- Aquatic Toxicology - Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects | NanoMedicine Revolution |

"some exposure concentration-dependent changes in tissue Cu and Zn levels were observed, especially in the brain. Exposure to TiO2 NPs caused statistically significant decreases in Na+K+-ATPase activity (ANOVA, P < 0.05) in the gills and intestine, and a trend of decreasing enzyme activity in the brain (the latter was not statistically significant). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed exposure concentration-dependent and statistically significant (ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.05) increases (two-fold or more) in the gill, intestine and brain, but not the liver during exposure to TiO2 NPs compared to controls. TiO2 NP exposure caused statistically significant (ANOVA, P < 0.05) increases in the total glutathione levels in the gills, but depletion of hepatic glutathione compared to controls... Liver cells exposed to TiO2 NPs showed minor fatty change and lipidosis, and some hepatocytes showed condensed nuclear bodies (apoptotic bodies)."