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A conserved molecular basis for photoperiod adaptation in two temperate legumes

Legumes were among the first plant species to be domesticated, and accompanied cereals in expansion of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent into diverse environments across the Mediterranean basin, Europe, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Although several recent studies have outlined the molecular basis for domestication and eco-geographic adaptation in the two main cereals from this region, wheat and barley, similar questions remain largely unexplored in their legume counterparts. Here we identify two major loci controlling differences in photoperiod response between wild and domesticated pea, and show that one of these, HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR), is an ortholog of EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), a gene involved in circadian clock function. We found that a significant proportion of flowering time variation in global pea germplasm is controlled by HR, with a single, widespread functional variant conferring altered circadian rhythms and the reduced photoperiod response associated with the spring habit. We also present evidence that ELF3 has a similar role in lentil, another major legume crop, with a distinct functional variant contributing to reduced photoperiod response in cultivars widely deployed in short-season environments. Our results identify the factor likely to have permitted the successful prehistoric expansion of legume cultivation to Northern Europe, and define a conserved genetic basis for major adaptive changes in flowering phenology and growth habit in an important crop group.


Via Dorian Q Fuller, Eve Emshwiller
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Dorian Q Fuller's curator insight, January 25, 2013 12:02 PM

As with barley, the wide geographical dispersal of pea and lentil, especially to high latitide required cultivation into the summer, which inturn required turning off wild type photopheriod response.

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Nature Index 2017 Innovation | Supplements | Nature Index

Nature Index 2017 Innovation | Supplements | Nature Index | my universe | Scoop.it
The Nature Index tracks the affiliations of high-quality scientific articles. Updated monthly, the Nature Index presents research outputs by institution and country. Use the Nature Index to interrogate publication patterns and to benchmark research performance.
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Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Plants and Microbes
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Nature Microbiology: Stop neglecting fungi (2017)

Nature Microbiology: Stop neglecting fungi (2017) | my universe | Scoop.it

Fungal pathogens are virtually ignored by the press, the public and funding bodies, despite posing a significant threat to public health, food biosecurity and biodiversity.

 

Fungal infections will probably not have made major news today, perhaps not even this week or month. Indeed, in comparison to the threat from drug-resistant bacterial infections or viral outbreaks, diseases caused by fungi, fungal drug resistance and the development of new antifungal therapeutics gets little coverage. Yet in this case, no news is certainly not good news, and the disparity relative to other infectious disease agents unjustified. The word fungus usually evokes images of athlete's foot, unseemly looking nails, or scrumptious cheese and mouth-watering mushrooms. However, few realize that over 300 million people suffer from serious fungal-related diseases, or that fungi collectively kill over 1.6 million people annually1, which is more than malaria and similar to the tuberculosis death toll. Fungi and oomycetes destroy a third of all food crops each year, which would be sufficient to feed 600 million people. Furthermore, fungal infestation of amphibians has led to the largest disease-caused loss of biodiversity ever recorded, while fungi also cause mass mortality of bats, bees and other animals, and decimate fruit orchards, pine, elm and chestnut forests2. Headline-grabbing statistics, one would imagine.

 

There are an estimated 1.5 million fungal species3, of which over 8,000 are known to cause disease in plants and 300 to be pathogenic to humans. Candida, Aspergillus, Pneumocystis and Cryptococcus spp. are the most common cause of serious disease in humans, and five fungal diseases — wheat stem rust, rice blast, corn smut, soybean fungi and potato late blight — are the most devastating for crop production. Infections primarily occur in immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or infected with HIV, and many are acquired in hospitals. However, infections of otherwise healthy people are on the rise. Global warming is inducing rapid poleward movement of crop fungal pathogens, and may also increase the prevalence of fungal disease in humans as fungi adapt to survival in warmer temperatures4. In this scenario, increasing resistance to the limited arsenal of antifungal drugs is a serious concern5, especially for Candida and Aspergillus infections, for which the therapeutic options have become limited. The emergence of multi-drug resistant Candida glabrata and Candida auris is a global health threat6, and azole-resistant Aspergillushas up to 30% prevalence in some European hospitals, which report higher than 90% mortality rates7.

