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How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data

How Many Earths? Interactive Kepler Data | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

This interactive graphic is based on the data for candidate planets identified by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. Kepler found these planets by recording the slight dimming of the light from a star caused by a planet passing in front of it.

 

About 10 per cent of the candidate planets will probably turn out to be no such thing – it's possible to mistake the second star in a binary star system for a giant planet, for example. On the other hand, Kepler probably missed around 10 per cent of the planets that passed in front of target stars because the dimming of the star's light was too slight to detect against the natural variability in the stars' light output. These two numbers roughly cancel each another out, so they are not included in our calculations.

 

The first step in answering "How many Earths?" was to ignore planets twice the Earth's diameter or larger: these are likely to be gas giants like Jupiter, not rocky worlds like ours. However, such planets may possess rocky moons, which could well host life.

 

Not all of the remaining planets will be hospitable to life. For example, carbon-rich planets could have a graphite crust with layers of diamond below and rivers of oil and tar.

 

Kepler could not determine a planet's composition, but to calculate how many planets might be friendly to life, we estimated the number in stars' habitable zones – orbits where a planet will be neither too hot nor too cold for water to exist in liquid form.

 

Defining a star's habitable zone is a complex process, but as a reasonable proxy we used Kepler's estimates of planets' equilibrium temperature. This is the temperature that would be measured at a planet's surface if it were a black body heated by its parent star without any atmospheric greenhouse effect.

 

The next step – the most uncertain part of our quest – was extrapolating to the total number of roughly Earth-sized planets likely to be orbiting Kepler's 150,000 target stars. Simple geometry tells us that Kepler will have missed most of these planets: the tilts of their orbits mean they never passed between their parent stars and the telescope. And the farther out a planet orbits, the harder it was for Kepler to detect.

 

Taking everything into account, the best estimate for the average number of roughly Earth-sized planets in each star's habitable zone is 0.15, according to simulations based on Kepler data thatCourtney Dressing and David Charbonneau of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, performed. Applying this average to Kepler's 150,000 target stars gave our estimate of 22,500 potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.

 

There is an important caveat, though. Dressing and Charbonneau's calculations are for class M stars, which have a reddish hue and account for about three-quarters of the stars in our galaxy. But about 80 per cent of Kepler's target stars are class G stars, like our sun, which are yellowish. Nobody knows for sure whether these different classes of stars have similar populations of planets.

 

The final step in our quest was to extrapolate to the entire galaxy. Estimates of the number of stars in the Milky Way vary from 100 billion to 200 billion. Applying the same estimate of 0.15 potentially Earth-like planets per star gave our figure of between 15 and 30 billion.

 

If we had displayed all these potential planets in the final view, the sky would have become a mass of green. To give a meaningful view for someone here on Earth, we selected stars from the European Space Agency's Tycho-2 catalogue with an apparent magnitude of 10.5 or brighter – these stars would be visible on a dark night with a good pair of binoculars. We have displayed a random sample of 15 per cent of these stars, corresponding to Dressing and Charbonneau's estimate of stars with potentially habitable, roughly Earth-sized planets.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
The Planetary Archives 's insight:

2500 years ago, the Buddha is said to have remarked that there are "many, many" planets with beings just like us..... 

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Meet Bina48, the robot who can tell jokes, recall memories and mimic humans

Meet Bina48, the robot who can tell jokes, recall memories and mimic humans | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
 
Maybe you guys are already familiar with Bina48, one of the most sophisticated robots ever built. She’s modeled after a very real woman named Bina Aspen, wife of Dr.Martine Rothblatt. Rothblatt is the CEO of biotech outfit United Therapeutics.

More than just a robot, Bina48 is a “mind clone.” Bina Aspen spent more than 20 hours recalling her childhood experiences, life experiences and thoughts. The information was “then transcribed and uploaded to an artificial intelligence database.”

Bina4

Via Société Française de Prospective
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OMG.....

