My L2 Technology ...
Follow
Find
226 views | +0 today
My L2 Technology Insights
A selection of my thoughts, ideas and insights from LING421 class discussions
Curated by Blake Turnbull
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

LING421 Insight: Semester Overview

LING421 Insight: Semester Overview | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Throughout LING421 of semester 1 2013, we have covered a range of topics related to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and the ways in which we can implement these in the second language classroom. These topics include: the Net Generation, CALL and language pedagogy, technologies for SLA, the evaluation of courseware and websites, listening comprehension, technologies for L2 reading, L2 writing through social tools, interpersonal communication in intracultural CALL, teaching culture through CALL, digital literacy frameworks, and digital games and social networking.

 

I have tried to look at each of these topics from two different perspectives throughout the semester: 1.) as a language student myself, and 2.) as a hopeful language teacher in the future. For me, looking at each weekly topic from different view points has proved rather interesting, and I have often found myself thinking that what might be a good tool to employ as a teacher, I would not personally like to learn from as a student. As a result, I quickly realised that something theoretically beneficial for students to learn from may in fact not accepted by the students themselves, and teachers need to be aware of this as they design their language curriculums.

 

One of the topics that I did find enjoyable from both a student and teacher’s perspective is that of “building listening comprehension through the use of podcasts”. This was the topic that I presented on in class, and thus the one that I perhaps researched most in depth. I am also a huge fan of using social networking tools for language development (from both a teacher and learner perspective). I have been using Facebook myself since I first began learning Japanese in 2010 and believe that my language has benefited positively as a result of interacting with native speakers through posts, comments, chatting, and cultural media (photos/videos). Likewise, I believe that the use of interactive technology such as Skype is a very beneficial tool to be used in the classroom for meaningful interaction and communication with native speakers of the target language, and I hope to employ this in my future language classroom.

 

From both a student and teacher’s perspective, one of the main concepts that I have taken away from this course is all about “interaction”. Whether that is interaction with other students, native speakers, or even technology based materials/sites, having students actually use the language and interact with a stimuli is vitally important to the development of their basic language skills. As a result, I hope to employ many of the interactive tools we have covered throughout this semester in my future language classroom. For example, podcasts, Skype, websites, blogs/wikis, social networking, and interactive classroom activities to further engage students in the language learning process. Overall, I think it is safe to say that LING421 has really changed my opinion on language learning, and showed me that learning a L2 is not all about memorising grammar from a textbook, but rather that "language in use" is a far more important concept to emphasize. Consequently, I intend to place a large amount of emphasis on language that is physically used by the students in an interactive way (through a range of technological tools) in both my own learning process as well as in my own future language classroom in order to help my students further develop not only each of the four language skills, but their language and cultural knowledge alike.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 11 Insight: Digital L2 Literacies

Week 11 Insight: Digital L2 Literacies | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

We can usually define being literacite through the ability to both read and write. However, in the modern technology age, there are a number of new factors that can play an important role in the development of L2 learners literacy skills, and a number of different ways in which teachers can help to improve these skills through frameworks built upon functional, awareness-oriented, and sociocultural perspectives. 

 

In past times, simply reading texts a number of times was perhaps considered the best and only means in improving literacy skills. However, we now know that they are many other ways that are far more beneficial. In today's modern era, we can easily employ the use of technology in the classroom for improving literacy skills by building upon interests and knowledge that students already have in regards to the technology and tools themselves. For example, one popular means in which we can improve student's literacy skills (building on a sociocultural framework) is through social media networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. Here students are able to write and read comments to one another as well as to friends and students of anotehr class or country. Facebook helps L2 learners to develop multiliterate skills; it allows them to post in both English and their L2 and to use varying language codes depending on whoim they're communicating with. Students may even be more inclined to use their target L2 language on Facebook rather than in school as they are able to talk to peers and friends about whatever they choose, and thus there is more motivation to do so. There is also a range of other technology-based entertainment sources that can engage student's literacy skills such as subtitled movies, online books and blogs, online comics, etc.

