Natural Language processing
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Natural Language processing
How can computers handle human language. Linguistic theory and research. What are the latest discoveries about languages. Latest research discoveries.
Curated by Mariana Soffer
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On Sense-Making

On Sense-Making | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

How many of you have a friend/peer/co-worker in love with some new approach to solving problems?  Whether it’s Scrum, Agile, or The Lean Startup, we all know people who jump on the latest trend and try to apply it to every situation. Now, what about the opposite? Someone who refuses to give up the method they’ve used for 20 years. Who’s right? Well, the answer is: it depends on who’s asking. Different problems warrant different approaches.


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, May 24, 2013 9:12 AM

We often treat everything as simple or complicated and there is more complexity ad chaos than we acknowledge.

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A Data Scientist's Real Job: Storytelling

A Data Scientist's Real Job: Storytelling | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Crunching numbers is only half the battle.
Mariana Soffer's insight:

Using Big Data successfully requires human translation and context whether it's for your staff or the people your organization is trying to reach. Without a human frame, like photos or words that make emotion salient, data will only confuse, and certainly won't lead to smart organizational behavior.

Data gives you the what, but humans know the why.

The best business decisions come from intuitions and insights informed by data. Using data in this way allows your organization to build institutional knowledge and creativity on top of a solid foundation of data-driven insights.

 
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luiy's curator insight, June 28, 2013 8:40 AM

When many people hear "Big Data," they think "Big Brother" (Type "big data is..." into Google and one of the top recommendations is, "...watching you."). Central to this anxiety is a feeling that what it means to be human can't be tracked or quantified by computers. This fear is well-founded. As the cost of collecting and storing data continues to decrease, the volume of raw data an organization has available can be overwhelming. Of all the data in existence, 90% was created in the last 2 years. Inundated organizations can lose sight of the difference between what's statistically significant and what's important for decision-making.

 

Using Big Data successfully requires human translation and context whether it's for your staff or the people your organization is trying to reach. Without a human frame, like photos or words that make emotion salient, data will only confuse, and certainly won't lead to smart organizational behavior.

 

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Take Your Place At The Table For Building Intelligent Virtual Assistants

Take Your Place At The Table For Building Intelligent Virtual Assistants | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Take Your Place At The Table For Building Intelligent Virtual Assistants
Mariana Soffer's insight:

 The opportunity awaits at SparkingTogether, where researchers, programmers, and companies can contribute features, behavior and knowledge to an online platform, dubbed FIONA, for creating next-gen virtual avatars. FIONA stands for Framework for Interactive Services Over Natural-conversational Agents.  

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Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis papers from Computational Linguistics

Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis papers from Computational Linguistics | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis papers from Computational Linguistics Open Access Journal Natural Language ProcessingSentiment AnalysisOpinion MiningText
Mariana Soffer's insight:

 Maite Taboad et.all, Lexicon-Based Methods for Sentiment Analysis,http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/COLI_a_00049

 

Guang Qi, Opinion Word Expansion and Target Extraction through Double Propagation, http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/coli_a_00034

 

Richard Johansson et.all, Relational Features in Fine-Grained Opinion Analysis, http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/COLI_a_00141

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On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning

On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Chomsky said words to the effect that statistical language models have had some limited success in some application areas. Let's look at computer systems that deal with language, and at the notion of "success" defined by "making accurate predictions about the world." First, the major application areas:


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Stuart Battersby, Chatterbox API, Machine Learning meets Social

Stuart Battersby, Chatterbox API, Machine Learning meets Social | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
ProgrammableWeb.com keeps you up to date with web mashups and APIs: what's new, interesting, useful and important. Hundreds of mashups and APIs. Contribute, search, view, and chart them.
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Agent-Based Models of Strategies for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammatical Agreement

Agent-Based Models of Strategies for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammatical Agreement | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender) become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise.

 

Beuls K, Steels L (2013) Agent-Based Models of Strategies for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammatical Agreement. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058960


Via Complexity Digest
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luiy's curator insight, June 28, 2013 8:34 AM

We presented here the first agent-based models to explore how and why a grammatical agreement system may originate and get culturally transmitted in a process of cultural invention and social learning, based on the hypothesis that agreement systems are useful to avoid combinatorial explosions in parsing and semantic ambiguity in interpretation. Agreement systems thus help to minimize cognitive effort and maximize communicative success. After demonstrating how formal markers could arise, we presented strategies showing how meaningful markers could originate, and how markers could become recruited from existing words. We demonstrated also how recruited words could erode to lead to greater articulatory efficiency, at a cost of giving fewer hints for new language users, and how coercion helps to apply an agreement system more broadly so that fewer agreement markers are needed.

