Today, the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) has announced that they are funding three interventions to help improve outcomes for 16-18-year-old students who are resitting their GCSEs. We are excited that the social support intervention we’ve developed is one of them. Many of us might take for granted that someone in our lives cares about our learning and will regularly talk to us about it. If we didn’t have that someone, be it a parent, or someone else, our education might have panned out differently. We’ve all experienced what it feels like to struggle with something and not know who to turn to. Very often, if the problem isn’t that nobody cares, it’s that they don’t know how to help, and we don’t know how to ask. As part of our three-year programme of research under the Adult Skills and Knowledge (ASK) research centre, we’ve been testing ways to spark conversations between learners and a support person that they nominate. A supporter could be anyone – a parent, a brother or sister, friend, or a granny who cares about the student and their learning. Supporters are then sent a series of messages to encourage and support them to talk to students about their courses. For example, one text read:
The paper expands on the self-governance model of personhood (SGP), an account based in cognitive science on how autonomous persons regulate aspects of their brains and behaviour. This model has arisen in the work of a number of authors over the past twenty years, but has recently been consolidated and memetically named by Ismarl (2016). According to the SPG, persons are the governors of human bodies and of their extended psychological emanations. The person does not manage, or try to manage, everything that goes on in the body, or most of the fine-grained details of every action that a body performs intentionally. The person instead regulates the body’s actions so as to maintain coherence among them and keep them aligned with, or at least not subversive of, meaningful narratives told by the person to herself and, in fragments and allusions, to others. The paper explores the boundary conditions of the SGP by considering two varieties of what emerge under the framework as cases of diminished personhood: gambling addicts in extreme states of dependency, and elephants under the conjecture that their sophisticated communication supports some representation their social norms as norms. The reflections along the boundary lead to emphasis on the dynamic nature of the SGP, and on the relatively ‘light’ load of inboard resources required for basic personhood, provided that adequate external cognitive scaffolding (as per Clark 1997) is available.
[Attention Musicians!] Can neuroscience help you learn faster? Watch ICMA 2016 "Young Artist of the Year”, and prizewinner at the XV International Tchaikovsky Competition, cellist Pablo Ferrández and spanish pianist Mario Marzo document their experience with breakthrough neurotechnology used by the world's best athletes. To learn more about this technology click here - www.haloneuro.com/science Will Mario Marzo be able to learn a Bach prelude by heart in 1 HOUR? Watch to find out... Being a musician is the same as any sport, neurologically speaking. The key is learning how to properly control your muscles to achieve the proper action. For musicians, these actions are hitting the right notes, chords and rhythms. Halo Sport accelerates the rate that the brain acquires physical skill, technique, and motor sequences, and facilitates the transfer of rhythmic motor patterns involved in music into more efficient neural circuits. Through the use of Halo Sport, musicians can learn to be more precise and consistent in their movements, allowing them to learn musical pieces faster. To learn more about this technology click here - www.haloneuro.com/science
Si parla di decision making in condizioni di incertezza, quando i risultati dei processi decisionali sono incerti o ambigui. Lo scopo del corso è quello di descrivere i principali bias cognitivi che influiscono sui processi decisionali e di mostrare come un approccio decisionale data driven sia una valida soluzione per mitigare gli effetti di questi bias.
When the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) was established back in 2010, we often concluded that the solution to a problem faced by government wasn’t always a new policy or intervention. It was a tool – like a new website, app, or even physical product – that individuals or organisations could use to help them solve real-world problems. So when we set BIT up as a social purpose company in 2014, still partly owned by the UK Government but with greater freedom to do things differently, one of the things that we were most excited about was the opportunity it offered us to start building new products. We are calling this new arm of BIT BI Ventures. The aim of BI Ventures is to use behavioural science to build scalable products that have social impact. The first of these new products is called Applied – a recruitment platform that helps organisations to remove behavioural biases from their hiring decisions. We built Applied because we realised that it was difficult for most HR functions, even in big organisations, to keep up with the latest behavioural research on how to hire the best people. Even if you do know the research, the latest studies show that it’s hard to apply these lessons in practice without implicit biases creeping in.
