelings that help build a stable society.
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The Neuroeconomics of Trust - By Paul J. Zak

The traditional view in economics is that individuals respond to incentives, but
absent strong incentives to the contrary selfishness prevails. Moreover, this “greed is good” approach is deemed “rational” behavior; without extreme self-interest, the standard models predict that money will be left on the table during a transaction and therefore an equilibrium cannot have been reached. For example, standard principal-agent models predict that absent monitoring, employees will shirk to the extent possible since working is presumed to produce a negative utility flow. Nevertheless, in countless firms on every day of the week, employees labor away without overt monitoring; for example, those who telecommute. This is not to say that some shirking does not occur, but that human beings behave a bit differently than in models of “rational economic agents” for reasons that are not well-understood.

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Rational choice, neuroeconomy and mixed emotions

Pierre Livet - psychology has shown differences between predictions of theory of decision and human choices. Emotions like regret can partly explain these differences. Neuroimagery used in combination with behavioural economics (neuroeconomics) has been used in order to try to disentangle the different emotional and rational factors (regret, rejoicing, reward, costs, uncertainty, trade-off between positive and negative aspects of different options). Emotions then appear as much more complex and mixed affective states than usually assumed. Not only might we feel a positive affect in punishing unfair partners, but mixed emotions can, for example, combine transmutation of previous anxiety into relief and elation by comparison with another less exciting option (elating relief ). At the level of complexity of these mixed emotions—which we formally represent by comparisons between ‘unexpected utilities’ and expected ones—the main biases that Kahnemann and Tversky have shown can be explained. In spite of the complexity of these mixed emotions, some of these hypotheses might be partially tested by brain imagery.

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Perspectives on Threats to Democracy

We hope that this collection of articles will inform readers about some of
the key psychological issues underlying threats to democracy and that this special
issue will spur further research that examines the psychological bases of threat in
the context of politics, law, and beyond.
DAVID R. MANDEL is Defence Scientist in the Judgment and Decision Making
Group of the Command Effectiveness and Behaviour Section at Defence Research
and Development Canada in Toronto. He is also Adjunct Associate Professor of
Psychology at the University of Toronto. His current research examines judgment
and decision making, thinking and reasoning, military and political psychology,
and public policy. He is co-editor of The Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking
(Routledge, 2005) and is a member of the editorial board of Analyses of Social
Issues and Public Policy.
MANDEEP K. DHAMI, PhD, is a Lecturer in Criminology at the Institute of
Criminology, University of Cambridge. Her research is in the areas of legal decision
making, psychology of imprisonment, and restorative justice. She has worked as
a psychologist in prison.

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A Introduction to Behavioral Economics: The Complicating But Sometimes Critical Considerations by Hugh Schwartz :: SSRN

A Introduction to Behavioral Economics: The Complicating But Sometimes Critical Considerations by Hugh Schwartz :: SSRN | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
TThis paper attempts to provide a substantive introduction to behavioral economics for a general audience, and for introductory and intermediate level students of economics and business administration. 1. Introduction; 2. The Background; 3. Bounded Rationality; 4. Prospect Theory and other major contributions from psychology; 5. Preferences; 6. Anomalies; 7. Heuristics, Context and Biases; 8. Intertemporal Decision Making; 9. Empirical Techniques; 10. Visceral Factors, Emotion, Affect and Social Psychology; 11. Neuroeconomics; 12. Relative Considerations, Social Preferences, Justice and Happiness; 13. Opportunity Costs; and 14.Applications. The latter touches on Saving, Behavioral finance, Marketing and organizational behavior, Labor economics, Cost-benefit analysis,Industrial Organization, Law and economics, Tax incentive alternatives, Monetary policy, Macroeconomic analysis generally, and Development economics. A select bibliography is offered, divided into introductory, intermediate level and more advanced level offerings.
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Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics

Who knows what I want to do? Who knows what anyone wants to do? How can you
be sure about something like that? Isn’t it all a question of brain chemistry, signals
going back and forth, electrical energy in the cortex? How do you know whether
something is really what you want to do or just some kind of nerve impulse in the
brain. Some minor little activity takes place somewhere in this unimportant place in
one of the brain hemispheres and suddenly I want to go to Montana or I don’t want
to go to Montana

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Decision Making and the Brain

Daniel Goleman talks about brain activity and good decision-making. The cognitive subconscious, otherwise known as the "felt sense" or gut feeling, is activated when strategizing decisions. Learn more about the brain science of decision making in Daniel Goleman's latest book The Brain and Emotional Intelligence:
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Theoretical frameworks for neuroeconomics of intertemporal choice

Taiki Takahashi - Intertemporal choice has drawn attention in behavioral economics, econophysics, and neuroeconomics. Recent studies in mainstream economics have mainly focused on inconsistency in intertemporal choice (dynamic inconsistency); while impulsivity/impatience in intertemporal choice has been extensively studied in behavioral economics of addiction. However, recent advances in neuroeconomic and econophysical studies on intertemporal choice have made it possible to study both impulsivity and inconsistency in intertemporal choice within a unified framework. In this paper I propose the new frameworks for investigations into neuroeconomics of intertemporal choice. The importance of studying neurochemical and neuroendocrinological modulations of intertemporal choice and time-perception (e.g. serotonin, dopamine, cortisol, testosterone, and epinephrine) is emphasized.

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