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Stirling Behavioural Science Blog : The 15 Best Behavioural Science Graphs of 2010-13

Stirling Behavioural Science Blog : The 15 Best Behavioural Science Graphs of 2010-13 | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

(1) Benartzi & Thaler (2013), Behavioral Economics and the Retirement Savings Crisis, Policy Forum
Shlomo Benartzi and Richard Thaler have a graph showing an enormous growth trend over the last 10 years in the percentage of U.S. employers offering 401(k) plans that automatically enroll employees and automatically escalate savings rates (for example 3% savings this year increasing to 6% next year). This trend has been no doubt influenced by their Save More Tomorrow program which first implemented auto-escalating savings (see #4 here).

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The functional architecture of human empathy

The functional architecture of human empathy | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it

BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE REVIEWS 

Decety, Jackson / FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF HUMAN EMPATHY  Jean Decety Philip L. Jackson
University of Washington  Empathy accounts for the naturally occurring subjective experi- enceofsimilaritybetweenthefeelingsexpressedbyselfandothers withoutloosingsightofwhosefeelingsbelongtowhom.Empathy involves not only the affective experience of the other person’s actual or inferred emotional state but also some minimal recog- nition and understanding ofanother’semotionalstate. Inlight of multiple levels of analysis ranging from developmental psy - chology, social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical neuropsychology, this article proposes a model of empathy that involves parallel and distributed processing in a number of dissociablecomputationalmechanisms.Sharedneuralrepresen- tations, self-awareness, mental flexibility, and emotion regula- tionconstitutethebasicmacrocomponentsofempathy,whichare underpinned by specific neural systems. This functional model maybeusedtomakespecificpredictionsaboutthevariousempa- thy deficits that can be encountered in different forms of social and neurological disorders
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L'ILLUSIONE DI SAPERE

L'ILLUSIONE DI SAPERE | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
L’illusione di sapere È compito tradizionale della filosofia della conoscenza e dell’epistemologia cercare di rispondere alla do-manda: com’è possibile conoscere? 

La sostituzione di attributi 

Un semplice esperimento ci introdurrà direttamente alla nozione di sostituzione di attributi. Si è domandato a studenti universitari statunitensi quanto giudicano, soggettivamente, di essere felici, in una scala da uno a dieci. Si è anche chiesto loro quanti appuntamenti galanti (dates) avevano avuto nel mese precedente. L’ordine con il quale queste due domande sono state poste ha alterato moltissimo le risposte: ponendo prima il quesito sulla felicità la correlazione statistica tra le due risposte è risultata trascurabile, mentre ponendo prima quello sul numero degli appuntamenti la correlazione con la risposta sulla felicità è diventata considerevole. In sostanza, è difficile valutare quanto si è felici, ma facilissimo rispondere alla domanda sugli appuntamenti. Se questa viene posta prima, inconsapevolmente si sostituisce un attributo facile (numero di appuntamenti galanti) a un attributo difficile (grado di felicità) e si crede di rispondere alla domanda difficile, offrendo in realtà una risposta sulla base della domanda facile.

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Knowing the World: Intuition, Theories, Models, and Data

Knowing the World: Intuition, Theories, Models, and Data | Bounded Rationality and Beyond | Scoop.it
Some 70 years ago, cybernetics was a hot field; 30 years ago, catastrophe theory was on everyone’s lips. Those Greek-derived words for disciplines that once brought hope of explaining human behavior now evoke a quaint nostalgia, like Polaroids of long-haired young people in bell-bottom jeans and tie-dyed T-shirts. The new buzzword nowadays is big data, the fashionable term for capturing and analyzing the vast collections of information that people reveal about themselves when shopping online at Amazon.com and Travelocity or when writing about themselves on Facebook and Twitter. Big data involves a mix of computer science, information technology, mathematics, and applied statistics. It is increasingly used to sell us products or to persuade us to vote for politicians by tailoring the products’ or politicians’ images to our particular data-generated personas. Some talking heads like to say that computer-aided analysis of patterns will soon replace our traditional methods of discovering the truth in many fields, including medicine, the social sciences, and physics.
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