 

I myself have used Facebook as a means of (perhaps unintentional) literacy skill building since I first begun learning Japanese 3 years ago. Facebook (and Twitter alike) allows me to communicate with Japanese friends from all over the world, as well as those whom I see on a regular basis in Dunedin too. By writing online, I am not only able to revoece corrections and feedback through comments, but also messages in reply which I can read, decode and reply to again. Through simply employing such techology-based tasks both inside the classroom as well as encuraging students to use them outside the classroom too, we will see a change in students literacy skills as they begin to seek media and sources themselves to practice reading and writing. Students need to be able to engage in the learning process, and thus through building on concepts they know well already (Facebook, for example) we provide them with a solid starting point from which they can develop and further their basic L2 literacy skills.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 9 Insight: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)

Week 9 Insight: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Communication is a valuable and extremely vital role within social interactions in general, particularly when language learning is concerned. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is primarily focused on locally networked, learner-to-learner interaction to facilitate that all important role of communication. When the concept was first introduced in 1990, it initially allowed language learners to communicate with their classmates via local networks, however in recent times, the concept has expanded to allow for intercultural CMC which includes cognitive, affective and interpersonal benefits. In the technology age we live in, the amount of CMC tools available for language learning continues to grow at a rapid pace, and as we look towards the future, it is likely that number will only grow further. But how CAN we use these for L2 learning? To examine this question, I will give some of my own personal experiences with CMC.


I myself have not used CMC within the language clasroom environment, however, I have employed a number CMC-related excersies in my own language learning process. For example, after returning from a 6-month exchange in Yokohama, Japan, I ended up with hundreds of new Japanese friends, many of whom were keen to keep in touch afterwards. Perhaps the most common means of keeping in touch these days is one of the most popular social networking and chatting sites available: Facebook. Needless to say, I have spent many days and nights online chatting with my exchange friends in Japanese (our base language for communication) as a means of further extending my language sills and intercultural understanding. One other means of comunication I often make use of is Skype, and i talk with many of my Japanese friends with video-link on a regular basis. 

 

I believe that both of these CMC tools could easily be used in the language classroom as part of an everyday cirruculum. Perhaps, in the case if facebook, a regular chat-room/forum would be more beneficial as it removes the temptation of Facebook's other aspects which may remove the focus of the studet on the chatting, and therefore the entire benefit of the task. As for skype; this free software is the perfect means to facilitate CMC within the classroom as it allows for synchronised speech without the delay that come with chat forums. It also allows students to see their interlocuter which may aid in increasing social and cultural understanding.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 7 Insights: CALL in Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition

Week 7 Insights: CALL in Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Reading is undoubtedly an extremely important element of second language learning. Many studies have brought about reference towards the concept of 'multimedia glosses' in terms of using CALL to aid in reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. A gloss acts as a substitute for the dictionary, however, they do not interrupt the reading process as much because the definition is easily available in the text. For example, students who are given an online text are able to click on words they are unsure of, and have a previously invisible glodd appear to explain said term. The multimedia aspect comes in when a variety of different explanations are used. I.e. instead of simply providing a simple translation in the student's native language (although most students will prefer this), multimedia glosses often provide pictures, videos, and even audio explanational clips to help the student infer the answer for theself. In general, students are often very receptive to visual glosses as they are actively engaging in their own learning process, not simply having terms explained to them. Furthermore, glosses appear to be needed less as students proficency changes. Advanced students have less of a reason to make use of gloss related tools in comparison to both beginner and intermediate students. I find the overall concept of multimedia-gloss tools in itself to be very interesting, and hope to look in to it further in the future, and to perhaps even employ it in my own future classroom to aid students with reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition.

