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All Your Location are Belong to Us: Breaking Mobile Social Networks for Automated User Location Tracking

Many popular location-based social networks (LBSNs) support built-in location-based social discovery with hundreds of millions of users around the world. While user (near) realtime geographical information is essential to enable location-based social discovery in LBSNs, the importance of user location privacy has also been recognized by leading real-world LBSNs. To protect user's exact geographical location from being exposed, a number of location protection approaches have been adopted by the industry so that only relative location information are publicly disclosed. These techniques are assumed to be secure and are exercised on the daily base. In this paper, we question the safety of these location-obfuscation techniques used by existing LBSNs. We show, for the first time, through real world attacks that they can all be easily destroyed by an attacker with the capability of no more than a regular LBSN user. In particular, by manipulating location information fed to LBSN client app, an ill-intended regular user can easily deduce the exact location information by running LBSN apps as location oracle and performing a series of attacking strategies. We develop an automated user location tracking system and test it on the most popular LBSNs including Wechat, Skout and Momo. We demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency via a 3 week real-world experiment with 30 volunteers. Our evaluation results show that we could geo-locate a target with high accuracy and can readily recover users' Top 5 locations. We also propose to use grid reference system and location classification to mitigate the attacks. Our work shows that the current industrial best practices on user location privacy protection are completely broken, and it is critical to address this immediate threat.

Bernard Ryefield's insight:

Location-based Social Networks don't obfuscate well enough the user  exact location

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Information, Meaning, and Intellectual Organization in Networks of Inter-Human Communication

The Shannon-Weaver model of linear information transmission is extended with two loops potentially generating redundancies: (i) meaning is provided locally to the information from the perspective of hindsight, and (ii) meanings can be codified differently and then refer to other horizons of meaning. Thus, three layers are distinguished: variations in the communications, historical organization at each moment of time, and evolutionary self-organization of the codes of communication over time. Furthermore, the codes of communication can functionally be different and then the system is both horizontally and vertically differentiated. All these subdynamics operate in parallel and necessarily generate uncertainty. However, meaningful information can be considered as the specific selection of a signal from the noise; the codes of communication are social constructs that can generate redundancy by giving different meanings to the same information. Reflexively, one can translate among codes in more elaborate discourses. The second (instantiating) layer can be operationalized in terms of semantic maps using the vector space model; the third in terms of mutual redundancy among the latent dimensions of the vector space. Using Blaise Cronin's {\oe}uvre, the different operations of the three layers are demonstrated empirically.

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Rising Tides or Rising Stars?: Dynamics of Shared Attention on Twitter during Media Events

Rising Tides or Rising Stars?: Dynamics of Shared Attention on Twitter during Media Events | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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▶ Large-Scale Structure in Networks - YouTube

▶ Large-Scale Structure in Networks - YouTube | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
Mark Newman May 2, 2014 Annual Science Board Symposium and Meeting Complexity: Theory and Practice
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Eli Levine's curator insight, June 8, 11:40 PM

To know the structure is to know a HUMONGOUS part of the function and, thus, the ability to predict.  It seems to me to be a large fractal pattern of clusters, nodes and connections (but, that is just in my relatively uneducated eye). 

 

Never forget, though, that there are important qualitative aspects to networks (think of defacto qualities of the nodes, groups of nodes and the connections amongst them).  Very important for social and/or ecological/causal relation networks (essentially, a network that outlines and maps accurately the function of a system and all of the flows of information and material resources).

 

Really cool stuff here.

 

Think about it..

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Predicting Successful Memes using Network and Community Structure v2

We investigate the predictability of successful memes using their early spreading patterns in the underlying social networks. We propose and analyze a comprehensive set of features and develop an accurate model to predict future popularity of a meme given its early spreading patterns. Our paper provides the first comprehensive comparison of existing predictive frameworks. We categorize our features into three groups: influence of early adopters, community concentration, and characteristics of adoption time series. We find that features based on community structure are the most powerful predictors of future success. We also find that early popularity of a meme is not a good predictor of its future popularity, contrary to common belief. Our methods outperform other approaches, particularly in the task of detecting very popular or unpopular memes.

