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Graph measures and network robustness

Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. Once such a measure has been established, we will be able to compare networks, to improve existing networks and to design new networks that are able to continue to perform well when it is subject to failures or attacks. In this paper we survey a large amount of robustness measures on simple, undirected and unweighted graphs, in order to offer a tool for network administrators to evaluate and improve the robustness of their network. The measures discussed in this paper are based on the concepts of connectivity (including reliability polynomials), distance, betweenness and clustering. Some other measures are notions from spectral graph theory, more precisely, they are functions of the Laplacian eigenvalues. In addition to surveying these graph measures, the paper also contains a discussion of their functionality as a measure for topological network robustness.

 

Graph measures and network robustness
W. Ellens, R.E. Kooij

http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.5064


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Voici la visualisation qui cassera vos idées reçues sur l’immigration - Rue89

Voici la visualisation qui cassera vos idées reçues sur l’immigration - Rue89 | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
(De Vienne, Autriche) Depuis que 50,3% des Suisses ont dit non à "l'immigration de masse" début février, les populistes de droite sont nombreux en Europe à réclamer des référendums dans leurs pays respectifs. Le Front national ne fait pas exception.Un de leurs griefs s'adresse à l'Union européenne. Elle ne serait pas apte à refouler les masses affamées qui se tasseraient, paraît-il, devant Lampedusa, attendant la moindre brèche dans la forteresse pour nous envahir.En Autriche, qui n'est pas le p...
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Dans le même esprit mais avec d'autres données, voir: http://www.coscimo.net

 

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A Science of Cities

A Science of Cities | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it

"In this book, I suggest that to understand cities we must view them not simply as places in space but as systems of networks and flows. To understand space, we must understand flows, and to understand flows, we must understand networks—the relations between objects that comprise the system of the city. Drawing on the complexity sciences, social physics, urban economics, transportation theory, regional science, and urban geography, , I introduce theories and methods that reveal the deep structure of how cities function. (...)" Michael Batty


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luiy's curator insight, November 23, 2013 3:37 AM

“Michael Batty has followed a career that has made him the prime interpreter of urban modeling in all its forms. Now his remarkable work has become the foundation of a new science of urban flows and networks that uses big data and sharp theory as tools to dig deep into how and what cities are, and how they can be designed in better ways. This is the book that sets the benchmark that all others will have to follow.” —Nigel Thrift, Vice-Chancellor, University of Warwick

mtmeme's curator insight, November 30, 2013 7:31 PM

If put into the global Internet of complexity, understanding the workings of cities could let us see how local shifts influence the global conditions, and vice versa. 

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Worldwide map of oil import and export flows. - Maps on the Web

Worldwide map of oil import and export flows. - Maps on the Web | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Worldwide map of oil import and export flows. (Worldwide map of oil import and export flows. http://t.co/skEThlHAXe)

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A New Map Reveals the Geography of American TV News

A New Map Reveals the Geography of American TV News | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
The visualization shows a world unevenly aglow with television attention.

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Sarah Ziolkowski's curator insight, January 14, 11:57 AM

This article applies to the concepts of culture unit, and more specifically, globalization. It talks about how most Americans receive news, which, not surprisingly, is the television. This produces confusion and miscommunication for viewers, and controls our news intake. The article shows a map how often a place is mentioned on a news broadcast, and its overwhelmingly uneven. Is this answered with population or something else? Whatever it is, this shows how our news is controlled, which controls our political views-your political views. Short term solution, get your news from different sources.

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The Hidden Geometry of Complex, Network-Driven Contagion Phenomena

The global spread of epidemics, rumors, opinions, and innovations are complex, network-driven dynamic processes. The combined multiscale nature and intrinsic heterogeneity of the underlying networks make it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of these processes, to distinguish relevant from peripheral factors, to predict their time course, and to locate their origin. However, we show that complex spatiotemporal patterns can be reduced to surprisingly simple, homogeneous wave propagation patterns, if conventional geographic distance is replaced by a probabilistically motivated effective distance. In the context of global, air-traffic–mediated epidemics, we show that effective distance reliably predicts disease arrival times. Even if epidemiological parameters are unknown, the method can still deliver relative arrival times. The approach can also identify the spatial origin of spreading processes and successfully be applied to data of the worldwide 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and 2003 SARS epidemic.

