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Deep RNA sequencing improved the structural annotation of the Tuber melanosporum transcriptome

Deep RNA sequencing improved the structural annotation of the Tuber melanosporum transcriptome | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

The functional complexity of the Tuber melanosporum transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we applied high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to the transcriptome of T. melanosporum at different major developmental stages, that is free-living mycelium, fruiting body and ectomycorrhiza.
Sequencing of cDNA libraries generated a total of c. 24 million sequence reads representing > 882 Mb of sequence data. To construct a coverage signal profile across the genome, all reads were then aligned to the reference genome assembly of T. melanosporum Mel28.
We were able to identify a substantial number of novel transcripts, antisense transcripts, new exons, untranslated regions (UTRs), alternative upstream initiation codons and upstream open reading frames.
This RNA-Seq analysis allowed us to improve the genome annotation. It also provided us with a genome-wide view of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms generating an increased number of transcript isoforms during major developmental transitions in T. melanosporum.

 

E. Tisserant, C. Da Silva, A. Kohler, E. Morin, P. Wincker, F. Martin

New Phytologist
Special Issue: Featured papers on ‘Unearthing the truffle genome’
Volume 189, Issue 3, pages 883–891, February 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03597.x

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Mycorrhizal fungal genomes
Genome and Transcriptome of Mycorrhizal fungi - by S. Ghignone & R. Balestrini
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JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI) project

JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI) project | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI) project: list of available genomes

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Broad compatibility in fungal root symbioses

Broad compatibility in fungal root symbioses | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Plants associate with a wide range of beneficial fungi in their roots which facilitate plant mineral nutrient uptake in exchange for carbohydrates and other organic metabolites. These associations play a key role in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and are widely believed to have promoted the evolution of land plants. To establish compatibility with their host, root-associated fungi have evolved diverse colonization strategies with distinct morphological, functional and genomic specializations as well as different degrees of interdependence. They include obligate biotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), and facultative biotrophic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) interactions but are not restricted to these well-characterized symbioses. There is growing evidence that root endophytic associations, which due to their inconspicuous nature have been often overlooked, can be of mutualistic nature and represent important players in natural and managed environments. Recent research into the biology and genomics of root associations revealed fascinating insight into the phenotypic and trophic plasticity of these fungi and underlined genomic traits associated with biotrophy and saprotrophy. In this review we will consider the commonalities and differences of AM and ECM associations and contrast them with root endophytes.


Alga Zuccaro, Urs Lahrmann, Gregor Langen

Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Volume 20, August 2014, Pages 135–145

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2014.05.013

 


 

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Single Nucleus Genome Sequencing Reveals High Similarity among Nuclei of an Endomycorrhizal Fungus

Single Nucleus Genome Sequencing Reveals High Similarity among Nuclei of an Endomycorrhizal Fungus | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is only based on studying a few loci, including 45S rDNA. To provide a more comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi, we applied de novo genome sequencing of individual nuclei of Rhizophagus irregularis. This revealed a surprisingly low level of polymorphism between nuclei. In contrast, within a nucleus, the 45S rDNA repeat unit turned out to be highly diverged. This finding demystifies a long-lasting hypothesis on the complex genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi. Subsequent genome assembly resulted in the first draft reference genome sequence of an arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus. Its length is 141 Mbps, representing over 27,000 protein-coding gene models. We used the genomic sequence to reinvestigate the phylogenetic relationships of Rhizophagus irregulariswith other fungal phyla. This unambiguously demonstrated that Glomeromycota are more closely related to Mucoromycotina than to its postulated sister Dikarya.

 

Lin K, Limpens E, Zhang Z, Ivanov S, Saunders DGO, et al. (2014) Single Nucleus Genome Sequencing Reveals High Similarity among Nuclei of an Endomycorrhizal Fungus. PLoS Genet 10(1): e1004078.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004078

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Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 181602 v1.0 - Home

Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 181602 v1.0 - Home | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

The JGI R. irregularis genome Portal is now public.

Now no password is required for access. However, existing login is still necessary for manual curation of the genes on the Portal.

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[Gem from past] Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: The Challenge to Understand the Genetics of the Fungal Partner

[Gem from past] Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: The Challenge to Understand the Genetics of the Fungal Partner | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses occur between fungi and the majority of plant species. They are important for plant nutrition, plant growth, protection from pathogens, plant diversity, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem processes. A key goal in research is to understand the molecular basis of the establishment, regulation, and functioning of the symbiosis. However, lack of knowledge on the genetics of the fungal side of this association has hindered progress. Here, we show how several key, recently discovered processes concerning the genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could be essential for ultimately understanding the molecular genetics of this important symbiosis with plants.