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Shock waves on complex networks

Shock waves on complex networks | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
Power grids, road maps, and river streams are examples of infrastructural networks which are highly vulnerable to external perturbations. An abrupt local change of load (voltage, traffic density, or water level) might propagate in a cascading way and affect a significant fraction of the network. Almost discontinuous perturbations can be modeled by shock waves which can eventually interfere constructively and endanger the normal functionality of the infrastructure. We study their dynamics by solving the Burgers equation under random perturbations on several real and artificial directed graphs. Even for graphs with a narrow distribution of node properties (e.g., degree or betweenness), a steady state is reached exhibiting a heterogeneous load distribution, having a difference of one order of magnitude between the highest and average loads. Unexpectedly we find for the European power grid and for finite Watts-Strogatz networks a broad pronounced bimodal distribution for the loads. To identify the most vulnerable nodes, we introduce the concept of node-basin size, a purely topological property which we show to be strongly correlated to the average load of a node.

Via Shaolin Tan, NESS, Bernard Ryefield
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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 20, 5:19 AM

Indeed, this is intuitive enough without the mathematics to back it up.  This could be mapped out and used for prioritizing the defense or attack of various points within the network, either in the digital or analog worlds.

 

Way cool science!

 

Think about it.

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Modeling dynamics of attention in social media with user efficiency

Evolution of online social networks is driven by the need of their members to share and consume content, resulting in a complex interplay between individual activity and attention received from others. In a context of increasing information overload and limited resources, discovering which are the most successful behavioral patterns to attract attention is very important. To shed light on the matter, we look into the patterns of activity and popularity of users in the Yahoo Meme microblogging service. We observe that a combination of different type of social and content-producing activity is necessary to attract attention and the efficiency of users, namely the average attention received per piece of content published, for many users has a defined trend in its temporal footprint. The analysis of the user time series of efficiency shows different classes of users whose different activity patterns give insights on the type of behavior that pays off best in terms of attention gathering. In particular, sharing content with high spreading potential and then supporting the attention raised by it with social activity emerges as a frequent pattern for users gaining efficiency over time.

 

Modeling dynamics of attention in social media with user efficiency
Carmen Vaca Ruiz, Luca Maria Aiello and Alejandro Jaimes

EPJ Data Science 2014, 3:5  http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds30


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Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it

This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

 

Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

Stopczynski A, Sekara V, Sapiezynski P, et al.

PLoS ONE 9(4): e95978 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095978


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Layer aggregation and reducibility of multilayer interconnected networks

Many complex systems can be represented as networks composed by distinct layers, interacting and depending on each others. For example, in biology, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, with thousands of protein-protein interactions each. A fundamental open question is then how much information is really necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayer complex system, and if and when some of the layers can indeed be aggregated. Here we introduce a method, based on information theory, to reduce the number of layers in multilayer networks, while minimizing information loss. We validate our approach on a set of synthetic benchmarks, and prove its applicability to an extended data set of protein-genetic interactions, showing cases where a strong reduction is possible and cases where it is not. Using this method we can describe complex systems with an optimal trade--off between accuracy and complexity.

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Dynamics of Information Spreading in Online Social Networks

Online social networks (OSNs) are changing the way information spreads throughout the Internet. A deep understanding of information spreading in OSNs leads to both social and commercial benefits. In this paper, dynamics of information spreading (e.g., how fast and widely the information spreads against time) in OSNs are characterized, and a general and accurate model based on Interactive Markov Chains (IMCs) and mean-field theory is established. This model shows tight relations between network topology and information spreading in OSNs, e.g., the information spreading ability is positively related to the heterogeneity of degree distributions whereas negatively related to the degree-degree correlations in general. Further, the model is extended to feature the time-varying user behavior and the ever-changing information popularity. By leveraging the mean-field theory, the model is able to characterize the complicated information spreading process (e.g., the dynamic patterns of information spreading) with six parameters. Extensive evaluations based on Renren's data set illustrate the accuracy of the model, e.g., it can characterize dynamic patterns of video sharing in Renren precisely and predict future spreading dynamics successfully.

