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Telegraph: British scientists appeal to world for Ash dieback help (2012)

Telegraph: British scientists appeal to world for Ash dieback help (2012) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
British scientists have made a global appeal for help finding weaknesses in the fungus causing ash dieback after publishing the first molecular sequencing data on the disease.

Using information on the fungus's RNA – the sister molecule of DNA which helps regulate the behaviour of genes – researchers hope to discover how the fungus causes disease, and how it can be stopped. Scientists from the Sainsbury Laboratory and the John Innes Centre examined a sample of pith from a twig of an infected Ash tree in Ashwellthorpe wood in Norfolk, the first natural environment where the fungus was found in the UK. From the sample they extracted RNA and sequenced it to help them identify which genes are most influential in allowing the fungus to spread between trees so quickly. In normal circumstances, scientists would analyse the sample thoroughly and have their findings peer-reviewed before publishing them in a journal. But because of the urgency of the situation, the researchers took the unusual step of publishing their data online and asking experts from around the world to help them produce accurate results more quickly through "crowdsourcing".
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The Scientist: Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists (2014)

The Scientist: Opinion: The Planet Needs More Plant Scientists (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Academia is not producing sufficient PhDs in the plant sciences to solve the crop production challenges facing a rapidly growing population.

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New Phytologist: Special Issue: Plants interacting with other organisms (October 2014)

New Phytologist: Special Issue: Plants interacting with other organisms (October 2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Editorial


Plant interactions with other organisms: molecules, ecology and evolution


Commentary


Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defense


Nutrient supply differentially alters the dynamics of co-infecting phytoviruses


Letters


From shade avoidance responses to plant performance at vegetation level: using virtual plant modelling as a tool
F. J. Bongers, J. B. Evers, N. P. R. Anten & R. Pierik


Review


Magical mystery tour: MLO proteins in plant immunity and beyond
J. Acevedo-Garcia, S. Kusch & R. Panstruga


The squeeze cell hypothesis for the activation of jasmonate synthesis in response to wounding

E. E. Farmer, D. Gasperini & I. F. Acosta


Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story
Y. Liang, K. Tóth, Y. Cao, K. Tanaka, C. Espinoza & G. Stacey


Herbivore-induced plant volatiles: targets, perception and unanswered questions
M. Heil


There’s no place like home? An exploration of the mechanisms behind plant litter–decomposer affinity in terrestrial ecosystems
A. T. Austin, L. Vivanco, A. González-Arzac & L. I. Pérez


Insect herbivore-associated organisms affect plant responses to herbivory
F. Zhu, E. H. Poelman & M. Dicke


When mutualism goes bad: density- dependent impacts of introduced bees on plant reproduction
M. A. Aizen, C. L. Morales, D. P. Vázquez, L. A. Garibaldi, A. Sáez & L. D. Harder


Insect and pathogen attack and resistance in maize and its wild ancestors, the teosintes
E. S. de Lange, D. Balmer, B. Mauch-Mani & T. C. J. Turlings


Full papers


Linking phytochrome to plant immunity: low red : far-red ratios increase Arabidopsis susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea by reducing the biosynthesis of indolic glucosinolates and camalexin
M. D. Cargnel, P. V. Demkura & C. L. Ballaré


To grow or defend? Low red : far-red ratios reduce jasmonate sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings by promoting DELLA degradation and increasing JAZ10 stability
M. Leone, M. M. Keller, I. Cerrudo & C. L. Ballaré


β-Glucosidase BGLU42 is a MYB72-dependent key regulator of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance and modulates iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis roots
C. Zamioudis, J. Hanson & C. M. J. Pieterse


Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush
R. Karban, W. C. Wetzel, K. Shiojiri, S. Ishizaki, S. R. Ramirez & J. D. Blande


The context dependence of beneficiary feedback effects on benefactors in plant facilitation
C. Schöb, R. M. Callaway, F. Anthelme, R. W. Brooker, L. A. Cavieres, Z. Kikvidze, C. J. Lortie, R. Michalet, F. I. Pugnaire, S. Xiao, B. H. Cranston, M-C. García, N. R. Hupp, L. D. Llambí, E. Lingua, A. M. Reid, L. Zhao & B. J. Butterfield


Herbivore-mediated material fluxes in a northern deciduous forest under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations
T. D. Meehan, J. J. Couture, A. E. Bennett & R. L. Lindroth


Are plant–soil feedback responses explained by plant traits?
C. Baxendale, K. H. Orwin, F. Poly, T. Pommier & R. D. Bardgett


Environmental nutrient supply alters prevalence and weakens competitive interactions among coinfecting viruses
C. Lacroix, E. W. Seabloom & E. T. Borer

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Scientific Reports: Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa: can it be a plant pathogen? (2014)

Scientific Reports: Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa: can it be a plant pathogen? (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.

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PLOS Pathogens: The Ins and Outs of Rust Haustoria (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: The Ins and Outs of Rust Haustoria (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Rust diseases caused by fungi of the order Pucciniales afflict a wide range of plants, including cereals, legumes, ornamentals, and fruit trees, and pose a serious threat to cropping systems and global food security. The obligate parasitic lifestyle of these fungi and their complex life cycles, often involving alternate hosts for the sexual and asexual stages, also make this group of pathogens of great biological interest. One of the most remarkable adaptations of rust fungi is the specialized infection structure that underpins the sustained biotrophic association with hosts; the haustorium (Figure 1A and C). This organ forms after penetration of the wall of a live host cell, expanding on the inner side of the cell wall while invaginating the surrounding host plasma membrane (Figure 1C). Through haustoria, the pathogen derives nutrients from the host and secretes virulence proteins called effectors, which are believed to be the key players that manipulate the physiological and immune responses of host cells [1][4]. Analogous terminal feeding structures have independently evolved in other organisms such as the haustorium in powdery mildews (ascomycetes) and downy mildews (oomycetes, not true fungi), and the arbuscules in arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that such architecture represents a successful adaptation of these organisms to interact with their respective host plants [5][6].

