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Travel Through Deep Time With This Interactive Earth

Travel Through Deep Time With This Interactive Earth | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Explore key moments in Earth’s transformative history as continents drift and climate fluctuates over 4.6 billion years
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Soil is a non-renewable resource. Its preservation is essential for food security and our sustainable future

Soil is a non-renewable resource. Its preservation is essential for food security and our sustainable future | NetGeology | Scoop.it
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Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus

Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus | NetGeology | Scoop.it

The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development.

We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth. Compared to related fungi, an expanded number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and secretory lipases were detected; lipase gene expression was found to be altered by exposure to lipid compounds, which signaled a switch to dikaryotic, pathogenic growth. In addition, while enzymes to digest cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, and highly substituted forms of pectin were absent, along with depletion of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases that protect the fungus from oxidative stress, the repertoire of glycosyltransferases and of enzymes that could manipulate host development has expanded. A total of 14 % of the genome was categorized as repetitive sequences. Transposable elements have accumulated in mating-type chromosomal regions and were also associated across the genome with gene clusters of small secreted proteins, which may mediate host interactions.

 

The unique absence of enzyme classes for plant cell wall degradation and maintenance of enzymes that break down components of pollen tubes and flowers provides a striking example of biotrophic host adaptation.


Via Francis Martin
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Fossils rewrite history of penetrative sex

Fossils rewrite history of penetrative sex | NetGeology | Scoop.it
The history of sex may have to be rewritten thanks to a group of unsightly, long-extinct fish called placoderms. A careful study of fossils of these armour-plated creatures, which gave rise to all current vertebrates with jaws, suggests that their descendants — our ancient ancestors — switched their sexual practices from internal to external fertilization, an event previously thought to be evolutionarily improbable.
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World's Earliest Flower may Date back 162 million Years

World's Earliest Flower may Date back 162 million Years | NetGeology | Scoop.it
The world's first typical flower may date back to 162 million years ago, more than 37 million years earlier than previously thought, Chinese researchers reported in a new study.


The fossil flower, named Euanthus panii, was found in western Liaoning Province, according to the study, which was published in the recent edition of the UK-based Historical Biology, an international journal of paleobiology.
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Geology IN: What caused the Nepal earthquake?

Geology IN: What caused the Nepal earthquake? | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Geology IN is a geological website, has the latest geology news, best Minerals gallery, useful information about rocks, dinosaurs, field works, minerals, fossils, books, stratigraphy, and volcanoes
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Fossil reveals terror bird’s power

Fossil reveals terror bird’s power | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Bones of a new terror bird confirm the creatures used their beaks to hatchet their prey but also raise questions about what drove the birds extinct.
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Geoparques devem servir de alavanca das regiões

Geoparques devem servir de alavanca das regiões | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Em Portugal há quatro geoparques classificados pela UNESCO mas ainda é dada pouca importância ao seu valioso património geológico.
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Vinegar-Like Acid Rain May Have Fallen During Earth’s Worst Extinction

Vinegar-Like Acid Rain May Have Fallen During Earth’s Worst Extinction | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Vanilla-flavored rocks hint at a planet scoured by intense acid rain during the Great Dying 252 million years ago
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Geology IN: 10 Pictures that will make you want to become a Geologist

Geology IN: 10 Pictures that will make you want to become a Geologist | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Geology IN is a geological website, has the latest geology news, best Minerals gallery, useful information about rocks, dinosaurs, field works, minerals, fossils, books, stratigraphy, and volcanoes
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New meat-eating dinosaur lived in the wake of a mass extinction

New meat-eating dinosaur lived in the wake of a mass extinction | NetGeology | Scoop.it
A newly described dinosaur, whose fossils are some of the first to be unearthed in Venezuela, turns out to be the close, relatively small kin of creatures that later evolved into multiton meat eaters such as Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex. The creature, and another dinosaur whose fossils were found nearby and reported just 2 months ago, are filling in gaps in the fossil record and revealing new insights into dinosaur evolution in the wake of a mass extinction that happened about 201 million years ago.

The new species, dubbed Tachiraptor admirabilis, is a predator that gets part of its name from the Venezuelan state of Táchira, where the fossils were found. Only two bones of the ancient species have been unearthed, says Max Langer, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of São Paulo in Brazil. Nevertheless, those bits (each from a different individual, and one of them not even a complete bone) tell scientists a lot, Langer notes.
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The real sea monsters

The real sea monsters | NetGeology | Scoop.it
No known dinosaurs lived in the oceans. But there were lots of big aquatic reptiles that were every bit as ferocious and awesome.
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Mineralogy on Mars

A lecture on the mineralogy of Mars, using the latest data from the Mars rovers and orbiters. Fairly technical.

Via Ath Godelitsas
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Réptil que conviveu com os dinossauros descoberto por equipa de português

Réptil que conviveu com os dinossauros descoberto por equipa de português | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Fóssil recebeu nome de um feitiço que aparece na saga Harry Potter.
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Did dinosaur-killing asteroid trigger largest lava flows Earth ever saw?

