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How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data

How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

This interactive graphic is based on the data for candidate planets identified by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. Kepler found these planets by recording the slight dimming of the light from a star caused by a planet passing in front of it.

 

About 10 per cent of the candidate planets will probably turn out to be no such thing – it's possible to mistake the second star in a binary star system for a giant planet, for example. On the other hand, Kepler probably missed around 10 per cent of the planets that passed in front of target stars because the dimming of the star's light was too slight to detect against the natural variability in the stars' light output. These two numbers roughly cancel each another out, so they are not included in our calculations.

 

The first step in answering "How many Earths?" was to ignore planets twice the Earth's diameter or larger: these are likely to be gas giants like Jupiter, not rocky worlds like ours. However, such planets may possess rocky moons, which could well host life.

 

Not all of the remaining planets will be hospitable to life. For example, carbon-rich planets could have a graphite crust with layers of diamond below and rivers of oil and tar.

 

Kepler could not determine a planet's composition, but to calculate how many planets might be friendly to life, we estimated the number in stars' habitable zones – orbits where a planet will be neither too hot nor too cold for water to exist in liquid form.

 

Defining a star's habitable zone is a complex process, but as a reasonable proxy we used Kepler's estimates of planets' equilibrium temperature. This is the temperature that would be measured at a planet's surface if it were a black body heated by its parent star without any atmospheric greenhouse effect.

 

The next step – the most uncertain part of our quest – was extrapolating to the total number of roughly Earth-sized planets likely to be orbiting Kepler's 150,000 target stars. Simple geometry tells us that Kepler will have missed most of these planets: the tilts of their orbits mean they never passed between their parent stars and the telescope. And the farther out a planet orbits, the harder it was for Kepler to detect.

 

Taking everything into account, the best estimate for the average number of roughly Earth-sized planets in each star's habitable zone is 0.15, according to simulations based on Kepler data thatCourtney Dressing and David Charbonneau of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, performed. Applying this average to Kepler's 150,000 target stars gave our estimate of 22,500 potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.

 

There is an important caveat, though. Dressing and Charbonneau's calculations are for class M stars, which have a reddish hue and account for about three-quarters of the stars in our galaxy. But about 80 per cent of Kepler's target stars are class G stars, like our sun, which are yellowish. Nobody knows for sure whether these different classes of stars have similar populations of planets.

 

The final step in our quest was to extrapolate to the entire galaxy. Estimates of the number of stars in the Milky Way vary from 100 billion to 200 billion. Applying the same estimate of 0.15 potentially Earth-like planets per star gave our figure of between 15 and 30 billion.

 

If we had displayed all these potential planets in the final view, the sky would have become a mass of green. To give a meaningful view for someone here on Earth, we selected stars from the European Space Agency's Tycho-2 catalogue with an apparent magnitude of 10.5 or brighter – these stars would be visible on a dark night with a good pair of binoculars. We have displayed a random sample of 15 per cent of these stars, corresponding to Dressing and Charbonneau's estimate of stars with potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California's insight:

2500 years ago, the Buddha is said to have remarked that there are "many, many" planets with beings just like us..... 

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WarkaWater | Each Drop Counts

WarkaWater | Each Drop Counts | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

The Warka’s water harvesting technique and construction system are inspired by several sources. Many plants and animals have developed unique micro- and nano-scale structural features on their surfaces that enable them to collect water from the air and survive in hostile environments. By studying the Namib beetle’s shell, lotus flower leaves, spider web threads and the integrated fog collection system in cactus, we are identifying specific materials and coatings that can enhance dew condensation and water flow and storage capabilities of the mesh. The termite hives have influenced the design of Warka’s outer shell, its airflow, shape and geometry. We also looked at local cultures and vernacular architecture, incorporating traditional Ethiopian basket-weaving techniques in Warka’s design.


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Eric Larson's curator insight, February 6, 9:13 PM

Fascinating design???

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Nano-thermite - Urgent: Scientists Discover Explosives in 9/11 WTC Dust Used in Controlled Demolitions. Superthermite. Physics Journal Publishes Peer Reviewed Paper. Red Super-Thermite Chips Found ...