 

Ian R. Sanders and Daniel Croll

Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 44: 271-292 (Volume publication date December 2010) DOI: 10.1146/annurev-genet-102108-134239

 

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Tuber melanosporum from Genoscope - Home

Tuber melanosporum from Genoscope - Home | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Tuber melanosporum was the second ectomycorrhizal fungus whose genome has been sequenced.

 

This copy of the genome was obtained from the Tuber Genome Browser at Genoscope. In order to allow comparative analyses with other fungal genomes sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, a copy of this genome is incorporated into MycoCosm.

 

Martin F, Kohler A, Murat C, Balestrini R, Coutinho PM, Jaillon O, Montanini B, Morin E, Noel B, Percudani R, Porcel B, Rubini A, Amicucci A, Amselem J, Anthouard V, Arcioni S, Artiguenave F, Aury JM, Ballario P, Bolchi A, Brenna A, Brun A, Buée M, Cantarel B, Chevalier G, Couloux A, Da Silva C, Denoeud F, Duplessis S, Ghignone S, Hilselberger B, Iotti M, Marçais B, Mello A, Miranda M, Pacioni G, Quesneville H, Riccioni C, Ruotolo R, Splivallo R, Stocchi V, Tisserant E, Viscomi AR, Zambonelli A, Zampieri E, Henrissat B, Lebrun MH, Paolocci F, Bonfante P, Ottonello S, Wincker P. Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1033-8. Epub 2010 Mar 28.

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Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Background

 

The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome.

Methodology/Principal Findings

 

TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea.

Conclusions

 

This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

 

Labbé J, Murat C, Morin E, Tuskan GA, Le Tacon F, et al. (2012) Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor. PLoS ONE 7(8): e40197.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040197

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JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative - Info

JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative - Info | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

List of fungi within the JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative whose genome has been released.

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Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Rhizophagus irregularis – syn. Glomus irregulare – reveals a polymorphism induced by variability generating elements

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of Rhizophagus irregularis – syn. Glomus irregulare – reveals a polymorphism induced by variability generating elements | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are involved in one of the most widespread plant–fungus interactions. A number of studies on the population dynamics of AM fungi have used mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences, and yet mt AM fungus genomes are poorly known. To date, four mt genomes of three species of AM fungi are available, among which are two from Rhizophagus irregularis.
In order to study intra- and interstrain mt genome variability of R. irregularis, we sequenced and de novo assembled four additional mt genomes of this species. We used 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina technologies to directly sequence mt genomes from total genomic DNA.
The mt genomes are unique within each strain. Interstrain divergences in genome size, as a result of highly polymorphic intergenic and intronic sequences, were observed. The polymorphism is brought about by three types of variability generating element (VGE): homing endonucleases, DNA polymerase domain-containing open reading frames and small inverted repeats. Based on VGE positioning, mt sequences and nuclear markers, two subclades of R. irregularis were characterized.
The discovery of VGEs highlights the great intraspecific plasticity of the R. irregularis mt genome. VGEs allow the design of powerful mt markers for the typing and monitoring of R. irregularis strains in genetic and population studies.

 

 

Damien Formey, Marion Molès, Alexandra Haouy, Bruno Savelli, Olivier Bouchez, Guillaume Bécard, Christophe Roux

Volume 196, Issue 4, pages 1217–1227, December 2012

 

DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04283.x

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Group I Intron–Mediated Trans-splicing in Mitochondria of Gigaspora rosea and a Robust Phylogenetic Affiliation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Mortierellales

Group I Intron–Mediated Trans-splicing in Mitochondria of Gigaspora rosea and a Robust Phylogenetic Affiliation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Mortierellales | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Gigaspora rosea is a member of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomeromycota) and a distant relative of Glomus species that are beneficial to plant growth. To allow for a better understanding of Glomeromycota, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNA of G. rosea. A comparison with Glomus mitochondrial genomes reveals that Glomeromycota undergo insertion and loss of mitochondrial plasmid-related sequences and exhibit considerable variation in introns. The gene order between the two species is almost completely reshuffled. Furthermore, Gigaspora has fragmented cox1 and rns genes, and an unorthodox initiator tRNA that is tailored to decoding frequent UUG initiation codons. For the fragmented cox1 gene, we provide evidence that its RNA is joined via group I–mediated trans-splicing, whereas rns RNA remains in pieces. According to our model, the two cox1 precursor RNA pieces are brought together by flanking cox1 exon sequences that form a group I intron structure, potentially in conjunction with the nad5 intron 3 sequence. Finally, we present analyses that address the controversial phylogenetic association of Glomeromycota within fungi. According to our results, Glomeromycota are not a separate group of paraphyletic zygomycetes but branch together with Mortierellales, potentially also Harpellales.