Compressible Dynamics Over the last 400 years or so Mathematical Physics has become the science that we rely on to explain the behavior of the universe. Mathematical physics is the ultimate science of the “deterministic/predictable” dynamics of “cause and effect”. In general, the Science of Physics likes to believe that all dynamics, all natural behavior, can be explained mathematically; and consequently physicists like to build “mathematical models” of (cause and effect in) the real world. Sometimes these models are unbelievably concise, and can be expressed as a neat linear differential equation, and when this happens we confidently call the model a “Deterministic”, “Law of Physics”. It is precisely because of these so-called “hard and fast scientific laws” that physicists are wont to describe their science as the hardest of “hard science”. This of course would seem to imply that many of the so-called “soft sciences” are in some way not quite as elevated, not quite as good. In truth however we could say that physics is an “easy science”, and the soft sciences are “difficult” because the “laws” of physics only really work in the absence of “noise”, and yet the soft sciences are condemned to deal with our everyday world which is full of noise -- because virtually everything in our everyday world is continually battered and buffeted by “constantly changing feedback” which can generate wild “nonlinear dynamics”.
Abstract Traditionally the object of economic theory and experimental psychology, economic choice recently became a lively research focus in systems neuroscience. Here I summarize the emerging results and I propose a unifying model of how economic choice might function at the neural level. Economic choice entails comparing options that vary on multiple dimensions. Hence, while choosing, individuals integrate different determinants into a subjective value; decisions are then made by comparing values. According to the good-based model, the values of different goods are computed independently of one another, which implies transitivity. Values are not learned as such, but rather computed at the time of choice. Most importantly, values are compared within the space of goods, independent of the sensori-motor contingencies of choice. Evidence from neurophysiology, imaging and lesion studies indicates that abstract representations of value exist in the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. The computation and comparison of values may thus take place within these regions.Traditionally the object of economic theory and experimental psychology, economic choice recently became a lively research focus in systems neuroscience. Here I summarize the emerging results and I propose a unifying model of how economic choice migh
Abstract This research aims at studying the role played by ideology in the access and functioning of the interdiscourse about ecology and the environment through a discursive analysis of the ways that the State’s power uses to inscribe itself in the citizens’ memory. We argue that there is a regular practice in the State’s verbal and non-verbal discourse in an attempt to eliminate undesirable meanings and install a hypothetical transparency towards impartiality and objectivity. Such “impartiality” and “objectivity” in these discourses do not guarantee equality in the organization of social differences of citizens who use public spaces. Sometimes, although in charge of disseminating the meaning that ecology is a good thing and that it will promote equality, the State’s power brings inequality to this signification process. We use the Discourse Analysis Theory as a method to study the complexity of interactions, and we acknowledge that a study which establishes a framework in the ecotourism and sustainability fields can be successful as interdisciplinary research when it uses different languages and methodologies to enable us to understand potential contributions and to integrate data, ideas, and perspectives when we seek answers for sustainable development.
Businesses and academics have long known that lotteries and prize draws can be a cheap and effective way of encouraging behaviour – witness the number of surveys that offer a prize for completion. However, despite this well-worn tradition of using prize-draws, governments have traditionally focused on more blunt subsidies or penalties, and have been less keen to adopt this method – though this appears to be changing. Some countries have used purchase receipts as de facto lottery tickets – by encouraging citizens to demand receipts when they complete a transaction, they force businesses to declare income and pay the correct amount of sales tax. Similarly, the Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) has found that using a lottery was an effective way to increase the number of voter registrations. And in Australia, we have undertaken a programme of work with BreastScreen Victoria to test different ways of encouraging women who had not previously responded to two postal invitations. We found that a letter including a prize draw was more effective than a behaviourally informed letter alone. The highest rate of bookings was for a letter that included a pro-social twist: recipients were told that they could give the prize to a valued other person, but there was no statistically significant difference between this and the standard prize draw letter.
SOLVING COMPLEX PROBLEMS will teach you revolutionary new problem-solving skills. Involving lectures from over 50 experts from all faculties at Macquarie University, we look at solving complex problems in a way that has never been done before. This specialization uses the framework of Big History which synthesizes knowledge across the sciences and the humanities, and provides a powerful foundation to think and research in new ways. Big History has been embraced as an important global framework by the World Economic Forum (WEF). Presentations at WEF by Professor David Christian, one of the creators of this specialization, have included ‘Interdisciplinary Approaches to Solving 21st Century Challenges’ (Davos 2012), ‘Big History for Big Picture Thinking’ (Davos 2014), and ‘Big History, Big Decisions’ (Tianjin 2014). In 2015, the WEF Annual Meeting in Davos had four sessions devoted to Big History including three interdisciplinary ‘Big History, Big Future’ panels on cooperation, innovation, and global growth and stability. These interdisciplinary discussion panels were the inspiration for this Solving Complex Problems Specialization.