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5 time-lapse videos show stunning beauty of night sky

5 time-lapse videos show stunning beauty of night sky | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
While most people are asleep, photographer Randy Halverson has been capturing some stunning images. From night-time storms to fairytale like sunrises, he has produced a series of magical videos showing the hidden beauties of nature.
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PressTV-Mesopotamia: Vanishing cultural heritage

PressTV-Mesopotamia: Vanishing cultural heritage | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

A short walk through London Portobello market with a keen eye can quickly expose how London is now turned into a fanfare for smuggled and pillaged Syrian and Iraqi artifacts. Collectors can find anything they fancy: Roman Mosaics, glassware, potteries, gold items, coins, ancient Babylonian cuneiform tablets, whatever a collector may dream, you name it! Gangs smuggle the artifacts from there (Lebanon or Turkey) to Eastern Europe. European smugglers, who enjoy their illicit trade, have business cards and official offices in the USA, UK, France, and the Netherlands.

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Five Years After Deepwater Horizon Spill, Growing Gulf-Wide Effort Protects ... - Surfbirds News (blog)

Five Years After Deepwater Horizon Spill, Growing Gulf-Wide Effort Protects ... - Surfbirds News (blog) | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
A comprehensive birding web site with an international focus. Trip reports, photos, news, articles, forums, blogs.

Via CEC Houston
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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from História Viva
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Contas encontradas em túmulos dinamarqueses iguais às de Tutankhamon - Globo - DN

Contas encontradas em túmulos dinamarqueses iguais às de Tutankhamon - Globo - DN | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Descoberta em túmulos da Idade do Bronze comprovam a existência de trocas comerciais entre a Dinamarca e o Antigo Egito há cerca de 3400 anos.

Via Carlos Pinheiro
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The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions

The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

While little has been documented about most historic extinctions, much more information is available on species that have been lost over the past few decades. This page lists (although incomplete) a selection of extinctions over the past centuries to provide greater insight into patterns of recent extinction and to highlight those species, subspecies and varieties that have most recently disappeared. The number of documented extinctions, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (version 2013.1) 709 species and 17 subspecies and varieties since the year 1500 CE, grossly under represents the true number of extinctions that have taken place in historic times, due to very incomplete and uneven sampling, both geographically and taxonomically.

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Why We Can't Solve Big Problems | MIT Technology Review

Why We Can't Solve Big Problems | MIT Technology Review | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Has technology failed us?

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Russian swimsuit models get ‘up, close & personal’ with 650kg bear

Russian swimsuit models get ‘up, close & personal’ with 650kg bear | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
A provocative photo shoot featuring Russian models cuddling a 650kg bear for an anti-hunting campaign has driven a wedge among social media users in Russia and overseas. Some praise the women’s courage, while others label the pics 'creepy’.
The Planetary Archives 's insight:

Uh, this woman is 1000x braver than I am.....

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Close to Extinction: 35 Critically Endangered Animals

Close to Extinction: 35 Critically Endangered Animals | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Close to Extinction: 35 Critically Endangered Animals

Via Garry Rogers, Wai Ling Liu
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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from Curriculum Resources
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Dances of India, Rich in Breadth and Addressing the Sublime

Dances of India, Rich in Breadth and Addressing the Sublime | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
The Times’s chief dance critic reflects on how the varied dance forms of India have extended his idea of dance itself, what it can be and signify.

Via Susan Davis Cushing, Tania Gammage
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Susan Davis Cushing's curator insight, April 19, 1:51 PM

Profoundly well-written, this is Alastair Macaulay's journey through indian dance. Whatever your level of knowledge on the subject, It will make you want to dig much more deeply into the country's dance rituals. 

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"Safe" Low Doses of Mercury Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Children Still Injected

"Safe" Low Doses of Mercury Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Children Still Injected | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
When it comes to mercury contamination of seafood, scientists and environmentalists ring the alarm, warning consumers that eating too much fish can expose the body to toxic amounts of mercury. When...
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Astrophysicists come up with most complete 3D map of universe

Astrophysicists come up with most complete 3D map of universe | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Astrophysicists from the University of Waterloo have managed to create the best yet 3D map of the universe. It spans almost two billion light years and it is hoped it could help better understand how space is expanding and give insights into dark matter.
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'Supervoid', biggest structure known to humankind identified by astronomers

'Supervoid', biggest structure known to humankind identified by astronomers | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
The biggest structure ever identified by humans is a gigantic hole in the universe known as the supervoid, astronomers say.

