Bounded Rationality and Beyond
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Das automatische Gehirn | Mentale Intuition

Das automatische Gehirn | Mentale Intuition | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Über 90 Prozent von allem, was wir täglich machen, erledigt unser Gehirn quasi ohne uns. Unbewusst, oft ohne dass wir es merken.

Via Thomas Menk
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Bounded Rationality and Beyond
News on the effects of bounded rationality in economics and business, relationships and politics
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The Behavioral Insights Team 5 Years On: A Conversation with Owain Service - The Psych Report

The Behavioral Insights Team 5 Years On: A Conversation with Owain Service - The Psych Report | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

It’s hard to overestimate the changes to policy creation and implementation the Behavioral Insight Team's work has catalyzed.

“Nudge, nudge, wink wink” read one headline when the UK’s Behavioral Insights Team or ‘Nudge Unit’ announced the results of their first year’s work in 2011. The Monty Python reference, far from the only time it was used, revealed that many viewed the newly established team tasked with bringing behavioral science into public policy as something far less than a serious approach to government. Today, however, nearly 200 randomized control trials later and with their findings permeating virtually all areas of public policy—including job assistance, organ donation, and tax collection—the creation of the BIT and the wedding of behavioral science and public policy might seem like forgone conclusions. But hindsight is twenty-twenty, and it’s hard to overestimate the changes to policy creation and implementation the BIT’s work has catalyzed. No better evidenced than by the fact that since its launch in 2010, the United States, Canada, Australia and many others have established their own behavioral science units using the BIT as a model. We recently spoke with BIT Managing Director Owain Service, who’s been with the team since its start, to better understand the BIT’s path-breaking course over the past five years and find out where they’re headed next.

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I più intolleranti vincono sempre: la dittatura della minoranza

La regola della minoranza ci mostrerà come tutto ciò che occorre sia un numero esiguo di persone virtuose e intolleranti con degli interessi in gioco, sotto forma di coraggio, perché la società funzioni adeguatamente.
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Emergence, Computation and the Freedom Degree Loss Information Principle in Complex Systems

Abstract We consider processes of emergence within the conceptual framework of the Information Loss principle and the concepts of (1) systems conserving information; (2) systems compressing information; and (3) systems amplifying information. We deal with the supposed incompatibility between emergence and computability tout-court. We distinguish between computational emergence, when computation acquires properties, and emergent computation, when computation emerges as a property. The focus is on emergence processes occurring within computational processes. Violations of Turing-computability such as non-explicitness and incompleteness are intended to represent partially the properties of phenomenological emergence, such as logical openness, given by the observer’s cognitive role; structural dynamics where change regards rules rather than only values; and multi-modelling where multiple non-equivalent models are required to model such structural dynamics. In this way, we validate, from an epistemological viewpoint, models and simulations of phenomenological emergence where the sequence of events constitutes the natural, analogical non-Turing computation which a cognitive complex system can reproduce through learning. Reproducibility through learning is different from Turing-like computational iteration. This paper aims to open a new, non-reductionist understanding of the conceptual relationship between emergence and computability.

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The moral roots of liberals and conservatives

The moral roots of liberals and conservatives | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Psychologist Jonathan Haidt studies the five moral values that form the basis of our political choices, whether we're left, right or center. In this eye-opening talk, he pinpoints the moral values that liberals and conservatives tend to honor most.
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Psicologia politica: le basi cognitive delle scelte di voto

Psicologia politica: le basi cognitive delle scelte di voto | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
La psicologia politica studia le basi cognitive del comportamento di voto basandosi sul costrutto dell’atteggiamento come organizzatore della conoscenza.
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Cervelli politici

Cervelli politici | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Da qualche anno le neuroscienze hanno cominciato a osservare la politica, o meglio hanno continuato a osservare cervelli considerandone caratteristiche e attività, e connettendole con gli orientamenti politici dei proprietari dei cervelli medesimi. Gli studi sono agli inizi e non è ancora ben chiaro se le strutture cerebrali che mediano gli orientamenti politici ne siano la causa o l’effetto. È anche possibile che questo sia uno dei tanti casi di coevoluzione (il fenomeno A alimenta il fenomeno B, che a sua volta accresce il fenomeno A, e così via). Comunque, vi invito sia a premettere un ideale “sembra che…” alle affermazioni che leggete in seguito, anche se sono tutte state pubblicate su riviste di ottima reputazione, sia a trarre qualche conclusione provvisoria sì, ma suggestiva.

