New discoveries in neuroscience intersect with law making, criminal punishment, and the development of new rehabilitative strategies. A new understanding of the neurobiology of behavior is emerging. Societies can increasingly leverage this base of scientific information to design modern, evidence-based policy. Questions at the interface of law and neuroscience include: (a) Is it a legitimate defense to claim that a tumor or a brain injury mitigates a crime?; (b) How do the brains of minors differ from adult brains in their capacity for decision-making and impulse control?; (c) Can neuroscience inform sentencing guidelines by offering better prediction of recidivism?; (d) Can new brain imaging technologies be leveraged for new methods of rehabilitation?; (e) Who should have access to information about our brains?; and (f) How should juries assess culpability when most behaviors are driven by unconscious systems of the brain?