Experts agree that fungal pathogens are a serious threat to human health, food biosecurity and ecosystem resilience, yet lack of funding translates into inadequate surveillance systems to monitor fungal disease incidence and antifungal drug resistance, which often rely on not-for-profit initiatives, such as the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections (GAFFI; http://www.gaffi.org/). As highlighted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Report on Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance8, which devotes fewer than 10% of its pages to fungi, resources allocated for monitoring and reducing antifungal drug resistance are limited. Indeed, the WHO has no funded programmes specifically targeting fungal diseases, fewer than 10 countries have national surveillance programs for fungal infections, and fewer than 20 have fungal reference diagnostic laboratories. Many of the diagnostic tests that do exist are not available in developing countries, and well-established antifungal drugs — such as amphotericin B, flucytosine and cotrim — that would cure disease do not reach people that need them, a large fraction of which are in sub-Saharan Africa9. In an attempt to tackle this silent humanitarian crisis, organizations such as GAFFI, the US Centres for Disease Control, Médecins Sans Frontières and Clinton Health Access lobbied to include amphotericin B and flucytosine on the WHO Essential Medicines List9. Beyond this, GAFFI has put forth a roadmap to achieve diagnosis and access to antifungals for 95% of infected people by 2025, which aims to improve the availability/affordability of diagnostics, train clinicians in fungal disease diagnosis and treatment, and ensure that antifungals are available globally10. Funding is also urgently needed to advance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and drug resistance, develop new diagnostics and antifungal strategies, and improve monitoring of infection and antifungal resistance, as this will ultimately inform new strategies to tackle fungal infections.

 

Why then do fungi remain stubbornly off the mainstream radar? A possible reason is that most people think of fungi as causing infections that are uncomfortable but relatively easy to address, as invasive, life-threatening disease impacts few people in developed countries. In addition, our human-centric view of the world limits the amount of attention devoted to plant health, even if this directly impacts food availability. Bacteria and viruses have historically received more attention, in part because of the simple (yet not always correct) narrative to portray them as harmful, whereas fungi and their products can be edible, or useful drugs, and they are used as model organisms for understanding higher eukaryotes. Nevertheless, bringing emerging fungal threats into better focus for the broader research community, funders, media organizations and the general public should be a priority and will catalyse support and progress for this important and neglected group of pathogens.

 

Something that should make headlines this month, but may not, is the opening in South Africa of the AFGrica Unit in Medical Mycology, the first international research centre for tackling fungal infections (http://go.nature.com/2sN8x0z). This centre is an initiative of the University of Aberdeen Fungal Group (now the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology), in conjunction with the University of Cape Town. It will benefit from a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award that funds PhD students from developing nations to train in Aberdeen and other medical mycology centres and return home to help address fungal research and training needs. International collaborative efforts such as this one will be essential to give fungal diseases the prominence they require, and as such they should be encouraged. It is time to stop the neglect and put fungal diseases firmly in the spotlight.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Norman Warthmann from Plants and Microbes
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Plantae: In Brief: An Emerging Paradigm? RxLR Cleavage Before Effector Secretion (2017)

Plantae: In Brief: An Emerging Paradigm? RxLR Cleavage Before Effector Secretion (2017) | my universe | Scoop.it

Eukaryotic pathogens are responsible for devastating plant diseases that threaten food supplies globally – think potato blight caused by the oomycete Phytophora infestans, rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and wheat stem rust caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. These pathogens secrete effector proteins that condition the host cells for successful infection, some by acting in the apoplast and others after entering into the host cells. Many oomycete effectors have an RxLR sequence motif in their N-terminal region that seems to function in host cell targeting, although the mechanisms are a matter of debate (reviewed in Wawra et al., 2012 and Petre and Kamoun, 2014). It is notoriously difficult to study the secretion and targeting of effectors, as these processes occur only at the interface of the pathogen with the host and only during infection. In fact, there are mounting indications that some alternative approaches often used to assess pathogen effector secretion and entry in the host plant could be flawed (see, for example, Petre et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/038232). In a new Breakthrough Report, Wawra & Trusch et al. (2017) provide evidence that the RxLR motif is important for effector secretion from the pathogen, rather than for direct interaction with the host cells.