Nano-thermite - Urgent: Scientists Discover Explosives in 9/11 WTC Dust Used in Controlled Demolitions. Superthermite. Physics Journal Publishes Peer Reviewed Paper. Red Super-Thermite Chips Found ... | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Hard scientific evidence that 9/11 was an inside job. World Trade Center towers destroyed by controlled demolitions using Nano-thermite
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Cat Fight

Cat Fight | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

In many states in the U.S., it’s legal to trap and kill bobcats, a native and abundant wild feline. It’s also legal to capture the cats with steel-jaw traps – tools so hazardous and indiscriminate that they’ve been banned in more than 80 countries. And it’s not just how bobcats are caught that’s controversial – it’s the gruesome way many are killed to protect their pelts: strangulation.

The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California's insight:
Homo stupidus strikes again.....
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No Seal, No Deal: Orcas Surround Boat as Seal Takes Refuge (VIDEO)

No Seal, No Deal: Orcas Surround Boat as Seal Takes Refuge (VIDEO) | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
A very clever Canadian seal managed to escape a pod of orcas when it hid on board a tour boat. Sightseers were treated to an intense stakeout as the pod surrounded the boat in an effort to catch their prey off the coast of Vancouver Island.
The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California's insight:
Mmmmm, seal......
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Grazing in National Forest Restricted to Protect Rare California Frogs, Toads : Indybay

Grazing in National Forest Restricted to Protect Rare California Frogs, Toads : Indybay | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
OAKLAND, Calif., August 17, 2016 — In response to a notice of intent to sue filed by the Center for Biological Diversity, the U.S. Forest Service has restricted livestock grazing on the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest to prevent harm to the Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog and Yosemite toad, both of which are protected under the Endangered Species Act. The federal agency said in a letter that it is undergoing consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and has adjusted grazing management for the 2016 season to prevent harm to the two imperiled amphibians.
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Exact Reproductions Approved of Mysterious ‘Unbreakable’ Coded Voynich Manuscript (PHOTOS)

Exact Reproductions Approved of Mysterious ‘Unbreakable’ Coded Voynich Manuscript (PHOTOS) | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

A mysterious Renaissance-era manuscript filled with an unknown coded language is due to be reproduced and distributed by a Spanish publisher following the company’s 10-year campaign to secure the deal.

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Cannabis Fights Cartilage Loss in Arthritis - Culture Magazine - Cannabis Lifestyle and News Magazine

Cannabis Fights Cartilage Loss in Arthritis -  Culture Magazine - Cannabis Lifestyle and News Magazine | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
RT @iReadCulture: Cannabis Fights Cartilage Loss in Arthritis - https://t.co/v93APiuNfu #cannabis #iReadCulture #arthritis https://t.co/59V…
Via MildGreen Initiative, Eric Larson
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MildGreen Initiative's curator insight, August 18, 6:26 AM
We need Better Joints, JK!
Eric Larson's curator insight, August 18, 9:34 AM
Arthritis help?
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What's the difference between FAT and FAT32?

What's the difference between FAT and FAT32? | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
FAT (File Allocation Table) is a file system used on computers. Its function is to map out which areas of the drive are unused and which areas of the drive contain files. A file system is very important as it facilitates the seamless reading and writing files to the drive. FAT32 is just one of the variants of FAT that appeared as it evolved to adapt to the increasing requirements of computing. It is the latest and most widely used in the succession of FAT variants.

FAT32, as could be easily discerned by the 32 suffix, uses 32 bits to represent each cluster value. The more notable FAT variant that preceded FAT32, commonly known as FAT16, uses 16 bits; older versions of FAT used 12 and 8 bits. More bits directly translate to more locations that can be addressed and more total usable storage. FAT32 can have partitions of up to 2TB or 2000GB, which is significantly more compared to the 4GB limit that can be addressed by FAT16. FAT32 also has a 4GB limit to the size of individual files.

Although hard drives with capacities of 2TB or more are not yet very common, a certain shortcoming of FAT32 has prompted the move towards other more superior file systems like NTFS and Ext3.(there is detail tutorial of convert FAT32 to NTFS) Despite falling out of favor in most operating systems, FAT32 still manages to persist. Due to its age and popularity, FAT32 has become the file system of choice for removable media like flash cards, USB drives, and even for the internal memories of cameras and mobile phones. Using FAT32 means that the device will very likely work with whatever operating system it is connected to.

Right now, FAT32 is the only version of FAT that is still widely used. However, as capacities of storage media begin to increase, the weaknesses of FAT32 would become clearer. There are other FAT replacements on the horizon like exFAT, but it is meant for newer, removable media like SDXC. For current media with capacitites of under 32GB, FAT32 is still the most appropriate version of FAT to use.

