Bounded Rationality and Beyond
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SPECIAL ISSUE OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY ON BEHAVIORAL ...

SPECIAL ISSUE OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY ON BEHAVIORAL ... | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
This is a call for papers for a special issue on health psychology and behavioral economics which might be of interest to many JDM researchers.

Via Pat Brenner
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Bounded Rationality and Beyond
News on the effects of bounded rationality in economics and business, relationships and politics
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Data Disrupts Corruption (SSIR)

Data Disrupts Corruption (SSIR) | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Data Disrupts Corruption Document leaks, big data, and open government are reviving the fight against global graft. By boosting public access to information and leveraging data analytics efforts, democracies can better keep public officials and corporations in check.

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Sustainability is not enough; we need regenerative cultures – Age of Awareness

Sustainability is not enough; we need regenerative cultures – Age of Awareness | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

Sustainability alone is not an adequate goal. The word sustainability itself is inadequate, as it does noSustainability is not enough; we need regenerative cultures Sustainability alone is not an adequate goal. The word sustainability itself is inadequate, as it does not tell us what we are actually trying to sustain. In 2005, after spending two years working on my doctoral thesis on design for sustainability, I began to realize that what we are actually trying to sustain is the underlying pattern of health, resilience and adaptability that maintain this planet in a condition where life as a whole can flourish. Design for sustainability is, ultimately, design for human and planetary health (Wahl, 2006b). A regenerative human culture is healthy, resilient and adaptable; it cares for the planet and it cares for life in the awareness that this is the most effective way to create a thriving future for all of humanity. The concept of resilience is closely related to health, as it describes the ability to recover basic vital functions and bounce back from any kind of temporary breakdown or crisis. When we aim for sustainability from a systemic perspective, we are trying to sustain the pattern that connects and strengthens the whole system. Sustainability is first and foremost about systemic health and resilience at different scales, from local, to regional and global.t tell us what we are actually trying to sustain. In 2005, after spending two years working on…

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How Behavioral Economics Can (and Can’t) Boost Health

How Behavioral Economics Can (and Can’t) Boost Health | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

As the bestsellers started piling up, from 2008’s Predictably Irrational and Nudge to 2011’s Thinking Fast, Thinking Slow, the buzz around behavioral economics — the science and practice of nudging. Behavioral Economics+Health We had a lot to learn, so in collaboration with the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute and the Donaghue Foundation, we invested about $2.5 million dollars to support a group of health researchers to begin experimenting with behavioral economics. With our funding, they tested how this tool could be used to tackle some truly perplexing health and health care challenges: from helping people who want, but somehow haven’t managed, to make it to the gym or get a flu shot, to guiding people to pick a health plan that works best for them.

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Five pitfalls of behavioural economics - SmartCompany

Five pitfalls of behavioural economics - SmartCompany | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
I was recently interviewed for a piece on how businesses were using behavioural economics, and where they were going wrong. While there’s plenty of upside in applying behavioural science, there are five pitfalls that you should know about so you can enjoy the spoils and avoid the foils. 1. Thinking it only applies to customers …
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» Supportive text messaging to encourage student success | The Behavioural Insights Team

» Supportive text messaging to encourage student success | The Behavioural Insights Team | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Today, the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) has announced that they are funding three interventions to help improve outcomes for 16-18-year-old students who are resitting their GCSEs. We are excited that the social support intervention we’ve developed is one of them. Many of us might take for granted that someone in our lives cares about our learning and will regularly talk to us about it. If we didn’t have that someone, be it a parent, or someone else, our education might have panned out differently. We’ve all experienced what it feels like to struggle with something and not know who to turn to. Very often, if the problem isn’t that nobody cares, it’s that they don’t know how to help, and we don’t know how to ask. As part of our three-year programme of research under the Adult Skills and Knowledge (ASK) research centre, we’ve been testing ways to spark conversations between learners and a support person that they nominate. A supporter could be anyone – a parent, a brother or sister, friend, or a granny who cares about the student and their learning. Supporters are then sent a series of messages to encourage and support them to talk to students about their courses. For example, one text read:
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61 Books Nassim Taleb Recommends you Read in his Own Words – The Mission

