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Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it

Over the past few decades, a growing body of research has emerged from a variety of disciplines to highlight the importance of cultural evolution in understanding human behavior. Wider application of these insights, however, has been hampered by traditional disciplinary boundaries. To remedy this, in this volume leading researchers from theoretical biology, developmental and cognitive psychology, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, history, and economics come together to explore the central role of cultural evolution in different aspects of human endeavor.

 

Richerson, P.J. & Christiansen, M.H. (Eds.) (2013). Cultural evolution: Society, technology, language and religion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/cultural-evolution


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Networks and Bringing Together "The Barnyard"

Networks and Bringing Together "The Barnyard" | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Still fresh on the heels of the 5th annual Food Solutions New England Regional Food Summit, many attendees seem to be buzzing about the two days of conversation in Boston that focused on the 2060 V...
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Stories: Feeding Networks Forward

Stories: Feeding Networks Forward | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Last week I had an interesting conversation with an evaluator who was curious about some of the networks for food system development we've been supporting through IISC. We got to talking about "met...
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Really important ideas here  - please read!

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Searching For The Next Wave Of Education Innovation

Searching For The Next Wave Of Education Innovation | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
I'm going to come right out and say it: few areas have been as hopeful and as disappointing as innovation in education. Education is probably the single most important function in our society today, yet it remains one of the least understood…
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Education really needs some serious network building!!!

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Rescooped by june holley from Papers
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Transitions between homophilic and heterophilic modes of cooperation

Cooperation is ubiquitous in biological and social systems. Previous studies revealed that a preference toward similar appearance promotes cooperation, a phenomenon called tag-mediated cooperation or communitarian cooperation. This effect is enhanced when a spatial structure is incorporated, because space allows agents sharing an identical tag to regroup to form locally cooperative clusters. In spatially distributed settings, one can also consider migration of organisms, which has a potential to further promote evolution of cooperation by facilitating spatial clustering. However, it has not yet been considered in spatial tag-mediated cooperation models. Here we show, using computer simulations of a spatial model of evolutionary games with organismal migration, that tag-based segregation and homophilic cooperation arise for a wide range of parameters. In the meantime, our results also show another evolutionarily stable outcome, where a high level of heterophilic cooperation is maintained in spatially well-mixed patterns. We found that these two different forms of tag-mediated cooperation appear alternately as the parameter for temptation to defect is increased.


Transitions between homophilic and heterophilic modes of cooperation
Genki Ichinose, Masaya Saito, Hiroki Sayama, Hugues Bersini

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.04450


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Modeling Opinion Dynamics in Diffusion Networks

Social media and social networking sites have become a global pinboard for exposition and discussion of news, topics, and ideas, where social media users increasingly form their opinion about a particular topic by learning information about it from her peers. In this context, whenever a user posts a message about a topic, we observe a noisy estimate of her current opinion about it but the influence the user may have on other users' opinions is hidden. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic modeling framework of opinion dynamics, which allows the underlying opinion of a user to be modulated by those expressed by her neighbors over time. We then identify a set of conditions under which users' opinions converge to a steady state, find a linear relation between the initial opinions and the opinions in the steady state, and develop an efficient estimation method to fit the parameters of the model from historical fine-grained opinion and information diffusion event data. Experiments on data gathered from Twitter, Reddit and Amazon show that our model provides a good fit to the data and more accurate predictions than alternatives.


Modeling Opinion Dynamics in Diffusion Networks
Abir De, Isabel Valera, Niloy Ganguly, Sourangshu Bhattacharya, Manuel Gomez Rodriguez

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.05474


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▶ Network Theory: 12 Decentralized & Small World Networks - YouTube

In this module we continued on with our discussion about how different degree distributions within a network generate different network models this time look...
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Network model for tracking Twitter memes sheds light on information spreading in the brain

Network model for tracking Twitter memes sheds light on information spreading in the brain | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Researchers from Indiana University and Switzerland are using data mapping methods created to track the spread of information on social networks to trace its dissemination across the human brain.
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▶ Complex Adaptive Systems: 12 Evolution - YouTube

In this module we will be talking about the dynamics of evolution within complex systems, we will firstly define what we mean by the term, then look at its b...
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The evolutionary advantage of cooperation

The present study asks how cooperation and consequently structure can emerge in many different evolutionary contexts. Cooperation, here, is a persistent behavioural pattern of individual entities pooling and sharing resources. Examples are: individual cells forming multicellular systems whose various parts pool and share nutrients; pack animals pooling and sharing prey; families firms, or modern nation states pooling and sharing financial resources. In these examples, each atomistic decision, at a point in time, of the better-off entity to cooperate poses a puzzle: the better-off entity will book an immediate net loss -- why should it cooperate? For each example, specific explanations have been put forward. Here we point out a very general mechanism -- a sufficient null model -- whereby cooperation can evolve. The mechanism is based the following insight: natural growth processes tend to be multiplicative. In multiplicative growth, ergodicity is broken in such a way that fluctuations have a net-negative effect on the time-average growth rate, although they have no effect on the growth rate of the ensemble average. Pooling and sharing resources reduces fluctuations, which leaves ensemble averages unchanged but -- contrary to common perception -- increases the time-average growth rate for each cooperator.