 

The Hidden Geometry of Complex, Network-Driven Contagion Phenomena
Dirk Brockmann, Dirk Helbing

Science 13 December 2013:
Vol. 342 no. 6164 pp. 1337-1342
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1245200


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ComplexInsight's curator insight, December 31, 2013 12:59 AM

This is an awesome insight that needs tested across other datasets to find out how universal it is. Good paper.

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Shrinking Cities, villes en décroissance : une mesure du ...

Shrinking Cities, villes en décroissance : une mesure du ... | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
3 Les auteurs du présent article appartiennent au Shrinking Cities International Research Network, fo (...) 1Depuis quelques années, et en particulier à l'occasion de la crise récente et de ses manifestations intenses dans le ...
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La mondialisation en panne de gouvernance - Le Monde

La mondialisation en panne de gouvernance - Le Monde | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Le Monde
La mondialisation en panne de gouvernance
Le Monde
Depuis trente ans, le choc frontal entre l'Occident et les émergents a modifié la géographie mentale de la planète.
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Très haut débit : le mouvement est engagé dans les territoires ruraux - Gazette des communes

Très haut débit : le mouvement est engagé dans les territoires ruraux - Gazette des communes | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Très haut débit : le mouvement est engagé dans les territoires ruraux Gazette des communes Guichet rouvert en juin - La fronde des sept réseaux d'initiative publique (RIP) signataires du mémorandum qui dénonçait, il y a deux ans, dans ces mêmes...
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Appel à communications “The Connected Past” (réseaux en ...

Appel à communications “The Connected Past” (réseaux en ... | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Les réseaux multiplexes, multiniveaux, longitudinaux * Les propriétés émergentes des réseaux complexes * Agency, structure et complexité dans les approches des ...
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Le radiotélescope sarde SRT arrive - bulletins-electroniques.com

Le radiotélescope sarde SRT arrive - bulletins-electroniques.com | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Le radiotélescope sarde SRT arrive
bulletins-electroniques.com
Enfin, il peut également servir comme station de réception pour les signaux émis par des sondes spatiales interplanétaires, en s'insérant au sein du réseau mondial Deep Space Network.
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Zipf's law unzipped

Introduction and background. The outcome of a random process is often well described by a bell-shaped curve, the normal distribution. Some hundred years ago, it was noticed that things like the richness among people, town sizes, surnames, and the frequency of words have different, broader distributions. The figure shows the probability of finding a word which occurs k times in a novel. If the words were distributed according to normal expectations, they would fall on the full curve in the figure. Many, more or less system-specific, proposals for the deviation from normal have been suggested under names such as 'rich gets richer', 'principle of least effort', 'preferential attachment' and 'independent proportional growth'. Here, it is argued that the phenomenon is connected to a more ubiquitous random group formation. A group is like a soccer team with positions to fill. You want the right player in the right position. Thus, unlike the normal distribution where you pick a player for the team, one now tries to pick a player for a position in the team.
Main results. Information theory is used to find the most likely distribution of group sizes given the number of objects, groups and the number of objects in the largest group. The result is the dashed curve in the figure. The same striking agreement is found for all data sets investigated.
Wider implications. This paper gives a new starting point for the understanding of Zipf-type phenomena.

 

Zipf's law unzipped

Seung Ki Baek et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 043004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/13/4/043004


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The World's 25 Busiest Airports

The World's 25 Busiest Airports | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
More than 1.4 billion airline passengers departed, landed, or connected through these massive facilities in 2012. Viewing them from above gives a sense of their gargantuan scale and global significance.