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Dimenticare le cose è sinonimo di intelligenza: i risultati della ricerca | Scienze Notizie

Dimenticare le cose è sinonimo di intelligenza: i risultati della ricerca | Scienze Notizie | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Dimenticare è il frutto di un processo del tutto normale attraverso il quale il cervello riesce ad apprendere. Coloro che sono più propensi a cancellare dalla propria mente determinati elementi, secondo la ricerca, sono anche più propensi alla flessibilità. Secondo i ricercatori il cervello di questi individui non si “fissa”, in maniera rigida, a quello che si è già appreso, ma si adatta di volta in volta, alle nuove cose imparate, agendo di conseguenza. In sostanza, secondo Edwin Robertson, l’autore dello studio, dimenticare è il primo passo per imparare.
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Winter School on Bounded Rationality in India, January 9-15, 2017 - Decision Science News

Winter School on Bounded Rationality in India, January 9-15, 2017 - Decision Science News | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The T A Pai Management Institute (TAPMI) in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Human Development (MPIB) is excited to announce the Winter School on Bounded Rationality at TAPMI, Manipal (Karnataka), India to be held from January 09–15, 2017. The winter school aims to foster understanding the process and quality of human decisions and to apply this knowledge to the real world, enabling people to make better decisions in a complex world. To this end, it offers a unique forum for decision-making scholars and researchers from various disciplines to share their approaches, discuss their research and applications, and inspire each other. KEYNOTE ADDRESS Gerd Gigerenzer Director of the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition and the Harding Center for Risk Literacy, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany. TOPICS The winter school shall focus on diverse set of topics: Bounded Rationality, Ecological Rationality, Social Rationality Behavioral Economics and Finance Heuristics Fast and Frugal Trees Risk and Risk Literacy Medical Decision Making Seminars, talks, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and social events will take place, allowing participants to learn and develop new ideas in broad areas of Judgment and Decision Making, facilitated by frequent interactions with the teaching faculty members. APPLICATION Deadline for Application is September 25 2016. Participation will be free, accommodation will be provided, and travel expenses will be partly reimbursed. Winter School web link (includes contact details and application procedure): For further questions email us at winterschool@tapmi.edu.in We look forward to seeing you at Manipal!

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Gene–culture interaction and the evolution of the human sense of fairness

Gene–culture interaction and the evolution of the human sense of fairness | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

How Darwinian evolution would produce creatures with the proclivity of Darwinian generosity, most of them voluntarily giving up the immediate benefit for themselves or their genes, remains a puzzle. This study targets a problem, the origin of human sense of fairness, and uses fairness-related genes and the social manipulation of Darwinian generosity as the key variables underlying the human sense of fairness, inequity aversion, as well as their relationships within cooperation, and the anticipation foresight of the way relationships are affected by resource division, given the assumption of randomly matched partners. Here we suggest a model in which phenotype will gradually converge towards the perfect sense of fairness along with the prospect of cooperation. Later, the sense of fairness will decrease but it is never extinct. Where social manipulation of Darwinian generosity overshadows genetics, the sense of fairness could be acute to the degree of social manipulation. Above all, there still exists a threshold in the degree of social manipulation, beyond which altruism dominates selfishness in human cooperation. Finally, we propose three new directions toward more realistic scenarios stimulated by recent development of the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory.

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Red brain, blue brain: Republicans and Democrats process risk differently, research finds

Red brain, blue brain: Republicans and Democrats process risk differently, research finds | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
A team of political scientists and neuroscientists has shown that liberals and conservatives use different parts of the brain when they make risky decisions, and these regions can be used to predict which political party a person prefers. The new study suggests that while genetics or parental influence may play a significant role, being a Republican or Democrat changes how the brain functions.
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Love of musical harmony is not nature but nurture

Love of musical harmony is not nature but nurture | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Our love of music and appreciation of musical harmony is learnt and not based on natural ability, a new study has found.
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Neurological notes found that help identify how we process music

Researchers have identified how brain rhythms are used to process music, a finding that also shows how our perception of notes and melodies can be used as a method to better understand the auditory system.
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Nudging Better Consumer Decisions: Provide Useful Information