61 Books Nassim Taleb Recommends you Read in his Own Words – The Mission | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Nassim Taleb, the polarizing author of best-selling books The Black Swan and Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder, offers 61 reading recommendations in his own words. 7. Modelling Extremal…
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pinITALY - Intervista Alberto Alemanno su democrazia partecipativa e nudging

Intervista ad Alberto Alemanno - Esperto di diritto, avvocato e Professore di EU Law & Risk Regulation presso l’HEC di Parigi. Alemanno spiega a pinITAL
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Addicts and elephants: two varieties of diminished persons

Addicts and elephants: two varieties of diminished persons | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
The paper expands on the self-governance model of personhood (SGP), an account based in cognitive science on how autonomous persons regulate aspects of their brains and behaviour. This model has arisen in the work of a number of authors over the past twenty years, but has recently been consolidated and memetically named by Ismarl (2016). According to the SPG, persons are the governors of human bodies and of their extended psychological emanations. The person does not manage, or try to manage, everything that goes on in the body, or most of the fine-grained details of every action that a body performs intentionally. The person instead regulates the body’s actions so as to maintain coherence among them and keep them aligned with, or at least not subversive of, meaningful narratives told by the person to herself and, in fragments and allusions, to others. The paper explores the boundary conditions of the SGP by considering two varieties of what emerge under the framework as cases of diminished personhood: gambling addicts in extreme states of dependency, and elephants under the conjecture that their sophisticated communication supports some representation their social norms as norms. The reflections along the boundary lead to emphasis on the dynamic nature of the SGP, and on the relatively ‘light’ load of inboard resources required for basic personhood, provided that adequate external cognitive scaffolding (as per Clark 1997) is available.
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Halo Neuroscience

Halo Neuroscience | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

[Attention Musicians!] Can neuroscience help you learn faster? Watch ICMA 2016 "Young Artist of the Year”, and prizewinner at the XV International Tchaikovsky Competition, cellist Pablo Ferrández and spanish pianist Mario Marzo document their experience with breakthrough neurotechnology used by the world's best athletes. To learn more about this technology click here - www.haloneuro.com/science Will Mario Marzo be able to learn a Bach prelude by heart in 1 HOUR? Watch to find out... Being a musician is the same as any sport, neurologically speaking. The key is learning how to properly control your muscles to achieve the proper action. For musicians, these actions are hitting the right notes, chords and rhythms. Halo Sport accelerates the rate that the brain acquires physical skill, technique, and motor sequences, and facilitates the transfer of rhythmic motor patterns involved in music into more efficient neural circuits. Through the use of Halo Sport, musicians can learn to be more precise and consistent in their movements, allowing them to learn musical pieces faster. To learn more about this technology click here - www.haloneuro.com/science

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Autistics Don't Do Heuristics

Autistics Don't Do Heuristics | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
The Autism Advantage. Autistic approaches to cognitive fallacies, heuristics, biases. How autistic people think, and what we can learn from them.
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Decision Making in condizioni di incertezza - approcci data driven

Si parla di decision making in condizioni di incertezza, quando i risultati dei processi decisionali sono incerti o ambigui. Lo scopo del corso è quello di descrivere i principali bias cognitivi che influiscono sui processi decisionali e di mostrare come un approccio decisionale data driven sia una valida soluzione per mitigare gli effetti di questi bias.
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» Applied: BIT’s first behavioural product | The Behavioural Insights Team

