Field ectomycorrhizae sampled under Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer have been characterized and described in detail based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The described ectomycorrhiza has traits typical of Boletales: whitish with three differentiated plectenchymatous layers in the mantle in plan view forming ring-like structures and rhizomorphs with highly differentiated hyphae. The inflated, smooth cystidia-like clavate end cells on the surface of the rhizomorphs and their slightly twisted external hyphae are additional characterizing features. The Hartig net occupies 1½ rows of cortical cells, partly reaching the endodermis. Not all hyphae have clamps. The identification of the fungal symbiont as B. edulis was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequence comparison between mycorrhizas and sporocarps. The singularity of this symbiotic association, as well as its ecological and practical implications, are discussed.
A climatic potentiality model for black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) in Teruel (Spain)
Beatriz Águeda's insight:
Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is an edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom whose cultivation is an economically-viable alternative in rural areas affected by depopulation. In the province of Teruel (Spain), truffle plantations occupy nowadays more than 4,500 ha, but no land use planning guidelines have been available. Species distribution models are tools that allow managers, farmers and foresters to plan ahead and make decisions with a scientific basis. The territory climatically suitable for T. melanosporum in Teruel has been predicted using a method based on the ecology field theory, previously tested in the development of distribution models for forest species. A dataset of 924 locations where black truffle has been collected in the Catalano-Aragonesa ecoregion and eight climatic parameters deeply influencing the presence and fructification of the black truffle have been considered and their corresponding habitats have been built. The distribution model, corrected under lithological criteria, has identified more than 8,000 km⊃2; as suitable for black truffle fructification in Teruel, almost 55% of the province, belonging 3,000 of them to the optimal class. This land is mainly distributed over the regions of Gúdar-Javalambre, Comunidad de Teruel and Maestrazgo. A further correction based on land-use criteria has identified more than 4,000 km⊃2; as suitable for truffle plantations, being 1,150 of them optimal. The model here presented will help to a proper planning for truffle cultivation in the province of Teruel.
Ectomycorrhizas of Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Boletus reticulatus were synthesized withCistus sp. under laboratory conditions using synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat-vermiculite and nutrient solution. The fungal strains isolated from sporocarps were identified by molecular techniques. The inoculated seedlings were grown for 4–5 months. The ectomycorrhizas formed were described based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The three ectomycorrhizas described were very similar, with white monopodial-pinnate morphology, a three-layered plectenchymatous mantle on plan view and boletoid rhizomorphs.
The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm3 per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoilTM DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the concentration of soil mycelium or with the presence or abundance of ectomycorrhizas.
The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos, respectively) in Soria (central Spain). Soil samples (five per plot) were taken monthly (from September 2009 to August 2010 in Pinar Grande and from September 2010 to September 2011 in Pinares Llanos) in eight permanent plots (four for each site).B. edulis and L. deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, with DNA extracted from soil samples, using specific primers and TaqMan® probes. The quantities of B. edulis soil mycelium did not differ significantly between plots, but there was a significant difference over time with a maximum in February (0.1576 mg mycelium/g soil) and a minimum in October (0.0170 mg mycelium/g soil). For L. deliciosus, significant differences were detected between plots and over time. The highest amount of mycelium was found in December (1.84 mg mycelium/g soil) and the minimum in February (0.0332 mg mycelium/g soil). B. edulismycelium quantities were positively correlated with precipitation of the current month and negatively correlated with the mean temperature of the previous month. Mycelium biomass of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with mean temperature and radiation. No significant correlation between productivity of the plots with the soil mycelium biomass was observed for any of the two species. No correlations were found between B. edulis sporocarp production and weather parameters. Sporocarp production of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures. Both species have similar distribution over time, presenting an annual dynamics characterized by a seasonal variability, with a clear increase on the amounts of biomass during the coldest months of the year. Soil mycelial dynamics of both species are strongly dependent on the weather.
Ectomycorrhizal status of a mature productive black truffle plantation
Beatriz Águeda's insight:
The truffle-plantation “Los Quejigares” was planted in 1971 by AROTZ-CATESA company. It is a 600 ha plot of Quercus ilex mycorrhizated with Tuber melanosporum at 1250 m a.s.l. on calcareous soil. This plantation is the largest of the world and one of the eldest truffle-plantations of Spain and it is in full production. Knowledge of the mycorrhizal status of a mature black truffle plantation is significant for the improvement of truffle cultivation. Ectomycorrhizae were studied for knowing T. melanosporum persistence and diversity and abundance of other ectomycorrhizal types. Roots of 16 holmoaks were sampled, 12 trees produce truffle sporocarps and four did not. It was found a mean of about 70% of T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae in all the studied trees, independently of their capacity to produce or not sporocarps. Also, 105 more different ectomycorrhizal types were found. In spite of the high number of morphotypes found, it seems that they do not replace T. melanosporum, showing that there is a coexistence between species in the fungal community associated to the roots.