 

Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria, are distantly related to oomycete plant pathogens and similarly have RxLR-like N-terminal sequences that are responsible for targeting to host cells. For many Plasmodium effectors, this so-called PEXEL motif is cleaved in the ER, after which the newly exposed N-terminus is acetylated and the effector is secreted. Another motif, called the TEXEL motif, is important for effector processing in Toxoplasma gondii. The similarity of the RxLR motif to the PEXEL and TEXEL motifs prompted Wawra and coworkers to explore whether RxLR cleavage is involved in effector secretion from P. infestans.

 

Wawra & Trusch et al. isolated the native (untagged) form of the AVR3a effector secreted into the culture medium by P. infestans. LC-MS/MS analysis did not reveal a peptide representing any sequence more N-terminal than the RxLR motif, but did find a peptide that started immediately downstream of the motif. In addition, the MS data showed likely acetylation. To further characterize the secreted form of the effector, the authors performed reverse-phase chromatography followed by MALDI-TOF analysis. After deglycosylation, the mass of the main product indicated that the AVR3a protein from the medium lacked the first 47 amino acids (i.e., the region up to and including the RxLR motif) with an additional mass for a possible acetylation.

 

Wawra and coworkers followed up on the possibility of N-terminal acetylation using Edman degradation, which can cleave an N-terminal peptide bond when it is accessible. They observed no cleavage of the AVR3a peptide from the medium, indicating that the N-terminus was not accessible, consistent with it being acetylated. The likely N-acetylation of AVR3a is particularly intriguing as the acetyltransferases that carry out such N-acetylation are found only inside the cell.

 

Overall, these results are consistent with cleavage of the RxLR motif of AVR3a, followed by acetylation of the new N-terminal amino acid before secretion from P. infestans. It is not clear what protease might be responsible for the cleavage, because none of the 11 P. infestans aspartic proteases homologous to the protease that cleaves the PEXEL motif in Plasmodium could cleave AVR3a in assays using recombinant bacterially expressed proteins. Nevertheless, the potential similarity of this process to the processing and secretion of effectors from other species containing the PEXEL and TEXEL motifs points to its biological relevance and a possible conserved mechanism for effector secretion.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Qiang Zhang's curator insight, June 13, 1:57 AM
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Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep

Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep | my universe | Scoop.it
Background Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. Aims The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years). Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on) was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index–PSQI) were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates. Results Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3) and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5). Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and
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Why I Love Genetics: Essay on Occasion of Being Awarded the GSA Medal 2016

Why I Love Genetics: Essay on Occasion of Being Awarded the GSA Medal 2016 | my universe | Scoop.it
The Genetics Society of America (GSA) Medal is awarded to an individual for outstanding contributions to the field of genetics in the last 15 years. Recipients of the GSA Medal are recognized for elegant and highly meaningful contributions to modern genetics, and exemplify the ingenuity of GSA membership.

The 2016 recipient is Detlef Weigel, whose contributions include the identification of the molecular basis for floral patterning; the determination of mechanisms for flowering time; and elucidation of genetic tradeoffs between growth and immunity in natural populations. Notably, his group identified the gene for florigen, a compound made in leaves that induces flowering. Throughout these investigations, Weigel developed multiple resources for the plant genetics community, including activation tagging to create gain-of-function mutants; gathering data and creating a web interface for AtGenExpress, a gene expression atlas for Arabidopsis; and jumpstarting the 1001 Genomes project of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Via Francis Martin
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Genome-wide association study of 12 agronomic traits in peach