» Applied: BIT’s first behavioural product | The Behavioural Insights Team | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
When the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) was established back in 2010, we often concluded that the solution to a problem faced by government wasn’t always a new policy or intervention. It was a tool – like a new website, app, or even physical product – that individuals or organisations could use to help them solve real-world problems. So when we set BIT up as a social purpose company in 2014, still partly owned by the UK Government but with greater freedom to do things differently, one of the things that we were most excited about was the opportunity it offered us to start building new products. We are calling this new arm of BIT BI Ventures. The aim of BI Ventures is to use behavioural science to build scalable products that have social impact. The first of these new products is called Applied – a recruitment platform that helps organisations to remove behavioural biases from their hiring decisions. We built Applied because we realised that it was difficult for most HR functions, even in big organisations, to keep up with the latest behavioural research on how to hire the best people. Even if you do know the research, the latest studies show that it’s hard to apply these lessons in practice without implicit biases creeping in.
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Intelligenze Artificiali: la prossima frontiera della sicurezza online? - Hosting Talk

Intelligenze Artificiali: la prossima frontiera della sicurezza online? - Hosting Talk | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
I vendor di soluzioni di sicurezza puntano molto sulle intelligenze artificiali, presentate come lo strumento ideale per contrastare le minacce del Web
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The New Science of Designing for Humans (SSIR)

The New Science of Designing for Humans (SSIR) | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

oday the design of things that involve human interaction, such as programs, product delivery, and services, is more art than science. Here is how it typically works: We use our creativity to brainstorm a few big ideas, experts decide which one they like, and then investors bet on the winner, often with billions of dollars at stake. This way of design thinking should be replaced by a superior method that can enable us to innovate with more success and less risk. Specifically, we can use scientific insights to generate new ideas and then systematically test and iterate on them to arrive at one that works. Advances in two academic fields afford this opportunity. The first is behavioral science, which gives us empirical insights into how people interact with their environment and each other under different conditions. Behavioral science encompasses decades of research from various fields, including psychology, marketing, neuroscience, and, most recently, behavioral economics. For example, studies reveal that shorter deadlines lead to greater responsiveness than longer ones,1 that too much choice leads people to choose nothing,2 and many more observations, often counterintuitive, about how people react to specific elements of their context. The second academic field is impact evaluation. Economists have used randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other experimental methods to measure the impact of programs and policies. Such impact evaluations are becoming more and more common in the social sector and in government. These methods allow us to test whether an innovation actually achieves the outcomes that the designer sought.

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Why take a design-based approach? — Design & Emergence

Why take a design-based approach? — Design & Emergence | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

“The beauty of living things stems from the fact that they are embodied solutions of individual-existence-in-connection.” — Andreas Weber (2013: 38) One of the key insights of complexity theory is the profound shift in perspective that results from acknowledging the fundamentally unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of complex dynamic systems. Without going into the mathematical foundations in any detail, we could say that any system with more than three interacting variables that change in non-linear ways over repeating cycles (iterations) could be regarded as a complex dynamic system. Most of the world around us is governed by such dynamics! Whether you want to apply this theory to a business, an organization, a community, a city or an ecosystem, all of them are complex dynamic systems, and therefore unpredictable and uncontrollable beyond a very limited and tightly defined temporal and spatial scale. The concept of emergence,which has become popular in management and design theory, describes how complex systems have characteristic emergent properties that cannot be predicted and therefore are impossible to control. They are novel characteristics of the system that emerge out of interactions and relationships which are governed by non-linear, iterative processes that drive the behaviour of complex systems.