Did dinosaur-killing asteroid trigger largest lava flows Earth ever saw? | NetGeology | Scoop.it

The asteroid that slammed into the ocean off Mexico 66 million years ago and killed off the dinosaurs probably rang the Earth like a bell, triggering volcanic eruptions around the globe that may have contributed to the devastation, according to a team of University of California, Berkeley, geophysicists.

 

Specifically, the researchers argue that the impact likely triggered most of the immense eruptions of lava in India known as the Deccan Traps, explaining the "uncomfortably close" coincidence between the Deccan Traps eruptions and the impact, which has always cast doubt on the theory that the asteroid was the sole cause of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

 

"If you try to explain why the largest impact we know of in the last billion years happened within 100,000 years of these massive lava flows at Deccan ... the chances of that occurring at random are minuscule," said team leader Mark Richards, UC Berkeley professor of earth and planetary science. "It's not a very credible coincidence."

 

Richards and his colleagues marshal evidence for their theory that the impact reignited the Deccan flood lavas in a paper to be published in The Geological Society of America Bulletin, available online today (April 30) in advance of publication.

 

While the Deccan lava flows, which started before the impact but erupted for several hundred thousand years after re-ignition, probably spewed immense amounts of carbon dioxide and other noxious, climate-modifying gases into the atmosphere, it's still unclear if this contributed to the demise of most of life on Earth at the end of the Age of Dinosaurs, Richards said.

 

Richards proposed in 1989 that plumes of hot rock, called "plume heads," rise through Earth's mantle every 20-30 million years and generate huge lava flows, called flood basalts, like the Deccan Traps. It struck him as more than coincidence that the last four of the six known mass extinctions of life occurred at the same time as one of these massive eruptions.

 

"Paul Renne's group at Berkeley showed years ago that the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province is associated with the mass extinction at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary 200 million years ago, and the Siberian Traps are associated with the end Permian extinction 250 million years ago, and now we also know that a big volcanic eruption in China called the Emeishan Traps is associated with the end-Guadalupian extinction 260 million years ago," Richards said. "Then you have the Deccan eruptions -- including the largest mapped lava flows on Earth -- occurring 66 million years ago coincident with the KT mass extinction.

 

Michael Manga, a professor in the same department, has shown over the past decade that large earthquakes -- equivalent to Japan's 9.0 Tohoku quake in 2011 -- can trigger nearby volcanic eruptions. Richards calculates that the asteroid that created the Chicxulub crater might have generated the equivalent of a magnitude 9 or larger earthquake everywhere on Earth, sufficient to ignite the Deccan flood basalts and perhaps eruptions many places around the globe, including at mid-ocean ridges.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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The Nepal Earthquake Made Mt. Everest an Inch Shorter

The Nepal Earthquake Made Mt. Everest an Inch Shorter | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Satellite data gives the first results for the way the land moved during the quake
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Geology IN: Study: Yellowstone magma much bigger than thought

Geology IN: Study: Yellowstone magma much bigger than thought | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Geology IN is a geological website, has the latest geology news, best Minerals gallery, useful information about rocks, dinosaurs, field works, minerals, fossils, books, stratigraphy, and volcanoes
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Old ice in Arctic vanishingly rare | NOAA Climate.gov

Old ice in Arctic vanishingly rare | NOAA Climate.gov | NetGeology | Scoop.it
(animation) Decades ago, the majority of the Arctic's winter ice pack was made up of thick, perennial ice. Today, very old ice is extremely rare.
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WATCH: A close-up view of lava dripping into the ocean

WATCH: A close-up view of lava dripping into the ocean | NetGeology | Scoop.it
The YouTube description on the video above , filmed by extremely-brave volcano photographer Kawika Singson , kind of says it all. You really can’t get a camera any closer to lava than this, unless you stick the camera into it. Which means that...
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Formação e evolução geológica do arquipélago da Madeira

Formação e evolução geológica do arquipélago da Madeira | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Programa sobre a formação e evolução geológica do arquipélago da Madeira, com a apresentação de João Baptista. Documentário feito nas ilhas Selvagens, Madeira e Porto Santo.
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Ancient Carnivorous Leaves Discovered in Amber | IFLScience

Ancient Carnivorous Leaves Discovered in Amber | IFLScience | NetGeology | Scoop.it
Working with Baltic amber from the Eocene epoch, researchers have discovered fossilized carnivorous plant traps for the first time ever. These leaves from insect-eating flowering plants are between 35 and 47 million years old, and they likely belong to the same family as a South African flypaper trap plant. The findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week. 
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WATCH: Why do rivers curve?

WATCH: Why do rivers curve? | NetGeology | Scoop.it
We've all seen rivers lazily wind back and forth across a landscape - but, surprisingly, there’s nothing random about their path. MinuteEarth explains the formula that determines when a river bends, and when it goes straight. Don't be deceived -...
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