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updated Apr 24 : http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.5562v2
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Network Weirdness: Exploring the Origins of Network Paradoxes

Social networks have many counter-intuitive properties, including the "friendship paradox" that states, on average, your friends have more friends than you do. Recently, a variety of other paradoxes were demonstrated in online social networks. This paper explores the origins of these network paradoxes. Specifically, we ask whether they arise from mathematical properties of the networks or whether they have a behavioral origin. We show that sampling from heavy-tailed distributions always gives rise to a paradox in the mean, but not the median. We propose a strong form of network paradoxes, based on utilizing the median, and validate it empirically using data from two online social networks. Specifically, we show that for any user the majority of user's friends and followers have more friends, followers, etc. than the user, and that this cannot be explained by statistical properties of sampling. Next, we explore the behavioral origins of the paradoxes by using the shuffle test to remove correlations between node degrees and attributes. We find that paradoxes for the mean persist in the shuffled network, but not for the median. We demonstrate that strong paradoxes arise due to the assortativity of user attributes, including degree, and correlation between degree and attribute.

 

Network Weirdness: Exploring the Origins of Network Paradoxes
Farshad Kooti, Nathan O. Hodas, Kristina Lerman

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7242


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António F Fonseca's curator insight, April 10, 5:06 AM

Some network insights into the vague notion of popularity.

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Gender Asymmetries in Reality and Fiction: The Bechdel Test of Social Media

Gender Asymmetries in Reality and Fiction: The Bechdel Test of Social Media | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it

The subjective nature of gender inequality motivates the analysis and comparison of data from real and fictional human interaction. We present a computational extension of the Bechdel test: A popular tool to assess if a movie contains a male gender bias, by looking for two female characters who discuss about something besides a man. We provide the tools to quantify Bechdel scores for both genders, and we measure them in movie scripts and large datasets of dialogues between users of MySpace and Twitter. Comparing movies and users of social media, we find that movies and Twitter conversations have a consistent male bias, which does not appear when analyzing MySpace.Furthermore, the narrative of Twitter is closer to the movies that do not pass the Bechdel test than to those that pass it.
We link the properties of movies and the users that share trailers of those movies. Our analysis reveals some particularities of movies that pass the Bechdel test: Their trailers are less popular, female users are more likely to share them than male users, and users that share them tend to interact less with male users. Based on our datasets, we define gender independence measurements to analyze the gender biases of a society, as manifested through digital traces of online behavior. Using the profile information of Twitter users, we find larger gender independence for urban users in comparison to rural ones. Additionally, the asymmetry between genders is larger for parents and lower for students. Gender asymmetry varies across US states, increasing with higher average income and latitude. This points to the relation between gender inequality and social, economical, and cultural factors of a society,and how gender roles exist in both fictional narratives and public online dialogues.

 

 

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Generalized friendship paradox in complex networks: The case of scientific collaboration

The friendship paradox states that your friends have on average more friends than you have. Does the paradox "hold" for other individual characteristics like income or happiness? To address this question, we generalize the friendship paradox for arbitrary node characteristics in complex networks. By analyzing two coauthorship networks of Physical Review journals and Google Scholar profiles, we find that the generalized friendship paradox (GFP) holds at the individual and network levels for various characteristics, including the number of coauthors, the number of citations, and the number of publications. The origin of the GFP is shown to be rooted in positive correlations between degree and characteristics. As a fruitful application of the GFP, we suggest effective and efficient sampling methods for identifying high characteristic nodes in large-scale networks. Our study on the GFP can shed lights on understanding the interplay between network structure and node characteristics in complex networks.
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Comparing Brain Networks of Different Size and Connectivity Density Using Graph Theory

Comparing Brain Networks of Different Size and Connectivity Density Using Graph Theory | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it