 

My own history of language learning, however, has never involved the use of glosses for aid in reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition alike. To increase my reading ability in Japanese, I have recently been taking part in an Extensive Reading project for my course. Having taken an initial proficiency test, we are now reading graded books (from 1 to 4), at a level for which we know approximately 95% of the vocabulary. The remaining 5% is to be collected 'naturally' by inferring unknown word's meaning from the context, surrounding words, and their position within the sentence etc. At the end of the assesment, we will re-take the same test in the hope that our vocabulary understanding and  reading comprehension has improved. Having initially questioned the benefits of such a concept, I have now come to realised that it does appear to work, and I find my own reading proficency becoming faster, and my knowledge of vocabulary expanding, with each book that I read. I will be very interested to see the final results of the test as to whether or not people have improved, and if so, perhaps extensive reading would be another beneficial activity for the future classroom, particularly in cooperation with the multimedia gloss for an even larger effect on improving students reading skills.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 4 Insight: Language Perfect programme review

Week 4 Insight: Language Perfect programme review | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Language Perfect:

 

I looked at the online web-based vocabulary tool, Language Perfect, used by hundreds as a complement to learning a second language. Within the programme, students are tested on their reading, listening and writing skills in a range of words, verbs and common phrases. Activities are available in Chinese, French, German, Greek, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Maori and Spanish, at a cost of NZ$100 for 24 hour service of 12 months.

 

As students, we are actively engaged in learning vocab and some grammatical structures, and despite the fact that the course is a little repetitive (as with all vocab learning), it is designed to as ‘learning without realising’, and thus it is built on the foundation of enjoyment and fun. It also helps to improve student’s spelling and adds a slight competitive edge to traditional learning conventions through connection to other students and schools.

 

As a teacher, I would certainly consider using this programme in my language class as I believe it to be a very effective means of vocabulary learning. Teachers are able to taylor the vocab lists available to the student’s needs as well as providing them with a range of pre-made subject lists, and everything has a native speaker pronouncing the words for the student’s benefit, not a robotic computer voice. Teachers also have a teacher control panel so they can see who is online using the programme at any given time, to follow each student’s progress throughout the year, to view classroom statistics and even develop reports of student’s test results etc. Language Perfect effectively allows you to take control everything your students have access to and therefore learn through the programme whilst taking away the tediousness of conventional language classrooms. I believe the programme is extremely beneficial to student’s learning and would not hesitate to use it in my classroom. (more information available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuYR67iDbjo)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 2 Insight: My personal findings of technology use in language learning

Week 2 Insight: My personal findings of technology use in language learning | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it

My personal insights and findings of technology use for language learning for myself, and my language learning friends.

Blake Turnbull's insight:

I have been studying my second language (Japanese) for three years now, and and about to enter my fourth. However in that time, I have not employed a lot of technology in my own learning process. This is perhaps because I have been studying under a university course that has not allowed, or presented me with, many opportunities for technology use. Having said that, I have employed a bit of technology whilst learning, majority of with came from my general use of social media, Facebook. In my first year of learning Japanese, I decided to create an online study group as exams were approaching, and where better to do this than on Facebook, something that nearly every student in my class had. So I created a facebook page, and invited my classmates, teacher, and native Japanese speakers to join. We used this page for a number of purposes: as a means to communicate and ask questions, to post useful information and helping tools, and to interact with native speakers. As the page progressed and more and more people began to gain interest, we opened it up further, away from merely the page itself, and use it to organise group meetings and social gatherings to interact with native speakers to not only improve our Japanese, but to deepen our understanding of both the language and culture alike. 

Aside from this, however, my language learning history has been predominantly focused on the textbook and classwork. But of course, how I have learnt personally, and how others have learnt, is undoubtedly very different, and as a result, I decided to question a few of my friends on their technology use in terms of language learning.

 

Firstly, I think it is important to mention that technology has obviously not been that way it is today forever. Nor has it been dominated by such innovations as the internet etc. An interesting fact I discovered whilst talking to a friend was a piece of technology that she used as a child (15years ago) to help learn English as a second language; a small “swipe-box”. Here, you have a number of vocabulary cards with corresponding pictures that you can swipe through a machine that will speak the word for you. The child can then relate the picture to both the written and spoken form of the word for long term recall. On much the same lines as this vocab-recall theme, I talked to a number of other friends who studied language throughout high school and university, many of whom used a technology programme called “Language Perfect” to help memorise vocabulary. Language Perfect appears to be a quick-recall form of vocab learning, and from what I have been told from friends, a very effective means of memorization. 