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The World Atlas of Language Structures

The World Atlas of Language Structures | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

"The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of 55 authors (many of them the leading authorities on the subject)."


Via Amira
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Mariana Soffer's comment, September 8, 2012 12:12 PM
txs for this, looks very useful for my work :)
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The Quantum Linguist

The Quantum Linguist | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Bob Coecke has developed a new visual language that could be used to spell out a theory of quantum gravity—and help us understand human speech.

 

"It’s a much more natural way to write things," says Coecke. "It cuts out a lot of syntactic garbage in the usual models of maths. Going to the more complicated stuff is still sort of rationally manageable." That means you can go on to describe the relations between different, and complicated, quantum processes in a clear and simple way—an especially useful trick when you want to represent some of the strange features of quantum theory, such as entanglement, nonlocality and teleportation.

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The Evolution of Folklore

The Evolution of Folklore | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

I have been fascinated by myths and legends for as long as I can remember. Whether it is Jason & The Argonauts or Roswell Aliens our stories come to define generations and their values. When looking at ancient Greek mythology such as The Odyssey or Herakles one can discern what Greek society valued and thought about the natural and supernatural worlds. By that same gesture looking at more modern myths such as the Roswell Conspiracy and the mystery surrounding ‘Crop Circles’ one can again see how contemporary society approaches the same issues.


Via Pamela D Lloyd
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Exhibition Items - Books That Shaped America -  Exhibitions - myLOC.gov (Library of Congress)

Exhibition Items - Books That Shaped America -  Exhibitions - myLOC.gov (Library of Congress) | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Books That Shaped America We all bring a different set of experiences to a book, and those experiences shape how we react to what we read.

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Weekly Journaling Prompts: The Priority Balancing Act — Writing Through Life

Weekly Journaling Prompts: The Priority Balancing Act — Writing Through Life | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
This week’s journaling prompts—or should I say processes—are designed to help you and me clarify values and priorities and get back on track, doing whatever it is we really want and love to do.

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The Heart and Craft of Life Writing: What’s the Difference Between an Essay and a Story?

The Heart and Craft of Life Writing: What’s the Difference Between an Essay and a Story? | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

In general, personal essays are well-suited for the overall purpose of Story in making sense of experiences and perceptions. The essay writing process helps arrange reflective fragments into insights and coherent story. Once this basic understanding is in place, it can be embellished and polished into a work of art by employing description, dialogue, plot, and other tools that add impact for readers.


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Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

What cultural and social processes determine the size and growth of the vocabulary of a natural language? Does such a vocabulary grow forever? From large text databases, such as the Google Ngram, that have become available only recently, researchers tease out new and systematic insights into these fundamental questions and develop a mathematical model with predictive power that describes vocabulary growth as a simple stochastic process.


Via Martin
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On the history of the question of whether natural language is "illogical"

On the history of the question of whether natural language is "illogical" | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Barbara H Partee University of Massachusetts Amherst There have been centuries of study of logic and of language. Some philosophers and logicians have argued that natural language is logically defi...
Mariana Soffer's insight:

The logician and philosopher Richard Montague argued that natural languages do have a very systematic semantic structure, but that it can be understood only if one uses a rich enough logic to mirror the rich syntactic structure of natural languages. This essay briefly sketches the history of arguments about the relation between natural language syntax and logical structure,

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Languages, Litanies, and the Limit

Languages, Litanies, and the Limit | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
In this article, I explore Stephenson's use of mathematical objects and philosophies in his novel Anathem (2008). Comparing it to Plato's Timaeus, I argue that the novel should not be read as a literal expression of Stephenson's own philosophical commitments, but that it should instead be treated as a thought-experiment in metaphysical possibility. I then situate the novel in the context of mathematical philosophy, and by means of close readings of the relevant passages, proceed to argue that the conclusion of Anathemsuggests a possible reconciliation between Platonist and Fictionalist philosophies of mathematics.
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The Stories Ontology

The Stories Ontology | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Mariana Soffer's insight:

Stories are present throughout our everyday lives and our history: books, film, television, and radio weave events into narrative and plot; myths and legends are passed between generations; news stories describe both ongoing and past events. These stories often share similar themes, characters, items, and locations: by providing an approach to linking these items together, stories can become powerfully navigable, discoverable, and open to new analysis and creation techniques. The Stories ontology was developed in collaboration with the BBC, with an aim to creating an ontology for narrative representation that could be applied across a diverse set of cases.