Genome-wide association study of 12 agronomic traits in peach | my universe | Scoop.it
Peach is both an economically important crop species and a model for Rosaceae fruit development research.
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Mixing Energy Drinks and Alcohol Mimics Cocaine Exposure

Mixing Energy Drinks and Alcohol Mimics Cocaine Exposure | my universe | Scoop.it
While caffeine is a stimulant and alcohol is a CNS depressant, when the two substances are combined, they don’t cancel each other out. It’s act
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Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

Norman Warthmann's insight:
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bioRxiv: Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae (2016)

bioRxiv: Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae (2016) | my universe | Scoop.it

In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,741 hectares, about 16% of cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100%. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. Population genomics analyses revealed that the outbreak was caused by a wheat-infecting South American lineage of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We show that genomic surveillance can be rapidly applied to monitor plant disease outbreaks and provide valuable information regarding the identity and origin of the infectious agent.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Lynne Reuber's curator insight, June 20, 2016 10:53 AM
Molecular epidemiology for plant pathology
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Biden unveiling public database for clinical data on cancer

Biden unveiling public database for clinical data on cancer | my universe | Scoop.it
WASHINGTON (AP) — Vice President Joe Biden unveiled a public database for clinical data on cancer on Monday that aims to help researchers and doctors better tailor new treatments to individuals. Since taking on the cancer issue last year, Biden has repeatedly argued that confining data within institutions has hampered cancer research, with scientists and medical companies reluctant to share proprietary information. [...] cancer research institutions have significant data-sharing arrangements in place, although Biden and other critics say it's too limited and not happening early enough in the process.
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Modern Industrial Agriculture Is Incompatible With Nature—We Need a New Paradigm Based on Ecology

Modern Industrial Agriculture Is Incompatible With Nature—We Need a New Paradigm Based on Ecology | my universe | Scoop.it
Annual monocultures—corn, wheat, rice—abuse the soil. What if we mimicked nature and grew perennial grains in mixtures instead?

Via CIMMYT, Int.
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The Plan to Rescue Hawaii’s Birds with Genetic Engineering

The Plan to Rescue Hawaii’s Birds with Genetic Engineering | my universe | Scoop.it
There’s a chance to use cutting-edge technology to save native Hawaiian birds from the mosquitoes that are driving them to extinction.
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Comment: Turning science into social outcomes : Nature : Nature Research

Comment: Turning science into social outcomes : Nature : Nature Research | my universe | Scoop.it
For innovation to bring public benefit, mapping the influence of academic papers is just the beginning.
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Should Genetic Engineering Be Used as a Tool for Conservation? - Conniff (2017) - Yale E360

Should Genetic Engineering Be Used as a Tool for Conservation? - Conniff (2017) - Yale E360 | my universe | Scoop.it

Researchers are considering ways to use synthetic biology for such conservation goals as eradicating invasive species or strengthening endangered coral. But environmentalists are worried about the ethical questions and unwanted consequences of this new gene-altering technology.

The worldwide effort to return islands to their original wildlife, by eradicating rats, pigs, and other invasive species, has been one of the great environmental success stories of our time. Rewilding has succeeded on hundreds of islands, with beleaguered species surging back from imminent extinction, and dwindling bird colonies suddenly blossoming across old nesting grounds.

But these restoration campaigns are often massively expensive and emotionally fraught, with conservationists fearful of accidentally poisoning native wildlife, and animal rights activists having at times fiercely opposed the whole idea. So what if it were possible to rid islands of invasive species without killing a single animal? And at a fraction of the cost of current methods? 

That’s the tantalizing – but also worrisome – promise of synthetic biology... genetic engineering, but made easier and more precise by the new gene editing technology called CRISPR, which ecologists could use to splice in a DNA sequence designed to handicap an invasive species, or to help a native species adapt to a changing climate. “Gene drive,” another new tool, could then spread an introduced trait through a population far more rapidly than conventional Mendelian genetics would predict.  

