As language evolves and new terms enter the mainstream, teenagers are often blamed for debasing linguistic standards. In some cases, their preferred forms of communication—like text messaging—are attacked. But, teens don’t actually influence language as much as is often claimed. That’s one of the key findings in the latest linguistic research by Mary Kohn, an assistant professor of English at Kansas State University. How much a person’s vernacular changes over time may have as much to do with personality and social standing as it has to do with age. The extent to which teenagers are credited with (or blamed for) driving lasting change to language is, she says, “grossly overstated.” The same factors that prompt teens to experiment with new language are applicable to people at many stages of life.
Mais la réforme, aux oubliettes depuis 26 ans, ne fait pas l’unanimité. "C’est vrai que l’accent circonflexe ce n’est pas grand-chose", reconnaît Julien Soulié, professeur de lettres classiques, sur TF1. "Est-ce qu’on supprime les dates de l’Histoire de France, sous prétexte que ce n’est pas facile à retenir? Non. Il est plus simple plutôt que de soigner le malade de casser le thermomètre et là en l’occurrence on casse le thermomètre plutôt que de soigner les difficultés en orthographe que connaissent les élèves d’aujourd’hui", déplore cet enseignant.
In un’epoca di globalizzazione, dominata dall’utilizzo pervasivo dei social network e delle nuove tecnologie di comunicazione digitale, la nostra lingua sta evolvendo, come anche le forme che la veicolano. Tra ibridazioni, forestierismi, emoji, espressioni mutuate dal gergo giovanile o dall’immaginario pop del cinema e delle serie TV, non è facile orientarsi, soprattutto per i professionisti e freelance della parola, in bilico tra il rispetto della norma e la curiosità che li spingerebbe ad approfittare delle infinite opportunità di sperimentazione offerte da questo cambio di scenario. Da qui l’idea di una due giorni di workshop con la partecipazione di esperti e addetti ai lavori, rivolta a chi – traduttori, giornalisti, copywriter, scrittori – ha fatto della nostra lingua viva e delle sue inevitabili evoluzioni uno strumento di lavoro, ma anche a lettori e semplici appassionati. Un’occasione per riflettere insieme, con obiettività e rigore professionale, ma senza inutili ansie da talebani della grammatica e senza prendersi troppo sul serio, sulle sfide e le possibilità presentate dall’italiano che cambia. Il tutto arricchito, per chi lo desidera, da una parentesi di puro intrattenimento: la serata-spettacolo dedicata agli usi – e abusi – dei linguaggi settoriali come quello giornalistico, con la partecipazione di Lercio. Iscrizioni aperte – posti limitati (max 40 posti/laboratorio).
“ Taking your business into a new territory can be a daunting prospect, but one which can be made easier by following a few simple rules, explains i-interpret4u director Michael French”
Via Julia Graham, Anthony J. Lee
“A proposito del dibattito avviato da il Fatto Quotidiano sull’attuale involuzione terminologica, mi limito a osservare che ogni stagione del nostro italico parlare si è impigliata nel suo particolare “attimino”; la parola fashion, appiccicosa e invadente, che nidifica all’insaputa del parlante in ciò che dice: un riflesso neurovegetativo, dunque intenzionale e con effetti a tormentone. La “parola orribile”, oggetto della campagna redazionale apparsa sulla nostra testata, fastidiosa come una lisca linguistica infilata tra i denti, eppure rivelatrice di qualcosa che aleggia nel microclima del tempo; un andamento mentale seppure a scartamento ridotto.”
“ Tweet Συνέντευξη στη Γεωργία Ψαριά Πέντε και πλέον χρόνια δουλειάς. Έρευνα, καταγραφή των κοινών λέξεων. Ο Ιάκωβος Χατζηπιερής εντόπισε τις λέξεις που προέρχονταν στην ε/κ διάλεκτο από την τουρκική και ο Ορχάν Καπατάς τις λέξεις που προέρχονταν στην τ/κ διάλεκτο”
Via Milena Sahakian
(VO) -Un récent rapport montre qu'EDF juge les génératrices de secours diesels de la centrale nucléaire de Cattenom dans un état alarmant allant de l'état «dégradé» à «inacceptable». Le gouvernement luxembourgeois a pris la décision de s'adresser une nouvelle fois aux autorités françaises pour exposer ses craintes en la matière.
