"If countries enforced existing biofuels mandates using ethanol, their gasoline use in 2012 would suggest that the top 10 ethanol consumers would require 3.5 billion gallons of the renewable fuel. The next 10 would add another 393 million gallons of demand....."
The capital of Piedmont has been lured to open source with the prospect of doing away with licences and delaying the refresh cycle.
Norman Warthmann's insight:
XP licenses are phasing out. The existing hardware will be too slow for resource-hungry windows 8, and ubuntu is free: 2 birds with one stone. They can keep using their old machines, and don't need to pay license fees. Gosh, I wish everybody would see the obvious and do the same.
Criticism of the food industry has itself become a niche industry. But the tendency to embrace a US-centric conception of how the industry works risks masking local variants and inhibiting a targeted response…
The discovery, published in Cell, will lead to a better understanding of human development and could in future allow the production of safe and more reproducible starting materials for a wide range of applications including cell therapies.
Knockout of all six alleles of a gene in the large wheat genome confers resistance to powdery mildew --- Genetic engineering to improve crops is entering a new era as conventional transgenesis technology, which involves random insertion of genes into the genome, is superseded by newer approaches that enable precise genetic alterations. A particular technological challenge in carrying out targeted genome modification in crops is that many plant genomes are polyploid, including such important species as wheat, potato and canola1. In this issue, Wang et al.2 report engineering of the hexaploid wheat genome using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs)—the first demonstration in a polyploid crop of SSN-mediated genetic alterations that are stably transmitted to the next generation. By knocking out all six alleles encoding the MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) protein, the authors generated a mutant line that shows strong resistance to powdery mildew, a devastating fungal disease. This is a remarkable feat, given the ploidy and enormous size (17.1 Gb) of the wheat genome, and showcases the power of SSNs for engineering complex plant genomes and for creating crops with valuable traits.
Scientists have taken a major step forward in the production of hydrogen from water which could lead to a new era of cheap, clean and renewable energy. Chemists from the University of Glasgow report in a new paper in Sciencetoday (Friday 12 September) on a new form of hydrogen production which is 30 times faster than the current state-of-the-art method. The process also solves common problems associated with generating electricity from renewable sources such as solar, wind or wave energy.
"... Last week, theWorld Health Organization warned that, by early October, there may be thousands of new cases per week in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria. What is not getting said publicly, despite briefings and discussions in the inner circles of the world’s public health agencies, is that we are in totally uncharted waters and that Mother Nature is the only force in charge of the crisis at this time...."
Cuba says its economy is suffering a “systematic worsening” due to a US embargo, the consequences of which Havana places at $1.1 trillion since Washington imposed the sanctions in 1960, taking into account the depreciation of the dollar against gold.
"In this article, we review environmentally mediated epigenetic regulation in plants using two case histories. One of these, vernalization, mediates adaptation of plants to different environments and it exemplifies processes that are reset in each generation. The other, virus-induced silencing, involves transgenerationally inherited epigenetic modifications."
The colonization of land by plants relied on fundamental biological innovations, among which was symbiosis with fungi to enhance nutrient uptake. Here we present evidence that several species representing the earliest groups of land plants are symbiotic with fungi of the Mucoromycotina. This finding brings up the possibility that terrestrialization was facilitated by these fungi rather than, as conventionally proposed, by members of the Glomeromycota. Since the 1970s it has been assumed, largely from the observation that vascular plant fossils of the early Devonian (400 Ma) show arbuscule-like structures, that fungi of the Glomeromycota were the earliest to form mycorrhizas, and evolutionary trees have, until now, placed Glomeromycota as the oldest known lineage of endomycorrhizal fungi. Our observation that Endogone-like fungi are widely associated with the earliest branching land plants, and give way to glomeromycotan fungi in later lineages, raises the new hypothesis that members of the Mucoromycotina rather than the Glomeromycota enabled the establishment and growth of early land colonists.
The amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2013, propelled by a surge in levels of carbon dioxide. Details: World Meteorological Organization’s annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin,
Norman Warthmann's insight:
World Meteorological Organization - Official United Nations' authoritative voice on weather, climate and water, scientific organization