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Al Picozzi's curator insight, September 9, 2013 8:43 AM

Great site to see how globaliztions takes a hold.  Many of the airport on the list of in the US and many are in China.  Not surprising that the two leading economic powers in the world have the busiest airports.  Also it is interening to see Las Vegas on the list.  Seems that people need a place to blow off some steam from working so hard.

L.Long's curator insight, February 16, 1:24 AM

Transport technology is a key factor that assists the operation of Global networks

 

Mickayla Graham's curator insight, March 27, 1:14 AM

People and Economic Activity

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A Map of the Lands Actually Discovered by European Explorers

A Map of the Lands Actually Discovered by European Explorers | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
When studying Western history, we tend to say that this European explorer discovered this continent or that island, when those lands were already long inhabited.
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Delineating Geographical Regions with Networks of Human Interactions in an Extensive Set of Countries

Delineating Geographical Regions with Networks of Human Interactions in an Extensive Set of Countries | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it

Large-scale networks of human interaction, in particular country-wide telephone call networks, can be used to redraw geographical maps by applying algorithms of topological community detection. The geographic projections of the emerging areas in a few recent studies on single regions have been suggested to share two distinct properties: first, they are cohesive, and second, they tend to closely follow socio-economic boundaries and are similar to existing political regions in size and number. Here we use an extended set of countries and clustering indices to quantify overlaps, providing ample additional evidence for these observations using phone data from countries of various scales across Europe, Asia, and Africa: France, the UK, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Ivory Coast. In our analysis we use the known approach of partitioning country-wide networks, and an additional iterative partitioning of each of the first level communities into sub-communities, revealing that cohesiveness and matching of official regions can also be observed on a second level if spatial resolution of the data is high enough. The method has possible policy implications on the definition of the borderlines and sizes of administrative regions.

 

Sobolevsky S, Szell M, Campari R, Couronné T, Smoreda Z, et al. (2013) Delineating Geographical Regions with Networks of Human Interactions in an Extensive Set of Countries. PLoS ONE 8(12): e81707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081707


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NetSci 2014

NetSci 2014 will take place on Jun 2-6, 2014 at the Clark Kerr Campus of Berkeley University in California.

http://netsci2014.cpt.univ-mrs.fr


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Anomalie_digital art n°6 - Interactive Cities | Editions HYX - Sous la direction de Valérie Châtelet

Anomalie_digital art n°6 - Interactive Cities | Editions HYX - Sous la direction de Valérie Châtelet | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it

Sous la direction de Valérie Châtelet, architecte-urbaniste engagée avec anomos/skylab dans l'exploration de l'impact des technologies numériques, une dizaine d'auteurs apporte leurs contributions à ce débat. Ces essais sont illustrés par de nombreux projets pour la plupart inédits et rassemblés pour la première fois autour de ce thème. Historiens, géographes, ingénieurs, artistes, architectes et des urbanistes interrogent les implications de cette nouvelle condition urbaine.

 

Parmi les contributeurs, Dominique Rouillard trace un parcours historique de l'intégration des technologies de l'information et la communication pour l'urbanisation. En référence aux travaux de l'inventeur américain Buckminster Fuller, Valérie Chatelet développe le principe d'une nouvelle articulation des décisions pour l'urbanisme et l'aménagement du territoire. Carlo Ratti et Daniel Berry du laboratoire de recherche du Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) SENSEable City évoque l'idée de paysages mobiles développés par l'internet sans fil et les téléphones mobiles qui reconfigurent nos modes de vie.


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Mondes sociaux – Dossier : Sur et sous le patrimoine scientifique

Mondes sociaux – Dossier : Sur et sous le patrimoine scientifique | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Dossier : Sur et sous le patrimoine scientifique http://t.co/6PqG8RD7yf

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Le Phénomène de « Petit Monde », Clé du Succès Economique ... - IsraelValley

Le Phénomène de « Petit Monde », Clé du Succès Economique ... - IsraelValley | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Le Phénomène de « Petit Monde », Clé du Succès Economique ...
IsraelValley
Tous les lieux publics – cafés, transports en commun, plages, etc. – sont autant d'opportunités de faire de nouvelles rencontres.
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Graph measures and network robustness

Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. Once such a measure has been established, we will be able to compare networks, to improve existing networks and to design new networks that are able to continue to perform well when it is subject to failures or attacks. In this paper we survey a large amount of robustness measures on simple, undirected and unweighted graphs, in order to offer a tool for network administrators to evaluate and improve the robustness of their network. The measures discussed in this paper are based on the concepts of connectivity (including reliability polynomials), distance, betweenness and clustering. Some other measures are notions from spectral graph theory, more precisely, they are functions of the Laplacian eigenvalues. In addition to surveying these graph measures, the paper also contains a discussion of their functionality as a measure for topological network robustness.

 

Graph measures and network robustness
W. Ellens, R.E. Kooij

http://arxiv.org/abs/1311.5064


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Notre cerveau possède un GPS intégré ! - Journal de la Science

Notre cerveau possède un GPS intégré ! - Journal de la Science | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Notre cerveau possède un GPS intégré ! Journal de la Science Nous décidons alors de cartographier les emplacements géographiques où ces neurones-grille s'activent pendant les déplacements de l'individu : ces emplacements géographiques vont...
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Onomastique et Big Data - ParisTech Review

Onomastique et Big Data ParisTech Review La technologie d'association automatique des noms (automatic name clustering) permet de décrypter les identités complexes présentes dans les territoires quelque soit leur échelle (un continent, une rue) afin...
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Les réseaux dans le temps et dans l'espace, les actes ! | groupe fmr ...

Les réseaux dans le temps et dans l'espace, les actes ! | groupe fmr ... | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Antoine Grandclement, Les dynamiques spatiales des réseaux d'innovation : articuler réseaux d'acteurs et réseaux de lieux, p. 101-119. Julien Brailly, Guillaume Favre et Emmanuel Lazega, Temps et espace : l'impact de la ...
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Picture of the Day: Amsterdam from Above

Picture of the Day: Amsterdam from Above | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it

Amsterdam fans out south from the Amsterdam Centraal railway station. The oldest area of the town is known as de Wallen (the quays). Seen in the image above is the 17th century canal ring area of Amsterdam. The city has more than one hundred kilometres of canals, about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges. [Source]

 

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 805,166 within the city-proper, 1,563,141 in the urban region and 2,349,870 in the greater metropolitan area. It is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, a result of its innovative developments in trade. [Source]


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Al Picozzi's curator insight, November 6, 2013 5:09 PM

Amazing picture.  Also amazing is the technolgy that was used in the 12th century to keep the ocean out of this beautiful place.  Imagine the cost of a project like that in today's dollars or Euros. 

Mathijs Booden's comment, November 7, 2013 12:07 AM
The best thing about this view is the lack of high-rise buildings in the city centre.<br><br>@Al: the water body in the distance is not the ocean yet although it used to be. It's the Markerwaard, which is separated by two dikes from the North Sea and used to be a connected to the North Sea until early 20th century engineering efforts. The dike building was not directly aimed at protecting Amsterdam, but rather at reclaiming new land for agriculture. The Markerwaard (and IJsselmeer are now viewed as more important for recreation and water management and were never fully turned into polders.
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Facebook's trillion-edge, Hadoop-based and open source graph-processing engine

Facebook's trillion-edge, Hadoop-based and open source graph-processing engine | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
Facebook has detailed its extensive improvements to the open source Apache Giraph graph-processing platform. The project, which is built on top of Hadoop, can now process trillions of connections between people, places and things in minutes.
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DG2's curator insight, September 3, 2013 5:10 AM

Many ML algorithms are most readily expressed in terms of local, vertex-centric computations. Think of label propagation, k-means, spectral clustering ... All in all, moving from vector spaces to graphs is the natural thing to do in many applications. Giraph provides an efficient way to run this kind of algorithms on top of an existing Hadoop infrastructure.

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Le concept de goulag électronique. Analyse critique.

Le concept de goulag électronique. Analyse critique. | Networking the world - Espace et réseaux | Scoop.it
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