Graph theory is a valuable framework to study the organization of functional and anatomical connections in the brain. Its use for comparing network topologies, however, is not without difficulties. Graph measures may be influenced by the number of nodes (N) and the average degree (k) of the network. The explicit form of that influence depends on the type of network topology, which is usually unknown for experimental data. Direct comparisons of graph measures between empirical networks with different N and/or k can therefore yield spurious results. We list benefits and pitfalls of various approaches that intend to overcome these difficulties. We discuss the initial graph definition of unweighted graphs via fixed thresholds, average degrees or edge densities, and the use of weighted graphs. For instance, choosing a threshold to fix N and k does eliminate size and density effects but may lead to modifications of the network by enforcing (ignoring) non-significant (significant) connections. Opposed to fixing N and k, graph measures are often normalized via random surrogates but, in fact, this may even increase the sensitivity to differences in N and k for the commonly used clustering coefficient and small-world index. To avoid such a bias we tried to estimate the N,k-dependence for empirical networks, which can serve to correct for size effects, if successful. We also add a number of methods used in social sciences that build on statistics of local network structures including exponential random graph models and motif counting. We show that none of the here-investigated methods allows for a reliable and fully unbiased comparison, but some perform better than others.

 

 

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The Strange Evolution of Self Obsession on Reddit — The Physics arXiv Blog — Medium

The Strange Evolution of Self Obsession on Reddit — The Physics arXiv Blog — Medium | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
The self-proclaimed frontpage of the internet has grown exponentially in just a few years.
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Human Genome Variation and the Concept of Genotype Networks

Human Genome Variation and the Concept of Genotype Networks | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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ECCS 2014 Living Satellite

ECCS 2014 Living Satellite | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it

Workshop on Robustness, Adaptability and Critical Transitions in Living Systems.Call for papers http://seis.bristol.ac.uk/~fs13378/eccs_2014_livingsys.html

 

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Influence Spread in Social Networks: A Study via a Fluid Limit of the Linear Threshold Model

Threshold based models have been widely used in characterizing collective behavior on social networks. An individual's threshold indicates the minimum level of influence that must be exerted, by other members of the population engaged in some activity, before the individual will join the activity. In this work, we begin with a homogeneous version of the Linear Threshold model proposed by Kempe et al. in the context of viral marketing, and generalize this model to arbitrary threshold distributions. We show that the evolution can be modeled as a discrete time Markov chain, and, by using a certain scaling, we obtain a fluid limit that provides an ordinary differential equation model (o.d.e.). We find that the threshold distribution appears in the o.d.e. via its hazard rate function. We demonstrate the accuracy of the o.d.e. approximation and derive explicit expressions for the trajectory of influence under the uniform threshold distribution. Also, for an exponentially distributed threshold, we show that the fluid dynamics are equivalent to the well-known SIR model in epidemiology. We also numerically study how other hazard functions (obtained from the Weibull and loglogistic distributions) provide qualitative different characteristics of the influence evolution, compared to traditional epidemic models, even in a homogeneous setting. We finally show how the model can be extended to a setting with multiple communities and conclude with possible future directions.

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AnaVANET: an experiment and visualization tool for vehicular networks

AnaVANET: an experiment and visualization tool for vehicular networks | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
The experimental evaluation of wireless and mobile networks is a challenge that rarely substitutes simulation in research works.
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How Community Feedback Shapes User Behavior

Social media systems rely on user feedback and rating mechanisms for personalization, ranking, and content filtering. However, when users evaluate content contributed by fellow users (e.g., by liking a post or voting on a comment), these evaluations create complex social feedback effects. This paper investigates how ratings on a piece of content affect its author's future behavior. By studying four large comment-based news communities, we find that negative feedback leads to significant behavioral changes that are detrimental to the community. Not only do authors of negatively-evaluated content contribute more, but also their future posts are of lower quality, and are perceived by the community as such. Moreover, these authors are more likely to subsequently evaluate their fellow users negatively, percolating these effects through the community. In contrast, positive feedback does not carry similar effects, and neither encourages rewarded authors to write more, nor improves the quality of their posts. Interestingly, the authors that receive no feedback are most likely to leave a community. Furthermore, a structural analysis of the voter network reveals that evaluations polarize the community the most when positive and negative votes are equally split.