Nudging Better Consumer Decisions: Provide Useful Information | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

In recent years, the new field of behavioral economics has used psychology to identify strategies (or “nudges”) that can help people make better decisions for themselves and for society. This talk will review research on a few simple strategies for providing clear information to consumers and employees. We argue that the best way to help decision makers is not to simply give them information (picture the long credit card disclosure statements you periodically receive), but to make it usable. Our main focus has been on energy use. Every time consumers buy a new automobile in the U.S., they see a window sticker on every vehicle describing the car’s fuel economy, expressed as miles per gallon (MPG). What information would you put on an energy label to help consumers make better decisions about energy use (and the environment)?

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Biforcare alla radice. Su alcuni disagi dell’accelerazione - di Sara Baranzoni e Paolo Vignola

Biforcare alla radice. Su alcuni disagi dell’accelerazione - di Sara Baranzoni e Paolo Vignola | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Pubblichiamo come terza lettura estiva di Effimera, un denso e importante saggio di Sara Baranzoni e Paolo Vignola tratto dal libro, a cura di Obsolete Capitalism, Moneta, rivoluzione, filosofia dell'avvenire. Nei tre anni che passano dalla pubblicazione nel 2013 del Manifesto per una politica accelerazionista ad oggi si è verificato un moltiplicarsi di saggi, conferenze e riferimenti filologici in favore o contro l’ipotesi tracciata da Srnicek e Williams – i quali hanno infine pubblicato un libro, Inventing the Future, in cui le loro tesi politiche vengono espresse più ampiamente. Dal punto di vista filosofico, comunque, già il Manifesto ha avuto il merito di attrarre magneticamente a sé, non per forza come alleati, un folto insieme di autori inclini a ragionare sulle sorti dell’umanità al tempo della catastrofe capitalistica contemporanea. Due libri collettivi usciti nel 2014, in particolare, raccolgono una serie di riflessioni inaggirabili per chi volesse comprendere la posta in gioco teoretica e politica del dibattito sull’accelerazionismo: #Accelerate. The accelerationist reader, a cura di Avanessian e McKay, e per il pubblico italiano Gli algoritmi del Capitale, curato da Matteo Pasquinelli. Entrambi i volumi riportano integralmente il Manifesto di Srnicek e Williams, come una sorta di pietra focaia che con la sua scintilla permette di illuminare le pagine di alcuni grandi filosofi della seconda metà del Novecento, come Deleuze e Lyotard, nonché di due immensi predecessori: Marx e Nietzsche.
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Bias cognitivi, dalla psicologia al marketing

Bias cognitivi, dalla psicologia al marketing | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
I bias cognitivi guidano l’uomo nel decision making e anche nelle scelte d’acquisto. Per questo motivo il marketing ne fa ampio uso.
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Behavioural economics challenges traditional view of “homo economicus”

Behavioural economics challenges traditional view of “homo economicus” | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Once, behavioural economics was a fledgling challenge to traditional theories. Not any longer; it has matured into a growing field that tries to understand how psychology affects economic decisions. The tension between traditional and behavioural economics is centred on a fundamental issue of human behaviour. Economists have long built their discipline around a view of humans as rational actors who know how to maximize their own happiness – the “homo economicus,” or economic man. Supporters of behavioural economics say that, to the contrary, humans are anything but rational. They argue that a keener understanding of human motivations and incentives can sharpen economic models, improve policy decisions in government and business, and have a positive influence on enterprises as discrete as lunch choices, retirement savings or how companies engage with their customers. Critics of behavioural economics retort that it has sharply delineated limitations – and that its efforts to influence behaviour, sometimes known as nudges, aren’t as powerful as the field’s cheerleaders hope. Some question the propriety of this approach, whether it is government or business that’s doing the nudging. They also doubt proponents’ contentions that behavioural economics can make managers and companies more effective and that it will eventually subsume traditional economics.