Summary: 1.FAT32 is just a variant of FAT. 2.FAT32 uses 32 bits while other variants of FAT use less. 3.FAT32 has the highest capacity among different FAT variants. 4.FAT32 is the only variant of FAT still in widespread use today

Via Skylly_W
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11 Cool Ways to Use Machine Learning - InformationWeek

11 Cool Ways to Use Machine Learning - InformationWeek | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Machine learning is becoming widespread, and organizations are using it in a variety of ways, including improving cybersecurity, enhancing recommendation engines, and optimizing self-driving cars. Here's a look at 11 interesting use cases for this technology.

Via Alama, Anna
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#aboriginals #Indigenous #Australians Fight Planned #Nuclear Dump On #Sacred Lands #MSM #journalist

#aboriginals #Indigenous #Australians Fight Planned #Nuclear Dump On #Sacred Lands #MSM #journalist | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
"It's like me and my sisters going to the Vatican and saying we want to put a waste dump right under the pillar where they say St. Peter is buried."
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#Ocean Slime Spreading Quickly Across the Earth #climate #EU #G20 #Africa #Asia #USA #America #Brazil

#Ocean Slime Spreading Quickly Across the Earth #climate #EU #G20 #Africa #Asia #USA #America #Brazil | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Toxic algae blooms, perhaps accelerated by ocean warming and other climate shifts, are spreading, poisoning marine life and people.
Via CineversityTV
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Transborder Immigrant Tool Series: Learn Desert Secrets From Bedouins and Indigenous Travelers

Transborder Immigrant Tool Series: Learn Desert Secrets From Bedouins and Indigenous Travelers | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Poet Amy Sara Carroll wrote a series of 24 poems, titled “The Desert Survival Series/La serie de sobrevivencia del desierto,” which were uploaded onto cellphones equipped with simple compasses and interfaces. Each poem is a form of lyrical advice that provides readers and listeners with tools for every hour of a day spent in the pernicious borderlands between the U.S. and Mexico. Truthdig will publish each of these poems in both Spanish and English over the next few weeks in our Poetry section, accompanied with bilingual audio recordings by various contributors to the project. To read the first and second poems in the series, click on the hyperlinks. For more information on the project, watch the video presentation below.

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NASA Opens Doors to the Public, Offers Free Access to Research | ZDNet

NASA Opens Doors to the Public, Offers Free Access to Research | ZDNet | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
The space agency has launched a new portal for the public to access scientific data without parting with a penny.

Via Bonnie Bracey Sutton
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Werner Herzog Thinks the Internet May Destroy Us

Werner Herzog Thinks the Internet May Destroy Us | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
And now, nearly a half century after its beginnings, where are we? Herzog takes us to a place near Seattle where victims of Internet addiction are treated; a rural haven where there are no Internet signals, where humans who would die if they were exposed to Wi-Fi signals are forced to live (for real!); a revealing interview with Bay Area entrepreneur Elon Musk on how the Internet might ultimately save humankind and allow us to populate other planets; a talk with Stanford Professor Sebastian Thrun on the potential of Wi-Fi-enhanced artificial intelligence; and a scientist who warns that just the right type of solar flare will destroy the Internet and lead to mass chaos, possibly throwing civilization back to a kind of Middle Ages.
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9-11 Research: Aluminothermic Technology

9-11 Research: Aluminothermic Technology | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
One of the critiques of theories that thermite was used to destroy the World Trade Center skyscrapers asserts that thermite preparations don't have sufficient explosive power to account for the observed features of the buildings' destruction. This criticism seems to be uninformed by knowledge of some of the aluminothermic preparations known to exist -- particularly those being researched for military applications.

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Your Call: Preserving our National Parks for Future Generations - Rose Aquilar

Your Call: Preserving our National Parks for Future Generations - Rose Aquilar | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
On August 25th 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the act creating the National Park Service (NPS), bringing 35 parks and monuments under federal oversight. Today, the NPS protects more than 400 areas encompassing 84 million acres. Climate change, development, years of under funding, and other issues pose serious challenges to preserving these cultural and historic sites. How should we protect and conserve our national treasures for future generations? It’s Your Call with Rose Aguilar and you.