Synthetic biology, also called synbio, is already... manufacturing processes in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, biofuels, and agriculture. But many conservationists consider the prospect of using synbio methods as a tool for protecting the natural world deeply alarming... On the other hand, a team of conservation biologists... ran off a list of promising applications for synbio in the natural world, in addition to island rewilding... 

- Giving corals that are vulnerable to bleaching carefully selected genes from nearby corals that are more tolerant of heat and acidity. - Using artificial microbiomes to restore soils damaged by mining or pollution.
- Eliminating populations of feral cats and dogs without euthanasia or surgical neutering, by producing generations that are genetically programmed to be sterile... 
- And eradicating mosquitoes without pesticides, particularly in Hawaii, where they are highly destructive newcomers... 

Conservationists and synbio engineers alike need to overcome what now amounts to mutual ignorance. Conservationists tend to have limited and often outdated knowledge of genetics and molecular biology... “it would be a disservice to the goal of protecting biodiversity if conservationists do not participate in applying the best science and thinkers to these issues.... it is necessary to adapt the culture of conservation biologists to a rapidly-changing reality... embrace concepts of synthetic biology, and both seek and guide appropriate synthetic solutions to aid biodiversity”... 


http://e360.yale.edu/features/should-new-genetic-engineering-be-used-as-a-conservation-tool



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Scientific Reports: CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Immunity to Geminiviruses: Differential Interference and Evasion (2016)

Scientific Reports: CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Immunity to Geminiviruses: Differential Interference and Evasion (2016) | my universe | Scoop.it

The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been used to confer molecular immunity against several eukaryotic viruses, including plant DNA geminiviruses. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the efficiencies of targeting different coding and non-coding sequences in the genomes of multiple geminiviruses. Moreover, we analyze the ability of geminiviruses to evade the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery can efficiently target coding and non-coding sequences and interfere with various geminiviruses. Furthermore, targeting the coding sequences of different geminiviruses resulted in the generation of viral variants capable of replication and systemic movement. By contrast, targeting the noncoding intergenic region sequences of geminiviruses resulted in interference, but with inefficient recovery of mutated viral variants, which thus limited the generation of variants capable of replication and movement. Taken together, our results indicate that targeting noncoding, intergenic sequences provides viral interference activity and significantly limits the generation of viral variants capable of replication and systemic infection, which is essential for developing durable resistance strategies for long-term virus control.


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Can Mars' bid to publish genetic maps of historic African crops boost nutrition?

Can Mars' bid to publish genetic maps of historic African crops boost nutrition? | my universe | Scoop.it
Confectionery company says initiative will help breed more drought-tolerant seeds, but critics fear that small-scale farmers will lose out
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IRRI - 50 years of IR8

IRRI - 50 years of IR8 | my universe | Scoop.it
IRRI is a nonprofit research and education center established to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensure environmental sustainability.
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kWIP: The k-mer Weighted Inner Product, a de novo Estimator of Genetic Similarity

Modern genomics techniques generate overwhelming quantities of data. Extracting population genetic variation demands computationally efficient methods to determine genetic relatedness between individuals or samples in an unbiased manner, preferably de novo. The rapid and unbiased estimation of genetic relatedness has the potential to overcome reference genome bias, to detect mix-ups early, and to verify that biological replicates belong to the same genetic lineage before conclusions are drawn using mislabelled, or misidentified samples. We present the k-mer Weighted Inner Product (kWIP), an assembly-, and alignment-free estimator of genetic similarity. kWIP combines a probabilistic data structure with a novel metric, the weighted inner product (WIP), to efficiently calculate pairwise similarity between sequencing runs from their \k-mer counts. It produces a distance matrix, which can then be further analysed and visualised. Our method does not require prior knowledge of the underlying genomes and applications include detecting sample identity and mix-up, non-obvious genomic variation, and population structure. We show that kWIP can reconstruct the true relatedness between samples from simulated populations. By re-analysing several published datasets we show that our results are consistent with marker-based analyses. kWIP is written in C++, licensed under the GNU GPL, and is available from https://github.com/kdmurray91/kwip.