Behavioral economics is the integration of economic theory and other related disciplines including but not limited to psychology, neuro-science, finance, biology, sociology, anthropology, political science, and law. Behavioral economics is inherently interdisciplinary. The purpose of this interdisciplinary research is to better understand human behavior. Our unique focus is the implications of behavioral economics for public policy, and a framework for policy makers. Every aspect of behavioral economics and all aspects of public policy are within our purview. We welcome contributions to all fields of knowledge listed above, and beyond, provided they show the public policy implications of behavioral economics. We are open to a wide range of methodological approaches, provided they lead to scientifically grounded conclusions. Experiments, surveys, meta-analyses, case studies, simulation-based analyses, economic and social theory, randomized control trials, and literature reviews (to name but a few common approaches) are all welcome. Arguments may be based on a variety of theoretical frameworks, including those which do not assume fully rational behavior. Empirical results should be both theoretically grounded and both economically and statistically significant. However, the math and the tables and graphs showing statistical results should be placed in an appendix. We welcome replications of existing papers, and are particularly open to "non-results", which may be of great practical and scientific value yet are less likely to reach the audience of most academic journals.
How Behavioral Economics Differs from Traditional Economics All of economics is meant to be about people’s behavior. So, what is behavioral economics, and how does it differ from the rest of economics? Economics traditionally conceptualizes a world populated by calculating, unemotional maximizers that have been dubbed Homo economicus. The standard economic framework ignores or rules out virtually all the behavior studied by cognitive and social psychologists. This “unbehavioral” economic agent was once defended on numerous grounds: some claimed that the model was “right”; most others simply argued that the standard model was easier to formalize and practically more relevant. Behavioral economics blossomed from the realization that neither point of view was correct.
ABSTRACT: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a technique that is increasingly used to modulate cortical excitability and induce neural plasticity in the human brain. Two prominent types of tES are transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial variable frequency stimulation (tVFS). Over a period of two years, 1010 human subjects received tES directed to motor and/or non-motor cortical areas using the Halo Neurostimulation System, a novel neurostimulation device. This paper summarizes safety and describes the adverse event profile of tES, specifically tDCS and tVFS, observed in this series. Each of the 1010 subjects was assessed post-stimulation to identify adverse events. In addition to general assessment, subjects were specifically queried and results tabulated for any scalp burning (i.e., lesion), headache, scalp pain, and seizure. Mild sensation due to stimulation (e.g., tingling or itching) was not tabulated unless reported as scalp pain or causing withdrawal from the study. A total of 557 subjects received active stimulation, while 453 subjects received sham stimulation. The most commonly reported adverse event was headache (2.0% in active stimulation group and 3.8% in sham group). Scalp pain was also reported in 1.1% of subjects in the stimulation group and in 0.67% of the sham group. Withdrawal due to unpleasant sensation occurred in 0.54% of subjects receiving active stimulation. There were no reports of burns or seizure. Our results suggest that tDCS and tVFS can be safely applied to motor and non-motor cortical areas using the Halo Neurostimulation System in healthy humans.
The Galatea effect, attentional bias, recency, and more.
We like to think we're rational human beings. In fact, we are prone to hundreds of proven biases that cause us to think and act irrationally, and even thinking we're rational despite evidence of irrationality in others is known as blind spot bias. The study of how often human beings do irrational things was enough for psychologist Daniel Kahneman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, and it opened the rapidly expanding field of behavioral economics. Similar insights are also reshaping everything from marketing to criminology.
Solo di recente i processi di ragionamento e presa di decisione in ambito economico sono divenuti oggetto di analisi da parte della psicologia e delle neuroscienze secondo una prospettiva integrata. Grazie all'approccio neuroeconomico è stata così evidenziata l'esistenza di elementi di congiunzione inattesi tra comportamento economico, meccanismi cognitivi e funzioni cerebrali, nonché tra processi di scelta, emozioni e motivazione. Il presente volume illustra le attuali linee di riflessione e ricerca in questo settore: dai diversi studi emerge come gli individui, di fronte a scelte economiche, adottino atteggiamenti e strategie di ragionamento assai più complesse del semplice calcolo utilitaristico.
Researchers at George Mason University are developing a tool combining intelligent computer software and high-level crowdsourcing that will allow intelligence analysts to give sound advice to decision makers in high-pressur
La psicosi terrorismo e i pensieri automatici alla base dell’intolleranza razziale Si continua a discutere della vicenda accaduta in un cinema torinese la sera del primo gennaio quando durante la proiezione di un film, in presenza di una madre ed una figlia maghrebine intente a scambiarsi messaggi via whatsapp, il pubblico in allerta ha abbandonato la sala. Si saprà successivamente che si trattava di donne sordomute che, nel corso di una scena erotica, hanno deciso di inviare messaggi col fine di comunicare ed ironizzare su quanto osservato.Quella che è chiamata colloquialmente "psicosi terrorismo": i bias cognitivi quando l'altro non appartiene al nostro gruppo sociale.