Via Mariaschnee
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Elon Musk unveils fancy new Tesla battery -- 'cause existing batteries "suck"

Early this morning, Musk announced his new battery business: Tesla Energy. His goal is to riddle the world with much-needed solar power storage devices that will usher us into a post-fossil fuel, carbon-zero future, thus saving humankind from climate apocalypse (so, um, what have you been up to this morning?).

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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from Prevention & Vitality Central
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NIH Study confirms: Turkey Tail mushrooms boost immunity in women with breast cancer

NIH Study confirms: Turkey Tail mushrooms boost immunity in women with breast cancer | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

 

(NaturalHealth365) - "It’s official – Turkey Tail mushrooms can boost your immune system so significantly that it may even shrink breast cancer tumors.

 

A $2 million, seven-year clinical study funded by the National Institutes of Health and jointly conducted by the University of Minnesota and Bastyr University showed that Trametes versicolor, or turkey tail mushroom, in freeze-dried form, dramatically boosts immune function for women with Stage I-III breast cancer─ possibly shrinking tumors."


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Nature in View, Nature in Design: Reconnecting People with Nature through Design

“The more we know of other forms of life, the more we enjoy and respect ourselves…Humanity is exalted not because we are so far above other living creatures, but because knowing them well elevates the very concept of life.” — E.O.

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World record in color: Photonic crystal fiber generates light from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region

World record in color: Photonic crystal fiber generates light from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

The light generated by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen is more colorful than a rainbow. The scientists couple a low-energy, infrared laser pulse into a photonic crystal fibre (PCF) which is tailor-made so that the spectrum of the pulse broadens significantly to become white light: the generated spectrum spans from the deep-ultraviolet region to the mid-infrared region – a world record at such low input energy. The researchers from MPL in Erlangen are the first to produce microstructured glass fibers from a material that is particularly resistant to ultraviolet light, unlike conventional quartz glass. This material (ZBLAN) is actually extremely difficult to draw fibers from, and up until now it was regarded as impossible to draw photonic crystal fibers from it. In such fibers, a 2D periodic structure of hollow channels surrounds the fibre core, and runs along the entire length the fibre. The light produced with the world-record spectrum, could facilitate many investigations in biomedical research, in physics and chemistry, or even make new ones possible in the first place.

 

Light is one of the most important scientific tools nowadays. If researchers want to study biochemical processes in cancer cells, for example, they irradiate the cell with light of different colours and search for ways to stop tumours with the aid of fluorescent proteins. Chemical reactions can be observed or even controlled with the aid of light. And nothing much happens in physics without light, as for example with spectroscopic methods it coaxes out of atoms, molecules and crystals a great deal of information about their structure and properties. A lamp with a very broad spectrum should therefore find many applications, especially if it can provide light source qualities (e.g. spatial coherence, high brightness…) similar as those presented by a team of researchers in Erlangen, headed by Philip Russell, Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light.

 

White light, which contains all wavelengths, i.e. colours of visible light, can be generated in many ways. However, in Russell’s team, scientists do it in a special way. They launch very short, infrared pulses with relatively low energy through a photonic crystal fibre, from which white light with record properties is generated: “What excites me most is the fact that our light covers such a large part of the ultraviolet range in the spectrum,” says Philip Russell. “There have not yet been comparable light sources, especially in this wavelength range.”

 

“In addition, the light generated from the PCF is very bright, and it retains more or less the same brightness over the whole spectrum,” says Russell. “This is particularly important for applications.” For example, biological/chemical scientists need light sources with a broad span of colours for many experiments. Normally they scan their experimental objects with different wavelengths. To do this, they filter the broadband light source with narrow bandwidth optical filters. The filtered light loses much of its brightness due to this process; in order to keep enough intensity, it is better to have a light source with reasonable brightness from the beginning.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Tania Gammage
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The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions

The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

While little has been documented about most historic extinctions, much more information is available on species that have been lost over the past few decades. This page lists (although incomplete) a selection of extinctions over the past centuries to provide greater insight into patterns of recent extinction and to highlight those species, subspecies and varieties that have most recently disappeared. The number of documented extinctions, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (version 2013.1) 709 species and 17 subspecies and varieties since the year 1500 CE, grossly under represents the true number of extinctions that have taken place in historic times, due to very incomplete and uneven sampling, both geographically and taxonomically.