 

Maryam Nadimi, Denis Beaudet, Lise Forget, Mohamed Hijri and B. Franz Lang

Mol Biol Evol (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss088

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The mitochondrial genome of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita reveals two unsuspected trans-splicing events of group I introns

The mitochondrial genome of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita reveals two unsuspected trans-splicing events of group I introns | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

•Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous organisms that benefit ecosystems through the establishment of an association with the roots of most plants: the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Despite their ecological importance, however, these fungi have been poorly studied at the genome level.
•In this study, total DNA from the AMF Gigaspora margarita was subjected to a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, and the resulting reads were used to assemble its mitochondrial genome de novo. This genome was annotated and compared with those of other relatives to better comprehend the evolution of the AMF lineage.
•The mitochondrial genome of G. margarita is unique in many ways, exhibiting a large size (97 kbp) and elevated GC content (45%). This genome also harbors molecular events that were previously unknown to occur in fungal mitochondrial genomes, including trans-splicing of group I introns from two different genes coding for the first subunit of the cytochrome oxidase and for the small subunit of the rRNA.
•This study reports the second published genome from an AMF organelle, resulting in relevant DNA sequence information from this poorly studied fungal group, and providing new insights into the frequency, origin and evolution of trans-spliced group I introns found across the mitochondrial genomes of distantly related organisms.

 

Adrian Pelin, Jean-François Pombert, Alessandra Salvioli, Linda Bonen, Paola Bonfante, Nicolas Corradi

New Phytologist
Volume 194, Issue 3, pages 836–845, May 2012

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04072.x

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The genome of the obligate endobacterium of an AM fungus reveals an interphylum network of nutritional interactions

The genome of the obligate endobacterium of an AM fungus reveals an interphylum network of nutritional interactions | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

As obligate symbionts of most land plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a crucial role in ecosystems, but to date, in the absence of genomic data, their adaptive biology remains elusive. In addition, endobacteria are found in their cytoplasm, the role of which is unknown. In order to investigate the function of the Gram-negative Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, an endobacterium of the AMF Gigaspora margarita, we sequenced its genome, leading to an ~1.72-Mb assembly. Phylogenetic analyses placed Ca. G. gigasporarum in the Burkholderiaceae whereas metabolic network analyses clustered it with insect endobacteria. This positioning of Ca. G. gigasporarum among different bacterial classes reveals that it has undergone convergent evolution to adapt itself to intracellular lifestyle. The genome annotation of this mycorrhizal-fungal endobacterium has revealed an unexpected genetic mosaic where typical determinants of symbiotic, pathogenic and free-living bacteria are integrated in a reduced genome. Ca. G. gigasporarum is an aerobic microbe that depends on its host for carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen supply; it also expresses type II and type III secretion systems and synthesizes vitamin B12, antibiotics- and toxin-resistance molecules, which may contribute to the fungal host's ecological fitness. Ca. G. gigasporarum has an extreme dependence on its host for nutrients and energy, whereas the fungal host is itself an obligate biotroph that relies on a photosynthetic plant. Our work represents the first step towards unraveling a complex network of interphylum interactions, which is expected to have a previously unrecognized ecological impact.

 

Stefano Ghignone, Alessandra Salvioli, Iulia Anca, Erica Lumini, Giuseppe Ortu, Luca Petiti, Stéphane Cruveiller, Valeria Bianciotto, Pietro Piffanelli, Luisa Lanfranco and Paola Bonfante

The ISME Journal (2012) 6, 136–145

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.110

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A field guide to whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation

A field guide to whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Genome sequencing projects were long confined to biomedical model organisms and required the concerted effort of large consortia. Rapid progress in high-throughput sequencing technology and the simultaneous development of bioinformatic tools have democratized the field. It is now within reach for individual research groups in the eco-evolutionary and conservation community to generate de novo draft genome sequences for any organism of choice. Because of the cost and considerable effort involved in such an endeavour, the important first step is to thoroughly consider whether a genome sequence is necessary for addressing the biological question at hand. Once this decision is taken, a genome project requires careful planning with respect to the organism involved and the intended quality of the genome draft. Here, we briefly review the state of the art within this field and provide a step-by-step introduction to the workflow involved in genome sequencing, assembly and annotation with particular reference to large and complex genomes. This tutorial is targeted at scientists with a background in conservation genetics, but more generally, provides useful practical guidance for researchers engaging in whole-genome sequencing projects.