 

Technology is vital to modern language learning, and will continue to become more-so as we advance into the future. From the technology usage mentioned above, I believe that the two usages: 1.) interaction, and 2.) vocabulary, are extremely important in language learning and through technology (social media and enhancer programmes) can surely only become easier with future advancements yet to come. I believe these are two areas that could really develop technologically in terms of helping learners to advance their second language ability. It’s only a matter or time.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 12 Insight: Social Networking and Online Gaming

Week 12 Insight: Social Networking and Online Gaming | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

In the modern age of technology and digital advancements, one could almost make the generalisation that there are more teenagers using social networking sites, such as Facebook, than those who are not. Both the concepts of social networking and online gaming alike are unique ways in which people are able to interact with a number of different people, belonging to either the same or different communities. Through gaming, one interacts with other players as they work towards an achievable goal. Social interaction is a means in which people can portray their own identity exactly as they choose whilst interacting with friends and family through posts, photos, comments, and more. The key concept of interaction with others is mutual between the two, and is furthermore a key aspect in language learning in general. Therefore, if we are to use both social networking and online gaming in a language learning environment, the concept of interaction must be further explored and employed within the classroom. 

 

Both social networking and online gaming allows students to connect and interact with other students and people from all over the world in a number of different countries. Games and networking can be played in a number of different languages, and as a result, it makes them the perfect tool for use in the language classroom. For games, students are driven towards achieving specific goals and are required to use the target language to interact with others in order to do so. Because games are so goal-orientated, students have a high level of motivation to use the language so that they are able to achieve these goals. If they don't use the language, they can't complete the task and therefore can't progress in the game.

For social networking sites such as Facebook, the opportunity to interact with friends both locally and overseas is a major point of motivation for students to engage in using the target language. Students are able to interact with native speakers through comments, posts, chat groups, forums, photo-based communities, and more, with the point of motivation merely the chance and ability to communicate with friends/family in an enjoyable environment.

 

I myself have never played online games, but would not rule them out in my future language classroom as a tool for language learning students. The only problem is that they can be very specific to individuals, and many students may not enjoy playing them as it is simply "not their thing". Social networking, however, I have found to be a great means of language learning, and frequently use Facebook and Twitter to communicate with native speaking Japanese friends in Japanese. I have found that the affordances of social networking as a language learning tool is great, and given that so many students will already have an understanding and frequent use of Facebook outside of the classroom environment, it would appear easy to integrate its use to within the classroom too. The only downside to that is the fact that social networking sites are a student's personal space, and employing that in the classroom may not be "ethical" or appropriate. However, that aside, I believe that the benefits of both online gaming and social networking for language learning are great, and I hope to look at their employment in my language learning classroom in the future.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 10 Insight: Teaching Culture Through CALL

Week 10 Insight: Teaching Culture Through CALL | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Culture and language are virtually inseperable: culture is defined through its language, and language is defined through its culture. The two concepts are completely interlocked with oneanother, and thus, it is extremely important to ensure that students who are learning an L2 are also learning the culture that corresponds to said language. In the past, such an idea was difficult to achieve wthout actually going to the country and experiencing the culture for oneself (particularly for isolated countries like my own: New Zealand). However in modern 21st century, where technological advancements continue to develop each year, the concept of learning the culture of another country/language is becoming more and more realistic and easily achievable. Such tools as social networking, skype, blogs, wikis, etc. allow for meaingful interaction between members of two different cultures, and tools such as Youtube, podcasts, and information websites etc. allow students to research and learn more about the culture at hand. If stuents are able to use such tools to learn culture, rather than just reading from a textbook etc., it is likely that they will enjoy it more and therefore learn and remember.