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Yurok Tribe Finds Deadly Disease in Klamath River Salmon : Indybay

Yurok Tribe Finds Deadly Disease in Klamath River Salmon : Indybay | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
The depressed salmon run is arriving this fall as the Klamath River Tribes and fishing groups are engaged in litigation against the federal government and federal water contractors over their failure to protect the river’s salmon. On July 29, the Hoopa Valley Tribe filed a lawsuit against the federal government for violations of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) over management actions that have imperiled Coho salmon on the Klamath. (http://www.dailykos.com/stories/2016/7/29/1554325/-Hoopa-Valley-Tribe-Files-ESA-Lawsuit-to-Protect-Salmon)
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3 Reasons the Standing Rock Sioux Can Stop the Dakota Access Pipeline

3 Reasons the Standing Rock Sioux Can Stop the Dakota Access Pipeline | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
America has more than 2.5 million miles of oil and gas pipelines crossing the country in every direction. So plans to construct the 1,172-mile Dakota Access pipeline from oil fields in North Dakota through South Dakota and Iowa to Patoka, Illinois, were supposed to be a nonevent. The regulatory process was largely through state commissions and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and far less stringent than the successfully opposed Keystone XL pipeline.

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The Japanese Government Officially Lists THIS Ancient Medicinal Mushroom as a Cancer Treatment!

The Japanese Government Officially Lists THIS Ancient Medicinal Mushroom as a Cancer Treatment! | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Mushrooms aren’t everybody’s cup of tea, but there’s certainly an abundance of them in nature. Over 10,00 species of mushrooms are known to man, and all but 50-100 of them are edible.

Certain varieties are prized for their abilities, like Tochukasu, which increases ATP production, boosts endurance and strength, and fights aging and Cordyceps, which are used to fight respiratory disorders and improve liver function (5,6).

Via Poppen Report, Eric Larson, The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California
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Eric Larson's curator insight, August 16, 7:44 PM
Mushrooms help with cancer.
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Squash Bees: How Squash Agriculture Spread Bees in Pre-Columbian North America

Squash Bees: How Squash Agriculture Spread Bees in Pre-Columbian North America | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
"Using genetic markers, researchers have found that the spread of the squash bee in pre-Columbian Central and North America was tied to the spread of squash agriculture. This is the first time researchers have been able to show how cultivating a specific crop led to the expansion of a pollinator species." See http://bit.ly/28VKrmj

Via Bruce Shriver, Eric Larson
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Bruce Shriver's curator insight, June 26, 4:07 PM
Unlike the honey bees which fly during the day, squash bees fly before sunrise. You can read about squash bees at http://bit.ly/28Vtqty
Eric Larson's curator insight, July 10, 8:40 AM
Genetic markers and bees?
Eric Larson's curator insight, August 18, 9:39 AM
Squash bees?
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The College of Chinese Wisdom

The College of Chinese Wisdom | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

Telling young people to discover their true selves causes confusion and anxiety. Better to follow Confucius, who knew that our identities are in constant flux.

 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen, Ricard Lloria, Anna
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Kenneth Mikkelsen's curator insight, April 3, 12:07 PM

According to Confucius and other Chinese philosophers, we shouldn’t be looking for our essential self, let alone seeking to embrace it, because there is no true, unified self to begin with.

 

Demarcio Washington's curator insight, April 3, 1:31 PM

According to Confucius and other Chinese philosophers, we shouldn’t be looking for our essential self, let alone seeking to embrace it, because there is no true, unified self to begin with.

 

Mónica Díaz's curator insight, April 4, 8:43 AM

According to Confucius and other Chinese philosophers, we shouldn’t be looking for our essential self, let alone seeking to embrace it, because there is no true, unified self to begin with.

 

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Three-year retention of #radioactive #cesium in the body of #Tepco workers involved in the #Fukushima accident

Three-year retention of #radioactive #cesium in the body of #Tepco workers involved in the #Fukushima accident | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Direct measurements of seven highly exposed workers at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been performed continuously since June 2011. Caesium clearance in the monitored workers is in agreement with the biokinetic models proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. After 500 d from the initial measurement, however, the caesium clearance slowed. It was thought to be unlikely that additional Cs intake had occurred after the initial intake, as activity in foods was kept low. And, the contribution from the detector over the chest was enhanced with time. This indicates that insoluble Cs particles were inhaled and a long metabolic rate showed.

Via Ton Kraanen, CineversityTV
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Hybrid System Designed to Harvest 'Full Spectrum' of #solar energy #renewables #Nuitdebout

Hybrid System Designed to Harvest 'Full Spectrum' of #solar energy #renewables #Nuitdebout | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
A new concept could bring highly efficient solar power by combining three types of technologies that convert different parts of the light spectrum and also store energy for use after sundown.