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List of Machine Learning APIs

List of Machine Learning APIs | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Wikipedia defines Machine Learning as “a branch of artificial intelligence that deals with the construction and study of systems that can learn from data.”
Below is a compilation of APIs that have...
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Mining Tweets for Public Opinion

Mining Tweets for Public Opinion | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it
Twitter, Facebook and other social media contain tantalizing signals about public opinion. Extracting that from the noise is the challenge facing a new batch of researchers.
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Steve Miller's curator insight, March 12, 2013 2:27 PM

Read through this article with the recent Pew Research Center study on public opinion and Twitter in hand. While this is a positive perspective on the potential of Twitter to measure the pulse of public opinion, I think it confirms that Twitter is much more reactive than predictive. Does that mean Twitter is useless as a tool to gauge, or more important, shape public opinion? Not as long as you keep its limitations in mind, that Twitter is more a lightening strike in time versus the snapshot ascribed to polls and surveys. Like lightening, Twitter in highly unpredictable.

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21 Emotions with No English Word Equivalents

21 Emotions with No English Word Equivalents | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

This is the early stage research of the project. In late January, 2012, I emailed around Royal College of Art asking for words describing emotions in languages other than English that are untranslatable into English. Interesting enough, in order to understand the untranslatable words I had to have several correspondence with the person who contributed the word, and through this back-and-forth discussion can I actually get the glimpse of the emotion itself. These explanation of the untranslatable words are often in the format of "it is a kind of (emotion A), close to (emotion B), and somehow between (emotion C) and (emotion D)." This triggers me to map out the emotions based on the classification of emotions provided in Shaver et al. - "Emotion Knowledge - Futher Exploration of a Prototype Approach." in the book Emotions in Social Psychology by W. Parrott (2001). Which I intented to visualised the untranslatable words as chemical molecules that reacts with the emotion "nodes" to the fact that untranslatable words are often complicated emotions that are the mixture of other translatable emotions.


Via Martin Daumiller, FastTFriend, Wildcat2030
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Martin Daumiller's curator insight, January 18, 2013 6:26 AM

Design student Pei-Ying Lin took Parrot|s Classification of Human Emotions as a base and tried to add different emotions to it, which don't exist in English, but in other languages, such as Hebrew, Russian, German, Italian, Mandarin, etc.

She tried to express similarities and closeness to other emotions and managed to visualize the relationship between the foreign emotion-words and the English ones.

In Lins words, her project is one "that investigates human emotions and languages. By re-looking at how humans communicate, it searches for a way to connect our inner self and personal emotions, through the design of a personal language and several new ways of communication. It is an investigation of how language can be improvised to connect our emotions in this multilingual world."

This is a nice example and visualization of the culture-rootedness of emotions. It underlines the historical and social background necessary for the development of a certain set-of-mind required to feel and express specific emotions.

Sophie Martin's comment, March 13, 2013 7:30 PM
full size http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-01/emotions-which-there-are-no-english-words-infographic
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Language family

Language family | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. No actual biological relationship between speakers is implied by the metaphor.


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A Journalist’s Guide To Infographics [INFOGRAPHIC]

A Journalist’s Guide To Infographics [INFOGRAPHIC] | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Infographics can be great link building tools. Many folks assume that developing great infographics is too hard. In reality, it is pretty straight forward if you keep things simple, sweet, and to the point. You are going to need a good looking visual too. Covering a trending topic helps as well.

 


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The "Interpreter" in Your Head Spins Stories to Make Sense of the World

The "Interpreter" in Your Head Spins Stories to Make Sense of the World | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Michael Gazzaniga is a leading neuroscientist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and has worked for decades with patients whose brains have been surgically split in half. In this excerpt from his book Who’s in Charge? Free Will and the Science of the Brain, he looks at what this procedure reveals about human consciousness. 

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Carl Jung’s Archetypes | Wired Cosmos

Carl Jung’s Archetypes | Wired Cosmos | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

In order to understand archetypes we must understand the nature and function of the collective unconscious. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is not like the personal unconscious as first introduced by psychoanalysis. It is detached from the personal unconscious because it belongs to the human species as a whole. It is inherited, just as physical aspects of our bodies are inherited. Because of this, a human being does not enter the world as a blank slate but rather with the innate and inherited tendencies of the collective unconscious. These tendencies are what Jung termed “archetypes.”


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Enchanted Conversation: A Fairy Tale Magazine: Fairies come bring my true love

Enchanted Conversation: A Fairy Tale Magazine: Fairies come bring my true love | Natural Language processing | Scoop.it

Fairy tales don't often features actual fairies, so it's intriguing to have a poem that brings them to us (or us to them). Hercynius has given us a vivid peek into nature as well, with this work.

 

By Hercynius

 

 


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