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Robert Cialdini - The Science of Influence - ValueWalk

Robert Cialdini - The Science of Influence - ValueWalk | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The author of the legendary bestseller Influence, social psychologist Robert Cialdini shines a light on effective persuasion and reveals that the secret doesn’t lie in the message itself, but in the key moment before that message is delivered. What separates effective communicators from truly successful persuaders? Using the same combination of rigorous scientific research and accessibility that made his Influence an iconic bestseller, Robert Cialdini explains how to capitalize on the essential window of time before you deliver an important message. This “privileged moment for change” prepares people to be receptive to a message before they experience it. Optimal persuasion is achieved only through optimal pre-suasion. In other words, to change “minds” a pre-suader must also change “states of mind.” His first solo work in over thirty years, Cialdini’s Pre-Suasion draws on his extensive experience as the most cited social psychologist of our time and explains the techniques a person should implement to become a master persuader. Altering a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, or experiences isn’t necessary, says Cialdini—all that’s required is for a communicator to redirect the audience’s focus of attention before a relevant action. …

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Gigerenzer’s simple rules

Gigerenzer’s simple rules | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

 Gerd Gigerenzer, a sixty nine year German psychologist who has been studying how humans make decisions for most of his career, doesn't think so. In the real world, rules of thumb not only work well, they also perform better than complex models, he says. We shouldn’t turn our noses up on heuristics, we should embrace them.Why simple rules of thumb often outperform complex models.

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Solving Complex Problems - Macquarie University | Coursera

Solving Complex Problems - Macquarie University | Coursera | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

SOLVING COMPLEX PROBLEMS will teach you revolutionary new problem-solving skills. Involving lectures from over 50 experts from all faculties at Macquarie University, we look at solving complex problems in a way that has never been done before. This specialization uses the framework of Big History which synthesizes knowledge across the sciences and the humanities, and provides a powerful foundation to think and research in new ways. Big History has been embraced as an important global framework by the World Economic Forum (WEF). Presentations at WEF by Professor David Christian, one of the creators of this specialization, have included ‘Interdisciplinary Approaches to Solving 21st Century Challenges’ (Davos 2012), ‘Big History for Big Picture Thinking’ (Davos 2014), and ‘Big History, Big Decisions’ (Tianjin 2014). In 2015, the WEF Annual Meeting in Davos had four sessions devoted to Big History including three interdisciplinary ‘Big History, Big Future’ panels on cooperation, innovation, and global growth and stability. These interdisciplinary discussion panels were the inspiration for this Solving Complex Problems Specialization.

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Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy

Behavioral economics is the integration of economic theory and other related disciplines including but not limited to psychology, neuro-science, finance, biology, sociology, anthropology, political science, and law. Behavioral economics is inherently interdisciplinary. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research is to better understand human behavior. Our unique focus is the implications of behavioral economics for public policy, and a framework for policy makers. Every aspect of behavioral economics and all aspects of public policy are within our purview. We welcome contributions to all fields of knowledge listed above, and beyond, provided they show the public policy implications of behavioral economics. We are open to a wide range of methodological approaches, provided they lead to scientifically grounded conclusions. Experiments, surveys, meta-analyses, case studies, simulation-based analyses, economic and social theory, randomized control trials, and literature reviews (to name but a few common approaches) are all welcome. Arguments may be based on a variety of theoretical frameworks, including those which do not assume fully rational behavior. Empirical results should be both theoretically grounded and both economically and statistically significant. However, the math and the tables and graphs showing statistical results should be placed in an appendix. We welcome replications of existing papers, and are particularly open to "non-results", which may be of great practical and scientific value yet are less likely to reach the audience of most academic journals.
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Behavioral Economics: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics | Library of Economics and Liberty

How Behavioral Economics Differs from Traditional Economics All of economics is meant to be about people’s behavior. So, what is behavioral economics, and how does it differ from the rest of economics? Economics traditionally conceptualizes a world populated by calculating, unemotional maximizers that have been dubbed Homo economicus. The standard economic framework ignores or rules out virtually all the behavior studied by cognitive and social psychologists. This “unbehavioral” economic agent was once defended on numerous grounds: some claimed that the model was “right”; most others simply argued that the standard model was easier to formalize and practically more relevant. Behavioral economics blossomed from the realization that neither point of view was correct.
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Safety of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation delivered via the
Halo Neurostimulation System in Healthy Human Subjects 