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Spatial Neural Networks and their Functional Samples: Similarities and Differences

Models of neural networks have proven their utility in the development of learning algorithms in computer science and in the theoretical study of brain dynamics in computational neuroscience. We propose in this paper a spatial neural network model to analyze the important class of functional networks, which are commonly employed in computational studies of clinical brain imaging time series. We developed a simulation framework inspired by multichannel brain surface recordings (more specifically, EEG -- electroencephalogram) in order to link the mesoscopic network dynamics (represented by sampled functional networks) and the microscopic network structure (represented by an integrate-and-fire neural network located in a 3D space -- hence the term spatial neural network). Functional networks are obtained by computing pairwise correlations between time-series of mesoscopic electric potential dynamics, which allows the construction of a graph where each node represents one time-series. The spatial neural network model is central in this study in the sense that it allowed us to characterize sampled functional networks in terms of what features they are able to reproduce from the underlying spatial network. Our modeling approach shows that, in specific conditions of sample size and edge density, it is possible to precisely estimate several network measurements of spatial networks by just observing functional samples.

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Together we stand, Together we fall, Together we win: Dynamic Team Formation in Massive Open Online Courses

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offer a new scalable paradigm for e-learning by providing students with global exposure and opportunities for connecting and interacting with millions of people all around the world. Very often, students work as teams to effectively accomplish course related tasks. However, due to lack of face to face interaction, it becomes difficult for MOOC students to collaborate. Additionally, the instructor also faces challenges in manually organizing students into teams because students flock to these MOOCs in huge numbers. Thus, the proposed research is aimed at developing a robust methodology for dynamic team formation in MOOCs, the theoretical framework for which is grounded at the confluence of organizational team theory, social network analysis and machine learning. A prerequisite for such an undertaking is that we understand the fact that, each and every informal tie established among students offers the opportunities to influence and be influenced. Therefore, we aim to extract value from the inherent connectedness of students in the MOOC. These connections carry with them radical implications for the way students understand each other in the networked learning community. Our approach will enable course instructors to automatically group students in teams that have fairly balanced social connections with their peers, well defined in terms of appropriately selected qualitative and quantitative network metrics.

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A signature of power law network dynamics

Can one hear the 'sound' of a growing network? We address the problem of recognizing the topology of evolving biological or social networks. Starting from percolation theory, we analytically prove a linear inverse relationship between two simple graph parameters--the logarithm of the average cluster size and logarithm of the ratio of the edges of the graph to the theoretically maximum number of edges for that graph--that holds for all growing power law graphs. The result establishes a novel property of evolving power-law networks in the asymptotic limit of network size. Numerical simulations as well as fitting to real-world citation co-authorship networks demonstrate that the result holds for networks of finite sizes, and provides a convenient measure of the extent to which an evolving family of networks belongs to the same power-law class.

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Behavioral and Network Origins of Wealth Inequality: Insights from a Virtual World

Almost universally, wealth is not distributed uniformly within societies or economies. Even though wealth data have been collected in various forms for centuries, the origins for the observed wealth-disparity and social inequality are not yet fully understood. Especially the impact and connections of human behavior on wealth could so far not be inferred from data. Here we study wealth data from the virtual economy of the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus. This data not only contains every player's wealth at every point in time, but also all actions of every player over a timespan of almost a decade. We find that wealth distributions in the virtual world are very similar to those in western countries. In particular we find an approximate exponential for low wealth and a power-law tail. The Gini index is found to be 0.65, which is close to the indices of many Western countries. We find that wealth-increase rates depend on the time when players entered the game. Players that entered the game early on tend to have remarkably higher wealth-increase rates than those who joined later. Studying the players' positions within their social networks, we find that the local position in the trade network is most relevant for wealth. Wealthy people have high in- and out-degree in the trade network, relatively low nearest-neighbor degree and a low clustering coefficient. Wealthy players have many mutual friendships and are socially well respected by others, but spend more time on business than on socializing. We find that players that are not organized within social groups with at least three members are significantly poorer on average. We observe that high `political' status and high wealth go hand in hand. Wealthy players have few personal enemies, but show animosity towards players that behave as public enemies.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, April 5, 7:53 AM

When you let laissez-faire take its course, only a few individuals really end up on top.  That's not to say that markets shouldn't be allowed and enabled to exist, for the sake of the free exchange of goods, services, knowledge, wealth, etc.  It is saying that we need non-intrusive mechanisms to help make sure that the wealth that is produced is enjoyed by everyone who produced it.