Via Francis Martin
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Frontiers | Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism | Plant-Microbe Interaction

Frontiers | Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism | Plant-Microbe Interaction | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it
Cell walls are deeply involved in the molecular talk between partners during plant and microbe interactions, and their role in mycorrhizae, i.e., the widespread symbiotic associations established between plant roots and soil fungi, has been investigated extensively. All mycorrhizal interactions achieve full symbiotic functionality through the development of an extensive contact surface between the plant and fungal cells, where signals and nutrients are exchanged. The exchange of molecules between the fungal and the plant cytoplasm takes place both through their plasma membranes and their cell walls; a functional compartment, known as the symbiotic interface, is thus defined. Among all the symbiotic interfaces, the complex intracellular interface of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has received a great deal of attention since its first description. Here, in fact, the host plasmamembrane invaginates and proliferates around all the developing intracellular fungal structures, and cell wall material is laid down between this membrane and the fungal cell surface. By contrast, in ectomycorrhizae (ECM), where the fungus grows outside and between the root cells, plant and fungal cell walls are always in direct contact and form the interface between the two partners. The organization and composition of cell walls within the interface compartment is a topic that has attracted widespread attention, both in ecto- and endomycorrhizae. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge on this topic by integrating morphological observations, which have illustrated cell wall features during mycorrhizal interactions, with the current data produced by genomic and transcriptomic approaches.

 

 

Balestrini R and Bonfante P (2014) Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism. Front. Plant Sci. 5:237.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00237

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Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis

Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

The mutualistic symbiosis involving Glomeromycota, a distinctive phylum of early diverging Fungi, is widely hypothesized to have promoted the evolution of land plants during the middle Paleozoic. These arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) perform vital functions in the phosphorus cycle that are fundamental to sustainable crop plant productivity. The unusual biological features of AMF have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. The coenocytic hyphae host a community of hundreds of nuclei and reproduce clonally through large multinucleated spores. It has been suggested that the AMF maintain a stable assemblage of several different genomes during the life cycle, but this genomic organization has been questioned. Here we introduce the 153-Mb haploid genome of Rhizophagus irregularis and its repertoire of 28,232 genes. The observed low level of genome polymorphism (0.43 SNP per kb) is not consistent with the occurrence of multiple, highly diverged genomes. The expansion of mating-related genes suggests the existence of cryptic sex-related processes. A comparison of gene categories confirms that R. irregularis is close to the Mucoromycotina. The AMF obligate biotrophy is not explained by genome erosion or any related loss of metabolic complexity in central metabolism, but is marked by a lack of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and of genes involved in toxin and thiamine synthesis. A battery of mycorrhiza-induced secreted proteins is expressed in symbiotic tissues. The present comprehensive repertoire of R. irregularis genes provides a basis for future research on symbiosis-related mechanisms in Glomeromycota.


Tisserant et al.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Volume 110, Issue 50, December 10, 2013, pages 20117–20122

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313452110


 

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[Gem from past] Genomics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are soilborne microorganisms that form a mutualistic symbiotic association with most land plants. As obligate biotrophs these fungi are unable to complete their life cycle in the absence of the host plant. This symbiosis is increasingly being recognised as an integral and important part of natural ecosystems throughout the word. Because of the incalcitrance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to grow in pure culture and consequently the difficulties in obtaining sufficiently large quantities of fungal material, the analysis of gene products has remained an extremely challenging but unexplored area. Until recently, little was known about the genomics of these fungi and it is only with the advent of powerful molecular techniques that it has been possible to venture research into their genetic makeup. This review surveys the most recent molecular genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their contributions to basic knowledge of the biology of this group of organisms.


Nuria Ferrol, Bert Bago, Philipp Franken, Armelle Gollotte, Manuel González-Guerrero, Lucy Alexandra Harrier, Luisa Lanfranco, Diederik van Tuinen, Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson

Applied Mycology and Biotechnology

Volume 4, 2004, Pages 379–403

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1874-5334(04)80019-4

 

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Genetic and genomic glimpses of the elusive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Genetic and genomic glimpses of the elusive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form an ancient and widespread mutualistic symbiosis with plants, are a crucial but still enigmatic component of the plant microbiome. Nowadays, their obligate biotrophy is no longer an obstacle to deciphering the role played by AMF in this fascinating symbiosis. The first genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of an AMF showed a metabolic complexity with no sign of massive gene loss, and the presence of genes for meiotic recombination suggests that AMF are not simple clonal organisms, as originally thought. New findings on suppression of host defenses and nutrient exchange processes have shed light on the mechanisms that contribute to such an intimate and long-lasting integration between living plant and fungal cells.