 

I myself have experienced a great deal of cultural difference throughout my 3 years of studying Japanese, however majority of this has been through my 6 month exchange at Yokohama National University in 2012. However, I have experienced cultural studies through a number of various computer-related tools such as Youtube (watching Japanese TV shows and listening to Japanese music), Blogs (reading and writing myself very occassionally), and of course through social interacting with Japanese friends via Facebook. One tool that a friend of mine employs is Twitter. As a learner of Japanese, she is particularly obsessed with Japanese music, and follows a number of Japanese bands on Twitter, as well as a large number of the bands followers. Then, after the has preformed a concert or announced something online, she can follow what her friends are saying and posting, and get a feel of exactly what is going on in the musical culture at the time.

 

 

In my own future language time, i would also like to employ a classroom 'exchange' with a foreign target language classroom through such tools as Skype, where my students coyld chat (verbally and written) with native speakers to improve mutual language and culture alike. For this, websites such as https://education.skype.com/ have been set up specifically for teachers to connect with one another throughout various countries. Teachers are able to click on a desired country and select from a number of available classrooms within whom they can interact. The website, entitled “Skype in the classroom” allows teachers and students alike to meet new people, share ideas, express opinions, and create amazing learning experiences that contribute both directly and inderectly to culture studies as well as language learning.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 8 Insight: Blogs and Wikis for Foreign Language Reading

Week 8 Insight: Blogs and Wikis for Foreign Language Reading | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Both blogs and wikis can be extremely useful tools in helping students who are learning a foreign language (i.e. a language that is not spoken in the country they are studying in) to improve their reading skills in that language. Blogs and wikis differ in a number of ways, both with their ups and downs in terms of usage. Blogs allow students to engage in personal creation and self-reflection on a topic that interest them personally. As such, they promote creativity and free expression, encourage content development through student's personal opinions, advice and criticism from the audience via comments etc. Whereas wikis on the other hand engage learners in content development through collaboration with one another. They also increase the learners’ participation in the revision process through diversity of drafts where students can add/delete content and update whatever they so choose. Furthermore, blogs and wikis allow students to engage in reading exercises by reading other's personal writings, and the comments on their own blogs etc.

 

Both blogs and wikis are also extremely valuable tools for students to obtain a deeper cultural understanding. When writing, it is important for students to engage in the cultural side of the language aswell, rather than simply stating the language on the mere surface. Both blogs and wikis are useful for students to read (particularly those written by native speakers in the native speaking country) to get a grasp of the cultural aspect towards the language itself. For example, by reading a blog about the cultural affairs of the Japanes society, or even something as simple as the weather, students get a feel for what is happening in society at the time, and the way in which the language is used for such specific purposes. It is important for students to develop this understand as they aim towards native-like fluency/understanding. 

 

I myself have never employed either blogs or wikis in my own language learning, although I think I would like to look at this as a possibility in the near future. I have briefly looked at the use of Twitter in language learning (a similar concept to blogging, only in a much smaller/shorter form) in which I was able to 'follow' a number of native Japanese speakers and keep up with current affairs. For example, when the earthquake hit Japan in March 2012, thousands of Japanese tweets flooded the site with information, updates, prayers, messages, and opinions on exactly what was going on, which was a perfect means for me to develop a cultural understanding towards the matter all the while developing my language skills, both reading (of their messages) and writing (through replying to them myself). I feel as though, on a larger scale, blogging and wiki would be extremely valuable tools in much the same manner by providing a gateway to native speakers insights and language use for interactional language learning. I hope to look at this possibility further for my own learning process, and potentially even in my future L2 classroom.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 6 Insights: Podcasts and Listening Comprehension

Week 6 Insights: Podcasts and Listening Comprehension | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Podcasts have quickly become an effective means from which L2 student's listening comprehension can be improved. Podcasts are audio files, usually in mp3 format, that can be downloaded from the internet. The term has been extended by many to refer to any downloadable sound file on the internet. By adopting the broader meaning of podcast, we include more potential resources for teachers in the L2 classroom.