On se souvient de la déclaration faite sur la centrale nucléaire de Cattenom par Xavier Bettel au Premier ministre français, Manuel Valls, lors de sa venue au Luxembourg, le 11 avril dernier: «l'idéal, pour nous, serait que cette centrale ferme (...) en cas de gros problème, à Cattenom, ce problème rayerait le Grand Duché de la carte».
Che cosa pensano i vicini francesi dell’Italia? E che cosa pensiamo noi della Spagna o della Gran Bretagna? Yanko Tsestkov, nato in Bulgaria e vissuto un po’ ovunque, ha provato a elaborare una serie di mappe che riuniscono tutti i pregiudizi delle popolazioni. Ne è venuto fuori un vero e proprio Atlante dei Pregiudizi (Rizzoli) nel quale ogni mappa è un colpo d’occhio sarcastico e divertente sui vari cliché sui paesi stranieri.
““Don't grill, dude,” was a thing the boys I knew in high school would say to each other a lot. It meant, essentially, stop hassling me. There was also “budge,” short for “budget,” which presumably was a way of saying that something was cheap, in a bad way. “Blatantly” was frequently used for emphasis. A conversation might go like this:“I can’t go out tonight.”“That’s budge.”“Don’t grill, dude.”“Blatantly budge.”I have not heard these terms, except ironically among old friends, since maybe 1999. I’m pretty sure that’s because no one outside of a cluster of schools in my Philadelphia-area hometown uttered them in the first place. More broadly, this was an era when agreeable circumstances were “phat,” high-maintenance friends were “spazzes,” and you might taunt someone by saying, “psyche!” (Or was it “sike”?) And then, the 1990s ended, and all that slang did what it does best: It faded.Fad words often have a different trajectory in today’s social-network-connected, meme-ified world. Platforms like Vine and Twitter have helped spread and standardize terms that might otherwise have stayed regional. And certainly the Internet has shortened the lifespan of some slang, especially when co-opted by brands trying to speak in teen parlance. (See also: On fleek, bae, basic, et al.)As language evolves and new terms enter the mainstream, teenagers are often blamed for debasing linguistic standards. In some cases, their preferred forms of communication—like text messaging—are attacked. But, teens don’t actually influence language as much as is often claimed. That’s one of the key findings in the latest linguistic research by Mary Kohn, an assistant professor of English at Kansas State University. How much a person’s vernacular changes over time may have as much to do with personality and social standing as it has to do with age. The extent to which teenagers are credited with (or blamed for) driving lasting change to language is, she says, “grossly overstated.” The same factors that prompt teens to experiment with new language are applicable to people at many stages of life.RELATED STORIES The Evolution of SlangHow to Say ‘Yes’ (by Not Saying ‘Yes’)The Lamentable Death of Bae“There may be strong social motivations to craft an identity towards a specific social group, and changes in social structures can prompt linguistic changes as a result,” Kohn told me. “We also have fairly linguistically-stable individuals—people who just don't show much change over the lifespan. This may be expected for individuals who speak a prestige dialect or are in positions of power.”That’s likely because people in positions of privilege don’t face the same social pressure to adapt their language, Kohn said. But there’s more to it than that. “It seems that linguistic flexibility is partially a factor of age, exposure to various inputs, social factors, but also personal factors,” Kohn said. And these personal factors are “hard to pinpoint.”In her latest research, Kohn used an audio database that features interviews with dozens of children from infancy up to when they’re in their twenties. (The database features audio of family members, friends, and teachers, too.) She studied the kids at the same four stages of life (fourth grade, eighth grade, tenth grade, and early twenties) and tracked—by analyzing sound waves—how their pronunciation changed over time. While she focused on pronunciation, which offers a narrower view than slang terms, what she found is revealing for the way people think about teenagers and language trends. What stood out to her about the teenage years was the fact that, well, nothing consistently stood out. Just because you’re a teenager, it doesn’t mean your language will change in a way that’s more pronounced than during other key phases in life, and it certainly doesn’t mean that you’ll influence broader linguistic trends.Because language patterns are so wrapped up in larger expressions of identity, Kohn believes that people’s word choices evolve in concert with other life changes—you might adopt new words when you start attending a new school, or take a new job, or have a baby, for example. The endurance of some slang terms over time, she says, has to do with how people navigate individual life changes against an also-changing social backdrop.