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Innovation!

Innovation! | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
15-Yr-Old Kelvin Doe Wows M.I.T. 15-Year-Old Kelvin Doe is an engineering whiz living in Sierra Leone who scours the trash bins for spare parts, which he uses to build batteries, generators and tra...
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Forest Service Opens Scoping Period For Development On South Rim Of Grand Canyon

Forest Service Opens Scoping Period For Development On South Rim Of Grand Canyon | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

A project that could see more than 2,000 housing units and several million square feet of commercial space reach to within a half-mile or so of Grand Canyon National Park could also impact groundwater flows that feed the canyon's springs and hanging gardens, according to conservation groups working to raise public opposition to the project.

“The Forest Service is putting Grand Canyon National Park in the crosshairs by considering Tusayan’s dangerous, damaging plan for a mega-resort,” said Kevin Dahl of the National Parks Conservation Association. “This proposal is not in the public interest and is one of the greatest threats Grand Canyon National Park has seen in its history. The Forest Service can and should have rejected it out of hand.”

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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from Social Justice, Education, & Media
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Want to Help Nepal Recover from the Quake? Cancel its Debt, Says Rights Group

Want to Help Nepal Recover from the Quake? Cancel its Debt, Says Rights Group | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
School children in Nepal’s Matatirtha village practice an earthquake drill in the event of a natural disaster. A 7.8-magnitude earthquake in Nepal on Apr. 25, 2015, has endangered the lives of clos...
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The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts

The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it

"These seven maps and charts, visualized by The Washington Post, will help you understand how diverse other parts of the world are in terms of languages."

 

Tags: language, culture, infographic.


Via Seth Dixon, Wai Ling Liu
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Melissa Marshall's curator insight, April 30, 8:15 PM

A site to help students understand how diverse the world is - and particularly, that the English language is not the dominant language in the world! The use of infographics - data presented visually - help students compare languages across the world. 

Simone Percy's curator insight, April 30, 10:56 PM

Good visual to represent the number of people speaking languages around the world.

Maria Yolanda Garcia OLAVE's curator insight, May 2, 4:49 AM
http://www.scoop.it/t/panama-by-maria-yolanda-garcia
Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from Library Advocacy
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Quantum physics rules nature

Quantum physics rules nature | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Quantum theory doesn't just apply to physics - it's behind natural things like photosynthesis, homing pigeons and possibly consciousness itself, writes Brian Clegg.

Via Maria Nunzia @Varvera , Tania Gammage
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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from CANNABIS
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Federal Government Finally Admits Cannabis Can Help Kill Cancer Cells

Federal Government Finally Admits Cannabis Can Help Kill Cancer Cells | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
The admission comes several months after a study demonstrated the effectiveness of cannabinoids in shrinking aggressive brain tumors.

Via Coffee Party USA, Daniel Gonzales
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20 Things You Didn't Know About... Immortality | DiscoverMagazine.com

20 Things You Didn't Know About... Immortality | DiscoverMagazine.com | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
Humans continue to seek after it, but other life forms have already achieved it.

Via Mariaschnee
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Rescooped by The Planetary Archives from Nereides Diary
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Solar powered Fresnel Hydrofoil Trimaran

Solar powered Fresnel Hydrofoil Trimaran | Natural History, Science, & Green Technology | Scoop.it
The futuristic solar powered, Fresnel Hydrofoil Trimaran yacht by Margot Krasojević, commissioned by HoldenManz wine estate, Cape Town. Images credit Margot Krasojević The Fresnel Trimaran  by Margot Krasojević has a folding wingsail for a better lift to drag ratio, the sail's frame is a built up mechanical structure similar to an airplane wing constructed from carbon fibre with a retractable Kevlar sail covered in aero-nautical film. The sail rotates around the mast and has a series of motori

Via Mariaschnee
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