The book classifies paternalism along 2 dimensions; soft versus hard and means versus ends. The distinction between soft and hard paternalism describes how costly a paternalistic intervention is for the individual. For example, while tobacco packaging warning messages are soft paternalism, a large fine if you are caught smoking in an illegal zone is a hard intervention. The distinction between means paternalism and ends paternalism refers to whether interventions should tell people what to do or prioritize helping them to achieve what they want themselves. An example is discouraging obesity by posting calorie labels (means) or banning large sized sugary drinks (ends). 'Nudges', of which there are many examples in the Nudge Database on this website, are (i) soft, in that they are relatively low-cost, and (ii) means-oriented, in that they do not override individuals' goals.