“Why some words skyrocket to popularity, only to crash and burn—for example, the unfortunate ‘fleek,’ or my generation's ‘joshin’ and ‘betty’—while others have a longer lifespan is a mystery,” Kohn told me. “‘Dude’ in its current meaning has been present for at least a century. If a word spreads too quickly from a subgroup to the mouths of moms or television actors, it will likely no longer serve the purpose of creating in-group identity, dooming it to failure.”My colleague James Hamblin made a similar argument in a eulogy for the word “bae” in 2014. "The commercial appropriation of a word signals the end of its hipness in any case,” he wrote, “but as Kwame Opam at The Verge called it, ‘appropriation of urban youth culture’ can banish a term to a particularly bleached sphere of irrelevance.” (However, now that “bae” has been rejected by the mainstream, Robin Boylorn wrote for The Guardian last year, black people can reclaim it.)All this underscores how language can be as much a way to communicate who you aren’t, as it can be used to signal who you are. Culturally, people often draw those lines generationally. Linguistically, it’s another story.One infamous example of a failed attempt by outsiders to infiltrate a linguistic subculture was a 1992 New York Times story about grunge slang. The newspaper reported a list of terms based on a single interview with a 25-year-old who worked at a Seattle record label. It was later revealed that she had made up the terms she defined for the Times—including “wack slacks,” “lamestain,” and “swingin' on the flippity-flop,” to name a memorable few. The paper ended up printing the phrases as real examples of popular slang.More often, though, words and expressions shift in and out of popular use gradually, without much notice. Sort of the way “yeah” and “yes” have made way for “yessssss” and “yaaaaas” and “yiss,” a phenomenon my colleague Megan Garber explored last year. Kohn offered an example of a once-scandalous neologism that is today utterly mundane: “While Oscar Wilde’s peers may have lamented the death of English when youth waited for the bus, instead of the omnibus, modern audiences would find the longer word stilted and strange.”And the thing about linguistic changes is they can’t exactly be stopped in any sort of deliberate way. (“Stop trying to make ‘fetch’ happen,” only works if fetch was never going to happen in the first place.) Even old-school grammar geeks are warming up to “they” as an acceptable gender-neutral pronoun, understanding that culture doesn’t just trump language rules, it creates them—then destroys them, then creates new ones again.Oft-spoken terms either peter out or they stick around. “As if!” becomes “I can’t even.” And the tendency for older adults to criticize younger generations for how language changes is its own form of establishing identity or staking a space in a social group. Which is, let’s face it, pretty budge. Blatantly.”
Via Charles Tiayon
L’italiano è una lingua romanza basata sul fiorentino letterario usato nel Trecento. E’ lingua ufficiale dell’Unione europea, ed è classificata tra le prime 25 lingue per numero di parlanti nel mondo. I dati dicono che l’italiano modello è parlato da circa 63 milioni di italiani, in parallelo alle varianti regionali dell’italiano, alle lingue regionali e ai dialetti. Ma quante persone parlano italiano al mondo? Che cosa si intende per neoitaliano?
“Una delle librerie più caratteristiche di Parigi (oltre che una delle più famose al mondo), Shakespeare and Company, ha deciso di “deliziare” i suoi frequentatori dotandosi – a breve – di un’area caffè. Come riportato dal sito timeout.fr, il locale si trova a fianco dell’entrata della libreria, in un edificio che è rimasto abbandonato per 25 anni, e proporrà una selezione di prodotti di pasticceria e miscele di caffè pregiate, birre francesi e vino, così da andare incontro alle esigenze dei clienti in ogni ora del giorno.Una curiosità: la libreria ha pensato anche a menù ispirati a opere letterarie, come Festa mobile che richiama l’omonima opera di Ernest Hemingway, assiduo frequentatore della libreria.”
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