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Synergy effects of herb extracts: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic basis

Synergy effects of herb extracts: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic basis | Natural Products | Scoop.it

Herbal medicine, especially traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine have played and still play an important role in fighting against various diseases. Emerging clinical studies regarding traditional Chinese medicine have provided convincing evidence for the first time to gain credibility and reputation outside China. Although synergistic therapeutic actions of herbal ingredients have been frequently reported, few reports have offered clear underlying mechanisms. This might be the main reason for the conflicting views with respect to the therapeutic efficacy of medicinal herbs. Therefore,this paper reviews the herb synergisms reported in the recent literature and discusses thoroughly the mechanisms underlying synergistic actions of herbal ingredients. The authors conducted an electronic literature search to detect articles published mainly in the last five years. Articles were included if they pertained to synergy research of ethnomedicines or the active compounds derived from them, included verification of synergy effects using modern analytical tools and molecular – biological methods. Results have revealed that the multi-component nature of medicinal herbs makes them particularly suitable for treating complex diseases and offers great potential for exhibiting synergistic actions. The mechanisms underlying synergistic therapeutic actions of herb medicines are (1): different agents may regulate either the same or different target in various pathways, and therefore cooperate in an agonistic, synergistic way; (2): regulate the enzymes and transporters that involved in hepatic and intestinal metabolism to improve oral drug bioavailability ; (3): overcome the drug resistance mechanisms of microbial and cancer cells; (4): eliminate the adverse effects and enhance pharmacological potency of agents by “processing” or by drug-drug interaction. The exploration of synergistic mechanisms of herbal ingredients will not only help researchers to discover new phytomedicines or drug combinations but also help to avoid the possible negative synergy. Further clinical research is required for verifying these reported drug combinations and discovered synergistic mechanisms.

 

Source:Fitoterapia
Author(s): Yong Yang , Zaiqi Zhang , Shuping Li , Xiaoli Ye , Xuegang Li , Kai He


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Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp. | Natural Products | Scoop.it

A dark brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity.

 

Christopher M. Pavlik†, Christina Y. B. Wong‡, Sophia Ononye†, Dioxelis D. Lopez‡, Niclas Engene§, Kerry L. McPhail, William H. Gerwick§, and Marcy J. Balunas

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np400198r


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Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Biological Activity of All Known (−)-Trigonoliimines

Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Biological Activity of All Known (−)-Trigonoliimines | Natural Products | Scoop.it

A full account of our concise and enantioselective total syntheses of all known (−)-trigonoliimine alkaloids is described. Our retrobiosynthetic analysis of these natural products enabled identification of a single bistryptamine precursor as a precursor to all known trigonoliimines through a sequence of transformations involving asymmetric oxidation and reorganization. Our enantioselective syntheses of these alkaloids enabled the revision of the absolute stereochemistry of (−)-trigonoliimines A, B, and C. We report that trigonoliimines A, B, C and structurally related compounds showed weak anticancer activities against HeLa and U-937 cells.

 

Sunkyu Han†, Karen C. Morrison‡, Paul J. Hergenrother‡, and Mohammad MovassaghiJ. Org. Chem., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/jo4020358Publication Date (Web): October 15, 2013 


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Meroterpenoids with Diverse Ring Systems from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32

Meroterpenoids with Diverse Ring Systems from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32 | Natural Products | Scoop.it

Fifteen meroterpenoids (1–15) with diverse ring systems including an unprecedented oxaspiro[5.5]nonane-fused cyclohexenone (1), hydrogenated benzofurans (2–5), hydrogenated chromans (6, 7), hydrogenated cyclopenta[b]chromans (8–11), and four monocyclic structures (12–15) were isolated from the sponge-associated fungus Alternariasp. JJY-32. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and assisted by chemical derivatizations. On the basis of supplementation experiments with specific enzyme inhibitors and putative precursors, a shikimate–isoprenoid hybrid biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The NF-κB inhibitory activities of 1–15 were tested, and all of them, except 6 and7 (IC50 > 100 μM), showed activities with IC50 values ranging from 39 to 85 μM in RAW264.7 cells.

 

Guojian Zhang †, Guangwei Wu †, Tianjiao Zhu †,Tibor Kurtán ‡, Attila Mándi ‡, Jieying Jiao †, Jing Li †, Xin Qi †, Qianqun Gu †, and Dehai Li

 

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np4005757


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Important Recall Information: A number of natural health products potentially contaminated with chloramphenicol may pose serious health risks to consumers - Recalls & alerts - Healthy Canadians Web...

Update: Additional natural health products potentially contaminated with chloramphenicol. http://t.co/3abmu3Odda #health #safety
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All Eyes on Aloe - Natural Products INSIDER

All Eyes on Aloe - Natural Products INSIDER | Natural Products | Scoop.it
All Eyes on Aloe
Natural Products INSIDER
NTP's aloe toxicity study raised concerns, but it was conducted on a part of the plant rarely found in natural products.
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Impact of copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in natural product synthesis: the emergence of new retrosynthetic paradigms

Impact of copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in natural product synthesis: the emergence of new retrosynthetic paradigms | Natural Products | Scoop.it

 

DOI: 10.1039/C3NP70071B Copper-catalyzed Ullmann–Goldberg-type cross-coupling reactions have undergone nothing short of a renaissance over the last decade and an impressive number of procedures are now available for the formation of C–N, C–O and C–S bonds with remarkable efficiencies and surgical precision. These reactions have been recently integrated into natural product synthesis, which clearly resulted in the emergence of new retrosynthetic paradigms and bond disconnections. The impact of copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in natural product synthesis will be overviewed in this article with an emphasis on the evolution of strategies due to copper catalysis, mostly by comparison with alternative tactics and their relative efficiencies.