The evolutionary advantage of cooperation
Ole Peters, Alexander Adamou

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.03414


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The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem

The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it

The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure.


The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem
• C. Herrera-Yagüe, C. M. Schneider, T. Couronné, Z. Smoreda, R. M. Benito, P. J. Zufiria & M. C. González

Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 10265 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep10265


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The Emergence of Complexity - Kieran D. Kelly

The Emergence of Complexity - Kieran D. Kelly | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
The Collaborative Interplay of Entropy & Symmetry-Breaking drives The Spontaneous Emergence of Complexity...
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Emergence and self-organization — Medium

Emergence and self-organization — Medium | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Many people say that open source software developers have the most efficient ecosystems for learning that have ever existed. What is it…
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Graphs in the world: Modeling systems as networks

Graphs in the world: Modeling systems as networks | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Networks of all kinds drive the modern world. You can build a network from nearly any kind of data set, which is probably why network structures characterize some aspects of most phenomenon. And yet, many people can't see the networks underlying…
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▶ Open Innovation 2.0 and the Planetary Nervous System for Everyone - YouTube

Talk given at the Open Innovation 2.0 Conference - Moving towards European Innovation Ecosystems, Espoo, Finland, on June 9, 2015

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Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media

Social media are used as main discussion channels by millions of individuals every day. The content individuals produce in daily social-media-based micro-communications, and the emotions therein expressed, may impact the emotional states of others. A recent experiment performed on Facebook hypothesized that emotions spread online, even in absence of non-verbal cues typical of in-person interactions, and that individuals are more likely to adopt positive or negative emotions if these are over-expressed in their social network. Experiments of this type, however, raise ethical concerns, as they require massive-scale content manipulation with unknown consequences for the individuals therein involved. Here, we study the dynamics of emotional contagion using Twitter. Rather than manipulating content, we devise a null model that discounts some confounding factors (including the effect of emotional contagion). We measure the emotional valence of content the users are exposed to before posting their own tweets. We determine that on average a negative post follows an over-exposure to 4.34% more negative content than baseline, while positive posts occur after an average over-exposure to 4.50% more positive contents. We highlight the presence of a linear relationship between the average emotional valence of the stimuli users are exposed to, and that of the responses they produce. We also identify two different classes of individuals: highly and scarcely susceptible to emotional contagion. Highly susceptible users are significantly less inclined to adopt negative emotions than the scarcely susceptible ones, but equally likely to adopt positive emotions. In general, the likelihood of adopting positive emotions is much greater than that of negative emotions.


Measuring Emotional Contagion in Social Media
Emilio Ferrara, Zeyao Yang

http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06021


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The Future Of Engagement

The Future Of Engagement | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
• I am giving a keynote today at the Employee Engagement and Awards conference in NYC. This is a loose version of my notes.
My topic is The Future of Engagement, but I start with the present, where...
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▶ Network Theory: 13 Centralized & Scale Free Networks - YouTube

In this module we looked at networks that have the highest degree distribution making their topology very heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of conne...
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In social networks, group boundaries promote the spread of ideas, study finds

In social networks, group boundaries promote the spread of ideas, study finds | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
Social networks affect every aspect of our lives, from the jobs we get and the technologies we adopt to the partners we choose and the healthiness of our lifestyles. But where do they come from?
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Emergence-focused design in complex system simulation

Emergence is a phenomenon taken for granted in science but also still not well understood. We have developed a model of artificial genetic evolution intended to allow for emergence on genetic, population and social levels. We present the details of the current state of our environment, agent, and reproductive models. In developing our models we have relied on a principle of using non-linear systems to model as many systems as possible including mutation and recombination, gene-environment interaction, agent metabolism, agent survival, resource gathering and sexual reproduction. In this paper we review the genetic dynamics that have emerged in our system including genotype-phenotype divergence, genetic drift, pseudogenes, and gene duplication. We conclude that emergence-focused design in complex system simulation is necessary to reproduce the multilevel emergence seen in the natural world.


Emergence-focused design in complex system simulation
Chris Marriott, Jobran Chebib

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.04518


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Exploring dynamic mechanisms of learning networks for resource conservation

The importance of networks for social-ecological processes has been recognized in the literature; however, existing studies have not sufficiently addressed the dynamic nature of networks. Using data on the social learning networks of 265 farmers in Ethiopia for 2011 and 2012 and stochastic actor-oriented modeling, we explain the mechanisms of network evolution and soil conservation. The farmers’ preferences for information exchange within the same social groups support the creation of interactive, clustered, nonhierarchical structures within the evolving learning networks, which contributed to the diffusion of the practice of composting. The introduced methods can be applied to determine whether and how social networks can be used to facilitate environmental interventions in various contexts.


Matous, P., and Y. Todo. 2015. Exploring dynamic mechanisms of learning networks for resource conservation. Ecology and Society 20(2): 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-07602-200236


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Work as interaction — Medium

Work as interaction — Medium | networks and network weaving | Scoop.it
The concepts that govern our thinking and language in relation to work are not just semantic entities, but influence what we perceive and…
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