ABSTRACT: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a technique that is increasingly used to modulate cortical excitability and induce neural plasticity in the human brain. Two prominent types of tES are transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial variable frequency stimulation (tVFS). Over a period of two years, 1010 human subjects received tES directed to motor and/or non-motor cortical areas using the Halo Neurostimulation System, a novel neurostimulation device. This paper summarizes safety and describes the adverse event profile of tES, specifically tDCS and tVFS, observed in this series. Each of the 1010 subjects was assessed post-stimulation to identify adverse events. In addition to general assessment, subjects were specifically queried and results tabulated for any scalp burning (i.e., lesion), headache, scalp pain, and seizure. Mild sensation due to stimulation (e.g., tingling or itching) was not tabulated unless reported as scalp pain or causing withdrawal from the study. A total of 557 subjects received active stimulation, while 453 subjects received sham stimulation. The most commonly reported adverse event was headache (2.0% in active stimulation group and 3.8% in sham group). Scalp pain was also reported in 1.1% of subjects in the stimulation group and in 0.67% of the sham group. Withdrawal due to unpleasant sensation occurred in 0.54% of subjects receiving active stimulation. There were no reports of burns or seizure. Our results suggest that tDCS and tVFS can be safely applied to motor and non-motor cortical areas using the Halo Neurostimulation System in healthy humans.
https://halo-website-static-assets.s3.amazonaws.com/whitepapers/safety.pdf
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58 cognitive biases that screw up everything we do

58 cognitive biases that screw up everything we do | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

The Galatea effect, attentional bias, recency, and more.

We like to think we're rational human beings. In fact, we are prone to hundreds of proven biases that cause us to think and act irrationally, and even thinking we're rational despite evidence of irrationality in others is known as blind spot bias. The study of how often human beings do irrational things was enough for psychologist Daniel Kahneman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, and it opened the rapidly expanding field of behavioral economics. Similar insights are also reshaping everything from marketing to criminology.

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Book | Mente ed economia: Come psicologia e neuroscienze spiegano il comportamento economico

Solo di recente i processi di ragionamento e presa di decisione in ambito economico sono divenuti oggetto di analisi da parte della psicologia e delle neuroscienze secondo una prospettiva integrata. Grazie all'approccio neuroeconomico è stata così evidenziata l'esistenza di elementi di congiunzione inattesi tra comportamento economico, meccanismi cognitivi e funzioni cerebrali, nonché tra processi di scelta, emozioni e motivazione. Il presente volume illustra le attuali linee di riflessione e ricerca in questo settore: dai diversi studi emerge come gli individui, di fronte a scelte economiche, adottino atteggiamenti e strategie di ragionamento assai più complesse del semplice calcolo utilitaristico.

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Researchers helping intelligence analysts make smart decisions

Researchers helping intelligence analysts make smart decisions | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Researchers at George Mason University are developing a tool combining intelligent computer software and high-level crowdsourcing that will allow intelligence analysts to give sound advice to decision makers in high-pressur
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"psicosi terrorismo": i bias cognitivi nella lettura di intenzioni e comportamento altrui

"psicosi terrorismo": i bias cognitivi nella lettura di intenzioni e comportamento altrui | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

 La psicosi terrorismo e i pensieri automatici alla base dell’intolleranza razziale Si continua a discutere della vicenda accaduta in un cinema torinese la sera del primo gennaio quando durante la proiezione di un film, in presenza di una madre ed una figlia maghrebine intente a scambiarsi messaggi via whatsapp, il pubblico in allerta ha abbandonato la sala. Si saprà successivamente che si trattava di donne sordomute che, nel corso di una scena erotica, hanno deciso di inviare messaggi col fine di comunicare ed ironizzare su quanto osservato.Quella che è chiamata colloquialmente "psicosi terrorismo": i bias cognitivi quando l'altro non appartiene al nostro gruppo sociale.

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