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Could wild mangoes solve the world's chocolate crisis?

Could wild mangoes solve the world's chocolate crisis? | my universe | Scoop.it
A little-known fruit could provide an alternative to cocoa butter.
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Rates and mechanisms of bacterial mutagenesis from maximum-depth sequencing : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Rates and mechanisms of bacterial mutagenesis from maximum-depth sequencing : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | my universe | Scoop.it
In 1943, Luria and Delbrück used a phage-resistance assay to establish spontaneous mutation as a driving force of microbial diversity. Mutation rates are still studied using such assays, but these can only be used to examine the small minority of mutations conferring survival in a particular condition. Newer approaches, such as long-term evolution followed by whole-genome sequencing, may be skewed by mutational ‘hot’ or ‘cold’ spots. Both approaches are affected by numerous caveats. Here we devise a method, maximum-depth sequencing (MDS), to detect extremely rare variants in a population of cells through error-corrected, high-throughput sequencing. We directly measure locus-specific mutation rates in Escherichia coli and show that they vary across the genome by at least an order of magnitude. Our data suggest that certain types of nucleotide misincorporation occur 104-fold more frequently than the basal rate of mutations, but are repaired in vivo. Our data also suggest specific mechanisms of antibiotic-induced mutagenesis, including downregulation of mismatch repair via oxidative stress, transcription–replication conflicts, and, in the case of fluoroquinolones, direct damage to DNA.
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New plant engineering method could help fill demand for crucial malaria drug - Max Planck (2016) 

New plant engineering method could help fill demand for crucial malaria drug - Max Planck (2016)  | my universe | Scoop.it

A new and inexpensive technique for mass-producing the main ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria, artemisinin, could help meet global demands for the drug... Artemisinin is produced in low yields by a herb called Artemisia annua (A. annua)... Researchers... discovered a new way to produce artemisinic acid, the molecule from which artemisinin is derived, in high yields. Their method involves transferring its metabolic pathway... into tobacco, a high-biomass crop.

“Malaria is a devastating tropical disease that kills almost half a million people every year... For the foreseeable future, artemisinin will be the most powerful weapon in the battle against malaria but, due to its extraction from low-yielding plants, it is currently too expensive to be widely accessible to patients in poorer countries. Producing artemisinic acid in a crop such as tobacco, which yields large amounts of leafy biomass, could provide a sustainable and inexpensive source of the drug, making it more readily available for those who need it most”...  

Although further increases in these production levels will be needed if global demand for artemisinin is to be met, the study lays the foundation for much cheaper production of this life-saving therapy in a high-biomass crop, in contrast to a single medicinal plant. It also provides a new tool for engineering many other complex pathways, with the potential to increase production of other essential therapeutic ingredients.


http://www.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/2069723/rbock-malaria-drug-in-tobacco


Underlying article: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13664



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Alexander J. Stein's curator insight, June 15, 2016 5:32 PM
Tobacco is a good target plant: Not a food crop, high yielding, and offering tobacco farmers an alternative source of income than supplying the tobacco industry... 
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The pressure to publish pushes down quality

The pressure to publish pushes down quality | my universe | Scoop.it
Scientists must publish less, says Daniel Sarewitz, or good research will be swamped by the ever-increasing volume of poor work.
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‘Do Not Privatize the Giant's Shoulders’: Rethinking Patents in Plant Breeding: Trends in Biotechnology

‘Do Not Privatize the Giant's Shoulders’: Rethinking Patents in Plant Breeding: Trends in Biotechnology | my universe | Scoop.it
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Comparative metagenomics reveals a diverse range of antimicrobial resistance genes in effluents entering a river catchment

Comparative metagenomics reveals a diverse range of antimicrobial resistance genes in effluents entering a river catchment | my universe | Scoop.it
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