Siemens and Airbus teamed up today to develop electric and hybrid electric/combustion engines for commercial and private aircraft. The companies said they would amass a joint development team of about 200 employees that would jointly develop prototypes for various propulsion systems with power classes ranging from a few 100 kilowatts up to 10 and more megawatts, for short, local trips with aircraft below 100 seats, helicopters or unmanned aircraft up to classic short and medium-range flights.
Plants have a sophisticated innate immune system with which they defend themselves against a myriad of pathogens. During the past two decades, work in a range of species has advanced our knowledge of the molecular and biochemical details of plant immunity. Many of these studies have focused on the action of nucleotide-binding domain/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR or NLR) immune receptors. NLR genes constitute the most diverse gene family in plants, reflecting their role in perceiving a very diverse set of molecules that are released by pathogens. There has also been progress in unraveling the forces that drive diversification of NLR and non-NLR immune receptors in wild species. A major recent insight from mechanistic and evolutionary studies is that there is both cooperation and conflict in the plant immune system. Here, we propose that these two antagonistic forces are inherently entangled, and that they are potentially fundamental to our understanding of growth-defense trade-offs.
awa and Li's main findings about population density, social interaction and happiness are relatively uncontroversial. But Brookings' Carol Graham says one potential flaw in their research is that it defines happiness in terms of self-reported life satisfaction ("How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?"), and doesn't consider experienced well-being ("How many times did you laugh yesterday? How many times were you angry?" etc.). Survey researchers know that these two types of questions can lead to very different assessments of well-being.
Each year, staple crops around the world suffer massive losses in yield owing to the destruc- tive effects of pathogens. Improving the disease resistance of crops by boosting their immunity has been a key objective of agricultural bio- tech ever since the discovery of plant immune receptors in the 1990s. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins, a family of intracellular immune receptors that recog- nize pathogen molecules, are promising targets for enhancing pathogen resistance. In a recent paper in Science, Kim et al.1 describe a clever twist on this approach in which the host target protein for the pathogen effector is engineered rather than the NLR protein itself (Fig. 1).
"Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change, argue Johan Rockström and colleagues."
Author Summary DNA methylation is a chemical modification of DNA present in many prokaryotic genomes. The best-known role of DNA methylation is as a component of restriction-modification systems. In these systems, restriction enzymes target foreign DNA for cleavage, while DNA methylation protects the host genome from destruction. Studies in a handful of organisms show that DNA methylation may also act independently of restriction systems and function in genome regulation. However, a lack of technologies has limited the study of DNA methylation to a small number of organisms, and the broader patterns and functions of DNA methylation remain unknown. Here we use SMRT-sequencing to determine the genome wide DNA methylation patterns of more than 200 diverse bacteria and archaea. We show that DNA methylation is pervasive and present in more than 90% of studied organisms. Analysis of this data enabled annotation of the specific DNA binding sites of more than 600 restriction systems, revealing their extraordinary diversity. Strikingly, we observed widespread DNA methylation in the absence of restriction systems. Analyses of these patterns reveal that they are conserved through evolution, and likely function in genome regulation. Thus DNA methylation may play a far wider function in prokaryotic genome biology than was previously supposed.
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