 

Some people will always have more than others, for behavioral reasons and for circumstantial reasons.  That is not a problem, in my own view.  The problem comes, for me, when their focus on wealth becomes so great that they lose sight of their human needs on the individual as well as social and environmental levels, such that they choose wealth that they will not use over that which they need for survival and physical/psychological well being.

 

It's a form of being disconnected with the real world, kind of like schizophrenia.  The brain isn't functioning properly when  greed is and has taken over, for one reason or another.  It should be considered a mental illness that we could, potentially in time, treat, such that these individuals who are not aware and do not care to be aware of their actual place in the universe can lead normal, happy, healthy and appropriately placed lives in our societies.

 

So, we're left with the present situation in which work is undervalued, relative to what it produces, while executive management is way overvalued relative to its healthy role in the economy and society.  I'm not saying that pure equality is desirable, because sometimes people do work harder than others and deserve a greater share of wealth than someone who didn't work when they honestly could have.  What I'm saying, is that indulging the elite's fantasy of the ego is detrimental to themselves and to others, and that I don't think it should be accepted or tolerated within our social world.

 

If you want equality of opportunities, you must have more equality of outcomes.  That is yet another fact about our world that conservatives fail to accept and appreciate, if they're attempting to realize a world in which we are all together as one, rather than a world where we are heavily stratified according to an artificial hierarchy.  That is the difference between a conservative and a progressive.  One wants us all to be living together in peace, harmony, stability and, for want of a better word, love, while the other just wants everyone in a specific place according to birth.  One promotes democracy and inclusivity, the other, discourages it.  One works better for humanity on the tangible level, the other, does not.

 

And it's just a difference in brain type/values that makes them be something so antithetical to what Western civilization has stood for.

 

Think about it.

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Dynamical Systems on Networks: A Tutorial

We give a tutorial for the study of dynamical systems on networks, and we focus in particular on ``simple" situations that are tractable analytically. We briefly motivate why examining dynamical systems on networks is interesting and important. We then give several fascinating examples and discuss some theoretical results. We also discuss dynamical systems on dynamical (i.e., time-dependent) networks, overview software implementations, and give our outlook on the field.

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Using Complex Networks to Characterize International Business Cycles

Using Complex Networks to Characterize International Business Cycles | Network and Graph Theory | Scoop.it
Background

There is a rapidly expanding literature on the application of complex networks in economics that focused mostly on stock markets. In this paper, we discuss an application of complex networks to study international business cycles.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We construct complex networks based on GDP data from two data sets on G7 and OECD economies. Besides the well-known correlation-based networks, we also use a specific tool for presenting causality in economics, the Granger causality. We consider different filtering methods to derive the stationary component of the GDP series for each of the countries in the samples. The networks were found to be sensitive to the detrending method. While the correlation networks provide information on comovement between the national economies, the Granger causality networks can better predict fluctuations in countries’ GDP. By using them, we can obtain directed networks allows us to determine the relative influence of different countries on the global economy network. The US appears as the key player for both the G7 and OECD samples.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, March 29, 12:13 PM

These are the natural laws and connections which exist amongst various economies and within each economy.  This shows the interconnectedness of the whole planet's economy and can give predictions as to what could happen if one particular economy were to crash and fall into valuelessness for humanity.

 

It's interesting that this research comes at a time in our history when the natural laws of social interactions are being violated by governments and elite groups everywhere.  What will happen if discontent turns into unrest and rebellions in the United States?  What happens if the authority of governments ceases to be legitimate, to the point where violence and anarchy take their place.  What will happen to the economy if the rule of law is no longer abided, and the mob takes over to deal with the perceived injustices that the elite groups have committed against the general public?

 

What happens when the environment gives way and our societies are no longer able to support the populations that are present?  What happens when people are forced to either starve or fight?

 

That's the direction that we're headed towards, I'm afraid. 

Funny how it is that the conservatives from all parties who enacted these policies, are leading to the very destruction of society that they're so afraid of.  Funny how it is that things get more delicate and likely to change significantly as they cling to their image of how the past was (and it is just an image of the past, not the real world as it was, is or will be).

 

Silly brains.

 

Think about it.

António F Fonseca's curator insight, March 31, 3:34 AM

Crisis transmission, lookout for USA, Ireland and Spain!