The ectomycorrhizal association between Cistus ladanifer and Boletus edulis is a productive relationship due to the economic value of the fungus and the role of the plant in the protection and restoration of areas heavily affected by fires. This study aims to define the realized niche of B. edulis and to predict its distribution in peninsular Spain, using species distribution models based on climatic variables and corrected under lithological criteria. Parameters have been obtained from various sources including models for climatic estimation and 19 sites where B. edulis sporocarps are sure to fruit in pure C. ladanifer scrublands. The climatic niche is mesothermal, Mediterranean and humid. Soils are strongly acid, with loam texture, low in organic matter and in an oligotrophic mull form. According to the presence/expected curve 16.3 % of the potential area is considered to be optimal and most of the suitable territory is within the Castilla y León region. Fungal spatial distribution models are reliable tools for managing these scrublands in western Spain.
The study of factors influencing the production and development of wild edible mushroom sporocarps is extremely important in the characterization of the fungi life cycle. The main objective of this work is to determine how tree age influences the speed of sporocarp growth of edible ectomycorrhizal fungi Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus in a Pinus sylvestris stand. This study is based on information recorded on a weekly basis every autumn between 1995 and 2008 in a set of permanent plots in Spain. Sporocarps are collected weekly, and as a result, specimens may not have reached their maximum size. The study area is a monospecific P. sylvestris stand. Three age classes were considered: under 30 years, between 31 and 70 years, and over 70 years. Sporocarps of B. edulisand L. deliciosus grow faster in the first age class stands than in the other two, and in the second age class stands, sporocarps are more than 50% smaller. The average weight of the picked B. edulis sporocarps clearly varies in the three age classes considered, with its maximum in the first age class (127 g and 6.8 cm cap diameter), minimum in the second age class (68 g and 4.7 cm cap diameter), and showing a relative maximum in the third (79 g and 4.3 cm cap diameter). L. deliciosus sporocarps are on average larger in the first age class (48 g and 7.4 cm cap diameter), decreasing in the second (20 g and 5.8 cm cap diameter) and also in the third (21 g and 5.3 cm cap diameter). The results show the influence of tree age in speed of sporocarp growth for the two ectomycorrhizal species.
With the aim of increasing knowledge of community structure, dynamics and production of ectomycorrhizal fungi, edible sporocarp yields were monitored between 1995 and 2004 in a Pinus sylvestris stand in the northeast zone of the Iberian Peninsula. A random sampling design was performed by stand age class according to the forest management plan: 0–15, 16–30, 31–50, 51–70 and over 71-years-old. Eighteen 150 m plots were established and sampled weekly every year from September to December. One hundred and nineteen taxa belonging to 51 genera were collected, 40 of which were edible and represented 74% of the total biomass. Boletus edulis, Lactarius deliciosus,Cantharellus cibarius and Tricholoma portentosum sporocarps, which are considered to be of high commercial value, represented 34% of the total production. B. edulis and L. deliciosus were the most remarkable and abundant species, and both were collected in more than 60% of the samplings. B. edulis fructified every year of the experiment; its mean production was 40 kg/ha and year and its maximum productivity was more than 94 kg/ha in 1998. The age class with the largest production of this taxa was the fourth (51–70 years), with 70 kg/ha. L. deliciosus only failed to fructify one autumn (2000); its mean production was almost 10 kg/ha and its maximum productivity close to 30 kg/ha in 1997. The maximum productivity of this species was found in the second (16–30 years) and fifth (71–90 years) stand age classes, with 18 and 16 kg/ha, respectively. Advances in this field can certainly offer new insights into factors affecting sporocarp production.
Lack of information and difficulty in predicting wild edible sporocarp yields is blocking its integration in forest management. In the Mediterranean area, this nontimber forest product has increased its market value, consumption demand, and interest over the last decade. In this work, sampling year and stand age effects are analyzed in order to advance knowledge of edible fungi community structure, dynamics, and production. Weekly autumnal sporocarp monitoring was performed from 1997 to 2011 in a Pinus pinaster managed forest in central Spain. After applying a random stand age-stratified survey, 21 plots of 150 m2 have been set with three per stand age class. The forest age classes have been defined as follows: 0–10 years, mixture of parent and regenerated trees, 11–20, 21–40, 41–60, 61–90, and over 90 years. A total of 153 species belonging to 56 genera were recorded, 55 of which are edible. The production of edible sporocarps was 19.8 kg ha−1, representing 31 % of total production. Sporocarp production presents a sharp interannual variability with autumns 62 times more productive than others. The most abundant edible species in terms of fresh weight per hectare has been Lactarius deliciosus with 7.0 kg ha−1. Edible fungi yields registered a significant decline in 10 years following regenerative cutting. The presence of parent trees significantly increases production with regard to the first class. The highest production of edible species occurs in the middle age, 41–60 years, and in the following classes, a decrease is produced. L. deliciosusproduction registered differences with age, manifesting in a high yield in young stands (11–20 years) and significant recovery in woodlands near to the cutting.
Sharing your scoops to your social media accounts is a must to distribute your curated content. Not only will it drive traffic and leads through your content, but it will help show your expertise with your followers.
How to integrate my topics' content to my website?
Integrating your curated content to your website or blog will allow you to increase your website visitors’ engagement, boost SEO and acquire new visitors. By redirecting your social media traffic to your website, Scoop.it will also help you generate more qualified traffic and leads from your curation work.
Distributing your curated content through a newsletter is a great way to nurture and engage your email subscribers will developing your traffic and visibility.
Creating engaging newsletters with your curated content is really easy.