Combining the technologies could make it possible to harness and store far more of the spectrum of sunlight than is possible using any one of the technologies separately.

"Harvesting the full spectrum of sunlight using a hybrid approach offers the potential for higher efficiencies, lower power production costs, and increased power grid compatibility than any single technology by itself," said Peter Bermel, an assistant professor in Purdue University's School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. "The idea is to use technologies that, for the most part exist now, but to combine them in a creative way that allows us to get higher efficiencies than we normally would."

The approach combines solar photovoltaic cells, which convert visible and ultraviolet light into electricity, thermoelectric devices that convert heat into electricity, and steam turbines to generate electricity. The thermoelectric devices and steam turbines would be driven by heat collected and stored using mirrors to focus sunlight onto a newly designed "selective solar absorber and reflector."

"This is a spectrally selective system, so it is able to efficiently make use of as much of the spectrum as possible," he said. "The thermal storage allows for significant flexibility in the time of power generation, so the system can produce power for hours after sunset, providing a consistent source of power throughout the day."

Findings from the research are detailed in a paper with an advance online publication date of Aug. 15, and the paper is scheduled to appear in a future print issue of the journal Energy & Environmental Science.

Via Mariaschnee, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, CineversityTV
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Harvard University Finds Cannabis Cuts Tumor Growth in Half in Three Weeks | We Are Change

Harvard University Finds Cannabis Cuts Tumor Growth in Half in Three Weeks | We Are Change | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it

A Harvard University study from 2007 which remains the most comprehensive ever released on THC’s potential to combat tumors found that in just three weeks doses of THC were able to cut lung cancer tumor growth in half in mice subjects, and were able to reduce cancer lesions by even more. 

 

Following the lab test, researchers dosed mice – which were implanted with human lung cancer cells – with THC, and found that in just three weeks, tumors were reduced in both size and weight by roughly 50% compared to a control group.


Via Sepp Hasslberger, anisio luiz nogueira
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Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, August 21, 10:30 AM

Well, what are the politicians waiting for? I think we need a change of policy direction here...

Naomie Mullins's comment, August 21, 6:07 PM
ASPIRIN was inspired by the active ingredient in willow bark...salicylic acid...
Naomie Mullins's comment, August 21, 6:08 PM
Several years ago, a woman whose doctors said it would be impossible to operate on her extremely painful “inflammatory breast cancer,” had overnight complete relief of the pain and swelling from taking a few aspirins. The recognized anti-metastatic effect of aspirin, and its ability to inhibit the development of new blood vessels that would support the tumor’s growth, make it an appropriate drug to use for pain control, even if it doesn’t shrink the tumor. In studies of many kinds of tumor, though, it does cause regression, or at least slows tumor growth. And it protects against many of the systemic consequences of cancer, including wasting (cachexia), immunosuppression, and strokes.
http://www.functionalps.com/blog/2012/04/22/ray-peat-phd-on-aspirin/
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The Rate of Species Decline is 'No Longer Safe' for Humans

The Rate of Species Decline is 'No Longer Safe' for Humans | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
Animal and plant species are declining so quickly that world biodiversity loss is no longer within a “safe limit” and could start to threaten much of the planet’s ability to support humans, according to a major new study. Experts analysed nearly 2.4 million records about more than 39,000 species at 18,600 different places around the world. They discovered that for 58.1 per cent of the world’s land surface the loss of biodiversity was serious enough to call into question its ability to sustain the 5.3 billion people who live there.

Via Khannea Suntzu, Giannis Tompros
The Planetary Archives / San Francisco, California's insight:
Will Homo stupidus go extinct?
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The Intimate Bond: How Animals Shaped Human History

The Intimate Bond: How Animals Shaped Human History | Natural History, Environment, Science, & Technology | Scoop.it
 
Most histories dwell on individuals, on monarchs and rulers, nobles and generals, but also on common folk and such issues as gender relations and social inequality. The Intimate Bond attempts something different. I describe how animals and our ever-changing relationship with them, changed history. The story begins with the close relationships between hunters and their prey, relationships based on respect. Eight animals changed this relationship with the advent of food production and animal domestication about twelve thousand years ago, beginning with the dog, and then herd animals like cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep. Many animals now became servants, beasts to be exploited in the fields.
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