 

 

 

Gwilherm Evano,*a   Cédric Theunissena and   Alexandre Pradala   Nat. Prod. Rep., 2013, Advance Article

 


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Natural Health News and Wellness Tips | Natural Remedies and Products: Vaccine Dangers: BOMBSHELL Admissions from CDC’s 1999 Epidemiologist

Natural Health News and Wellness Tips | Natural Remedies and Products: Vaccine Dangers: BOMBSHELL Admissions from CDC’s 1999 Epidemiologist | Natural Products | Scoop.it

Finally!  After all these years of denial and damage, the truth about ethylmercury in the form of Thimerosal (49.6%) in vaccines has been revealed to a member of the U.S. Congress as a result of oversight requests that were sent to the U.S. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) and shared with one of the foremost research groups regarding mercury in drugs, CoMeD, whose website is www.mercury-freedrugs.com. - See more at: http://www.naturalblaze.com/2013/10/vaccine-dangers-bombshell-admissions.html#sthash.Am7p0zif.dpuf


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4-Phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone Derivatives from Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Mangrove Plant Rhizophora stylosa

4-Phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone Derivatives from Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Mangrove Plant Rhizophora stylosa | Natural Products | Scoop.it

Six new 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives (1–6) along with the related aflaquinolone A (7) were isolated and identified from the cultures of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh leaves of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. In bioscreening experiments, none of the isolated compounds showed potent antibacterial or cytotoxic activity. However, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina), with LD50 values of 7.1, 4.5, and 5.5 μM, respectively.

 

Chun-Yan An †‡, Xiao-Ming Li †, Han Luo †‡, Chun-Shun Li †, Ming-Hui Wang †‡, Gang-Ming Xu †, andBin-Gui Wang

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np4004646

Publication Date (Web): October 7, 2013


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Gymnopalynes A and B, Chloropropynyl-isocoumarin Antibiotics from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Gymnopus sp.

Gymnopalynes A and B, Chloropropynyl-isocoumarin Antibiotics from Cultures of the Basidiomycete Gymnopus sp. | Natural Products | Scoop.it

A chlorinated isocoumarin with an acetylenyl side chain and its 3,4-dihydro derivative, named gymnopalynes A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of a basidiomycete originating from the rain forest of Northern Thailand. The producing organism was identified as a species of Gymnopus (Marasmiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV/vis and NMR spectroscopy as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry as 3-(3-chloroprop-1-yn-1-yl)-1H-isochromen-1-one (1) and 3-(3-chloroprop-1-yn-1-yl)-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one (2). The absolute stereochemistry of 2 was assigned as S by CD spectroscopy. Both compounds showed weak to moderate antimicrobial and pronounced cytotoxic activities.

 

Benjarong Thongbai†, Frank Surup‡, Kathrin Mohr‡, Eric Kuhnert‡, Kevin D. Hyde†, and Marc StadlerJ. Nat. Prod., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/np400609fPublication Date (Web): October 31, 2013 


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Pascale Klinger's curator insight, November 19, 2013 1:49 PM

I didn´t know this, did you?

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Additional cytotoxic substances isolated from the sponge-derived Gymnascella dankaliensis

Additional cytotoxic substances isolated from the sponge-derived Gymnascella dankaliensis | Natural Products | Scoop.it

A continuous investigation of secondary metabolites produced by the sponge-derived fungus, Gymnascella dankaliensis, has yielded a new polyketide tyrosine derivative, dankastatin C (3) and the known steroid, demethylincisterol A3 (4), which was originally found from a Homaxinella marine sponge. The stereostructure of the new compound has been determined based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. Dankastatin C (3) showed potent cell growth inhibitory activity against the murine P388 cell line.

 Taro Amagataa, , , Makoto Tanakab, Takeshi Yamadab, Yi-Pei Chena, Katsuhiko Minourab, Atsushi Numata

 

Tetrahedron Letters

Volume 54, Issue 45, 6 November 2013, Pages 5960–5962


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Seized natural health products from Lion King Health Enterprises, Richmond, B.C., contain hidden ingredients - Recalls & alerts - Healthy Canadians Website

Seized natural health products from Lion King Health Enterprises, Richmond, B.C., contain hidden ingredients - Recalls & alerts - Healthy Canadians Website | Natural Products | Scoop.it
Additional dangerous natural health products being sold by Lion King Health Enterprises http://t.co/FgMvlcug8k #health #safety
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Brands warned - Natural Products Magazine

Brands warned - Natural Products Magazine | Natural Products | Scoop.it
Answering a question from Natural Products about companies who might be considering trade-offs between getting their knuckles rapped by a regulator versus successfully getting their message across to consumers, ...
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Renewable chemicals ride wave of consumer demand for natural products - The News Journal

Renewable chemicals ride wave of consumer demand for natural products - The News Journal | Natural Products | Scoop.it
Renewable chemicals ride wave of consumer demand for natural products
The News Journal
Consumers also are demanding more natural ingredients in their favorite products without having to pay more for them.
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