In September 2014, following the infamous leak of celebrity iCloud photos, a website called emmayouarenext.com appeared. It displayed a cut-and-paste image of Watson wiping away tears, the phrase “Never forget, the biggest to come thus far,” and the 4chan logo, as well as a countdown clock. The site came online just days after actor and UN Goodwill Ambassador Emma Watson had delivered her widely publicized “HeForShe” campaign speech, in which she encouraged men to participate in the fight for gender equality. Presumably when the clock reached zero, stolen images of Watson would be forthcoming. Knowledge of this site started to circulate thanks to a “news” article published by FoxWeekly.com — a website that, at a glance, could pass for a legitimate news source associated with the Fox News brand. The story circulated on social platforms and was subsequently picked up by mainstream sites, including the Washington Post and the Guardian. Meanwhile, on Reddit and 4chan itself, emmayouarenext.com was largely understood to be a hoax. The countdown clock reached zero, and no nudes were released. Instead, emmayouarenext.com forwarded visitors to the home page of Rantic Media, which claimed to be social media marketing company acting on behalf of “celebrity publicists” to “bring down 4chan.” Its supposed CEO, one “Brad Cockingham,” called for Barack Obama to enforce internet censorship to stop “terrorist”’ 4chan and protect “the ladies.” This too, was reported on by the Huffington Post, the BBC, Mashable, among others, until it became clear — thanks to a redditor — that Rantic Media was not a real company but a foil for the online prankster group SocialVevo (also known as Swenzy), who had pulled similar pranks before. Ostensibly the endgame for SocialVevo was to troll while undertaking an exercise in traffic direction.
La scienza spiega le cause dell'ottimismo e del pessimismo: i geni giocano un ruolo importante. Secondo l’ottimista il bicchiere è mezzo pieno, mentre il pessimista è convinto che sia mezzo vuoto. Il cinico… si chiede chi abbia bevuto l’altra metà. La scienza può spiegare il modo in cui le emozioni influenzano il nostro atteggiamento e visione della vita? Alcune ricerche hanno dimostrato che, in parte, questo aspetto è fuori dal nostro controllo. Infatti, il pessimismo e l’ottimismo sono influenzati da un gene che determina i livelli di serotonina nel nostro cervello. La serotonina è un neurotrasmettitore, cioè una sostanza che contribuisce al trasporto di messaggi tra diverse aree del cervello. È anche chiamata “molecola della felicità”, perché influenza profondamente l’umore. Quando questa sostanza è presente in quantità ottimali, si è predisposti al buonumore e ad una buona tolleranza dello stress. Al contrario, la carenza di serotonina porta a vari disturbi, tra cui depressione ed ansia. È stato però scoperto che, anche se non si soffre di tali disturbi, la carenza di questa molecola porta ad una visione più negativa della vita e del futuro. I neurotrasmettitori sono sostanze chimiche che trasportano messaggi tra neurone e l'altro I neurotrasmettitori sono sostanze chimiche che trasportano messaggi tra neurone e l’altro Infatti, chi ha un allele lungo sul gene che trasporta la serotonina, focalizza principalmente l’attenzione su immagini e situazioni positive; mentre chi possiede l’allele corto sullo stesso gene presta più attenzione ad immagini negative.
“Una delle cose più dolorose del nostro tempo è che coloro che hanno certezze sono stupidi, mentre quelli con immaginazione e comprensione sono pieni di dubbi e di indecisioni – Bertrand Russel” Hai mai notato che spesso le persone particolarmente incompetenti sono le meno consapevoli della loro ignoranza, mentre i più esperti sono invece insicuri e dubitano delle loro capacità? La ricerca scientifica dimostra che le cose stanno esattamente così. Dunning e Kruger hanno dimostrato che, come scrisse Shakespeare, “Il saggio sa di essere stupido, è lo stupido invece che crede di essere saggio” Secondo i due ricercatori, le persone meno esperte non riescono a stimare in modo realistico le loro capacità, sopravvalutandosi. Gli inesperti sono anche incapaci di notare che le abilità degli altri sono superiori alle proprie. Questo effetto è stato osservato in tanti contesti, sia in senso astratto, come il ragionamento logico e l’umorismo, sia in senso concreto, come in contesti lavorativi. Le persone con il quoziente intellettivo più basso sono quelle che stimano in modo più irrealistico, in senso positivo, la loro intelligenza.
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