 

Luisa Lanfranco, J Peter W Young

Current Opinion in Plant Biology

Volume 15, Issue 4, August 2012, Pages 454–461

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2012.04.003

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Laccaria bicolor v2.0 - Home

Laccaria bicolor v2.0 - Home | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

L. bicolor was the first ectomycorrhizal fungus to have its genome sequenced. 

The second version of the assembly is now available at the JGI portal.

 

The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature. 2008 Mar 6;452(7183):88-92.

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Searching for clues of sexual reproduction in the genomes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Searching for clues of sexual reproduction in the genomes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent an ecologically relevant and evolutionarily intriguing group of land plant symbionts, which produce multinucleated spores and hyphae that are currently thought to have propagated clonally for over 500 million years. This long-term absence of sex in AMF is a puzzling evolutionary feature that has sparked scientific interest for some time, but a provoking explanation for their successful evolutionary history in the absence of an obvious sexual cycle is that these organisms may have cryptic sex, or a parasexual life cycle, allowing them to recombine alleles and compensate for deleterious mutations. Interestingly, the recent acquisition of large sequence data from many AMF species can finally allow this hypothesis to be tested more extensively. In this perspective, we highlight emerging evidence based on sequence data for the potential of AMF to have sexual reproduction, and propose a number of routes that could be taken to further explore the presence (or absence thereof) of sex in this poorly studied, yet highly relevant, fungal group.


Rohan Riley, Nicolas Corradi

Fungal Ecology

Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages 44–49


http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funeco.2012.01.010

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Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative - Info

Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative - Info | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

Within the framework of the Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative, the JGI is sequencing aphylogenetically and ecologically diverse suite of mycorrhizal fungi (Basidiomycota and Ascomycota), which include the major clades of symbiotic species associating with trees and woody shrubs. Analyses of these genomes will provide insight into the diversity of mechanisms for the mycorrhizal symbiosis, including endo- and ectomycorrhiza.

 

This scoop points to the official project page hosted on Mycorweb.

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2013 Fungal Genetics Conference (Asilomar, USA, March 12-17, 2013)

2013 Fungal Genetics Conference (Asilomar, USA, March 12-17, 2013) | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

The Fungal Genetics Policy Committee invites you to attend the 27th Fungal Genetics Conference, sponsored by the Genetics Society of America. The meeting is held every two years at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California (near Monterey, California). The conference will open on Tuesday evening, March 12 with an Opening Mixer from 7:30 pm – 10:30 pm and end on Sunday, March 17. Regine Kahmann will present the Perkins/Metzenberg Lecture on Saturday, March 16 at 6:30 pm, followed by the banquet and closing party.

 

Chairs of the Scientific Program:
Katherine Borkovich, University of California, Riverside
Francis Martin, INRA, Nancy, France

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ENFC2012: 1st Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting (Munich, September 6-7, 2012)

ENFC2012: 1st Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting (Munich, September 6-7, 2012) | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

The Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting, one of the satellite meeting of the 10th European Nitrogen Fixation Congress (ENFC),  will be held in Munich, Germany, the 6-7th September 2012.

MMM will be the first event of a series initiated to satisfy the growing demand for a specialized scientific meeting covering the molecular genetic aspects of mycorrhiza.

 

 

 

http://www.enfc2012.de/fileadmin/ENFC2011/PDF/Flyer_web.pdf

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Genome-wide analysis of cell wall-related genes in Tuber melanosporum

Genome-wide analysis of cell wall-related genes in Tuber melanosporum | Mycorrhizal fungal genomes | Scoop.it

A genome-wide inventory of proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling has been obtained by taking advantage of the recently released genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal Tuber melanosporum black truffle. Genes that encode cell wall biosynthetic enzymes, enzymes involved in cell wall polysaccharide synthesis or modification, GPI-anchored proteins and other cell wall proteins were identified in the black truffle genome. As a second step, array data were validated and the symbiotic stage was chosen as the main focus. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments were performed on 29 selected genes to verify their expression during ectomycorrhizal formation. The results confirmed the array data, and this suggests that cell wall-related genes are required for morphogenetic transition from mycelium growth to the ectomycorrhizal branched hyphae. Labeling experiments were also performed on T. melanosporum mycelium and ectomycorrhizae to localize cell wall components.

 

Raffaella Balestrini, Fabiano Sillo, Annegret Kohler, Georg Schneider, Antonella Faccio, Emilie Tisserant, Francis Martin and Paola Bonfante

CURRENT GENETICS
Volume 58, Number 3 (2012), 165-177

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-012-0374-6

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