Within any L2 classroom, we cannot expect learners to cope with target language communication in the outside world if we do not prepare them by bringing examples of that communication into the classroom. Podcasts are a brilliants means of such realistic examples. However L2 learners should not be expected to achieve full comprehension of authentic listening passages from the very start, and a range of means are available to help students in their understanding. For example: the manipulation of the file (speed, length, pausing, rewiding etc.), and with the addition of transcripts and/or captions.

 

Transcripts are an interesting aspect of podcast use within the L2 classroom. In my opinion, the advantages of transcripts are many: one can review the contents more quickly, one can be certain of exactly what was said, and transcripts can be used in lessons for read-along activities. Transcripts in any listening comprehension activity (be it through podcasts or videos) provide the student with a source from which they are able to check their own comprehension. In my own personal learning history, I have found that transcripts and captions have been very beneficial to my listening comprehension. Many TV shows in Japan come presented with onscreen captions of what is being said, allowing me as the viewer to follow along and ensure my comprehension of correct. In much the same manner, I have found that through listening to Japanese songs and podcasts alike, I understand a lot more of what is being said with a transcript to follow along with than I would without it. 

 

However then raises the question, "are transcripts beneficial to the learner in the long run? Or are they actually more of an obstacle"?

In my opinion, they are an asset to listening comprehension. When learners first begin to learn a new language, it is impossible to distingush one word from another. The sounds seem to merge into one, long line of sounds and it takes a long time to learn how to distingush these. Listening with

transcripts allows the learner to follow along with each words as it's said, and thus they are able to both see and hear where one word ends and the other begins, and associate this difference in their mind. Over time, this variation becomes easier and easier. By sticking to the concept of "scafolding", we allow the learner the use of transcripts for such purposes at the beginning, and gradually take these language aids away with time. Thus, in the long run, the student advances and comes to no longer need auds such as transcripts/captions, and their listening comprehension improves as a result.
When it comes to using podcasts in he classroom, it is not necessary that teachers monitor all of the listening activities of their students. Nor is it necessary that students achieve accurate comprehension in every listening exercise. By teaching students how to locate materials of potential interest to them,the instructor raises interest and motivation, increases the opportunities for intercultural understanding, improves LC, and enables students to be autonomous, lifelong learners of both language and culture.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Blake Turnbull
Scoop.it!

Week 3 Insight: My experience with the online French Language Programme

Week 3 Insight: My experience with the online French Language Programme | My L2 Technology Insights | Scoop.it
Blake Turnbull's insight:

Having visited and tried out the French visual and audio course on Carnegie Mellon University’s FOL site at (cmu.edu/oli), I have a few insights to share about my experiences. Overall, I found the sight to be quite enjoyable and reasonably effective in teaching me (as a student) the very beginnings of the French Language. I found that the more I used the site, the easier it became to use, and the more confidence I gained in the language. The course predominantly worked from an audio/visual basis and asked questions (often multiple-choice) from there. A video would play a short clip and ask corresponding questions such as ‘what are they saying here?’ or ‘what do you think xxx means?’, providing 4 multiple-choice answers each with audio support. Further tasks included identifying areas of speech and rearranging conversational segments. 

 

Before using the programme, I thought it would have been very difficult to use and understand, considering I speak no French whatsoever, however I quickly realised that this was not the case. The programme has been designed to work to the student's very beginner level, and the use of both audio and visual aids, in both the questions and possible answers, was an effective means in helping me to learn and progress throughout the programme.

 

As a student using this course for the first time, I found the programme to be reasonably enjoyable and beneficial in learning the French language. The constant use of explanations when I made a mistake, and positive praise when my answer was correct was a great and motivating factor to teach, and the ability to both hear, see and read the language through videos, audio and written answers was another great means for learning. I enjoyed using the programme, and would consider many of the visual/audio concepts in a future language class that I was to teach.

more...
No comment yet.