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Le caratteristiche del candidato che influenzano gli elettori

Le caratteristiche del candidato che influenzano gli elettori | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Secondo diversi studi spesso sono caratteristiche apparentemente superficiali e giudizi immediati ad influenzare le decisioni degli elettori. Se domandassimo a un gruppo di amici statunitensi, che vivono in Iowa o nel New Hampshire, chi vogliono votare alle prossime elezioni presidenziali, tra Jeb Bush e Bernie Sanders, le risposte potrebbero essere non dissimili da queste: ‘Il più alto, quindi Jeb Bush!‘, oppure: ‘Bernie Sanders: ha una voce più profonda e il suo nome mi ricorda come ho chiamato da sempre il mio migliore amico!’ Per quanto queste affermazioni possano apparirci ridicole, non sono in realtà così diverse dalle modalità superficiali che il nostro cervello utilizza, talvolta, per prendere decisioni.

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Dave Pizarro: La strana politica del disgusto

Dave Pizarro: La strana politica del disgusto | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Che cosa ha a che fare il disgusto con il voto politico? Attrezzato con indagini ed esperimenti, lo psicologo David Pizarro dimostra la correlazione tra la sensibilità a disgusto -- foto di feci, un odore sgradevole -- e il conservatorismo morale e politico. (Filmato a TEDxEast.)
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Reinhard Selten, Game Theorist Who Won Nobel Prize, Dies at 85

Reinhard Selten, Game Theorist Who Won Nobel Prize, Dies at 85 | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Reinhard Selten, the German economist and mathematician who won the 1994 Nobel Prize for his work on game theory, has died. He was 85. Selten died on Aug. 23 in the Polish city of Poznan, according to a statement Thursday by the University of Bonn, where he was until recently still active in research. Reinhard Selten Reinhard Selten Soruce: ullstein bild via Getty Images Germany’s only Nobel laureate in the field of economic sciences, Selten shared the prize with John F. Nash Jr. of Princeton University and John C. Harsanyi of the University of California, Berkeley, both of whom developed concepts to explain human behavior through game theory. Applied to fields as diverse as international relations, business-negotiation standoffs and biology, game theory attempts to predict human action based on the conflicting strategies of different parties. The academic study focuses largely on experimental methodology that requires participants to respond to various sets of circumstances in real-world situations, such as wars and political stalemates. “Predicting human actions is also a goal of game theory, but it is more the question of, what would rational players do in a game?” Selten said in a 2004 interview with journalist Marika Griehsel.

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Networks: An Economic Perspective

We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.
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Surprise! Cialdini Adds 7th Principle, Unity

Surprise! Cialdini Adds 7th Principle, Unity | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Robert Cialdini's six principles of influence have been memorized by marketers for 30 years. Now, he has added a seventh - Unity.Two years ago, I spoke to Dr. Robert Cialdini, the “godfather” of persuasion science and the creator of the celebrated Six Principles of Influence. I asked him if, thirty years after completing his seminal book, Influence, he’d add on another one or two. He declined, saying that while there were many influence techniques, the important ones mostly fit into his original six. (Check out our 2014 conversation for some great persuasion insights.) robert cialdiniNow, things have changed. Cialdini has written a new, major book, Pre-Suasion: A Revolutionary Way to Influence and Persuade. In it, he acknowledges that one more influence technique rises to the level of being a major principle. He writes,

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How Facebook Makes Us Dumber

How Facebook Makes Us Dumber | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Social media reinforce mistrust and paranoia. (If you believe these alleged "scientists.")

By Cass R. Sunstein Why does misinformation spread so quickly on the social media? Why doesn’t it get corrected? When the truth is so easy to find, why do people accept falsehoods? A new study focusing on Facebook users provides strong evidence that the explanation is confirmation bias: people’s tendency to seek out information that confirms their beliefs, and to ignore contrary information. Confirmation bias turns out to play a pivotal role in the creation of online echo chambers. This finding bears on a wide range of issues, including the current presidential campaign, the acceptance of conspiracy theories and competing positions in international disputes.

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Neurological notes found that help identify how we process music

Neurological notes found that help identify how we process music | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Researchers have identified how brain rhythms are used to process music, a finding that also shows how our perception of notes and melodies can be used as a method to better understand the auditory system.
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Study links emotional and neural responses to musical performance

Study links emotional and neural responses to musical performance | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
It is well known that music arouses emotions. But why do some musical performances move us, while others leave us flat? Why do musicians spend years perfecting the subtle nuances that bring us to tears? Scientists have now identified key aspects of musical performance that cause emotion-related brain activity, and they have shown for the first time how these performance nuances work in the brain, in real-time.
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Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.
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