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PLOS ONE: Variation in Capsidiol Sensitivity between Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora capsici Is Consistent with Their Host Range (2014)

PLOS ONE: Variation in Capsidiol Sensitivity between Phytophthora infestans and Phytophthora capsici Is Consistent with Their Host Range (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plants protect themselves against a variety of invading pathogenic organisms via sophisticated defence mechanisms. These responses include deployment of specialized antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, that rapidly accumulate at pathogen infection sites. However, the extent to which these compounds contribute to species-level resistance and their spectrum of action remain poorly understood. Capsidiol, a defense related phytoalexin, is produced by several solanaceous plants including pepper and tobacco during microbial attack. Interestingly, capsidiol differentially affects growth and germination of the oomycete pathogensPhytophthora infestans and Phytophthora capsici, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study we revisited the differential effect of capsidiol on P. infestans and P. capsici, using highly pure capsidiol preparations obtained from yeast engineered to express the capsidiol biosynthetic pathway. Taking advantage of transgenicPhytophthora strains expressing fluorescent markers, we developed a fluorescence-based method to determine the differential effect of capsidiol on Phytophtora growth. Using these assays, we confirm major differences in capsidiol sensitivity between P. infestans and P. capsiciand demonstrate that capsidiol alters the growth behaviour of both Phytophthora species. Finally, we report intraspecific variation within P. infestans isolates towards capsidiol tolerance pointing to an arms race between the plant and the pathogens in deployment of defence related phytoalexins.

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Steve Marek's curator insight, September 17, 3:04 PM

Pepper pathogen can handle the 'heat'

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PNAS: Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (2004)

PNAS: Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (2004) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The discovery of arbuscules in Aglaophyton major, an Early Devonian land plant, provides unequivocal evidence that mycorrhizae were established >400 million years ago. Nonseptate hyphac and arbuscules occur in a specialized meristematic region of the cortex that continually provided new cells for fungal infection. Arbuscules are morphologically identical to those of living arbuscular mycorrhizae in consisting of a basal trunk and repeatedly branched bush-like tuft within the plant cell. Although interpretations of the evolution of mycorrhizal mutualisms continue to be speculative, the existence of arbuscules in the Early Devonian indicates that nutrient transfer mutualism may have been in existence when plants invaded the land.

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10th New Phytologist Workshop: Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi, 9–10 September 2014, Natural History Museum, London, UK

10th New Phytologist Workshop: Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi, 9–10 September 2014, Natural History Museum, London, UK | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Our overall goal is to understand how plants and their eukaryotic symbionts (fungi and fungi-like microorganisms, especially oomycetes) co-evolved during the early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Several diverse and rapidly developing disciplines are relevant to addressing this goal. Our workshop is designed to bringing together experts from across these disciplines to learn about recent developments, understand the range of approaches and to explore potential cross disciplinary collaborations.

 

1. We will bring together a multidisciplinary group of specialists in the biology and phylogenetics of living bryophytes and of fungi, experts on the evolution of plant-­‐fungal interactions (biochemical/physiological/ecological) and specialists on the early fossil record. Our focus will be to determine how expertise in these diverse disciplines could be harnessed to investigate the early evolution of key events, metabolic pathways, and symbiotic associations.


2. We will identify themes which cut across the different disciplines and how best to harness collaboration. For example, recent genomic and molecular clock analyses indicate that the origin of lignin decomposition coincided with the end of the Carboniferous Period. A carefully constructed investigation of Palaeozoic Era fossil plants (e.g. evidence of white rots) and analyses of sediment geochemistry documenting could test these hypotheses. A second area of interest is arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, where much remains to be learned about the early evolution of the trait. This would benefit from focused discussion by experts on living bryophyte/fungal systems, developmental biologists and palaeontologists. A third area of interest is the early evolution and development of soil ecosystems, in which the identification and characterisation of modern analogues could greatly assist interpretation of sediments in the early fossil record.


3. The proposed workshop is a first step in community collaboration. We will look for ways to develop and strengthen collaboration at an international level. We envisage building a scheme of communication and knowledge sharing through laboratory exchange visits, and to take the field forward we intend to explore the possibility of developing multidisciplinary research networks/consortia.

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PLOS Biology: Transient Hypermutagenesis Accelerates the Evolution of Legume Endosymbionts following Horizontal Gene Transfer (2014)

PLOS Biology: Transient Hypermutagenesis Accelerates the Evolution of Legume Endosymbionts following Horizontal Gene Transfer (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mode of adaptation and diversification of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and a major event underlying the emergence of bacterial pathogens and mutualists. Yet it remains unclear how complex phenotypic traits such as the ability to fix nitrogen with legumes have successfully spread over large phylogenetic distances. Here we show, using experimental evolution coupled with whole genome sequencing, that co-transfer of imuABC error-prone DNA polymerase genes with key symbiotic genes accelerates the evolution of a soil bacterium into a legume symbiont. Following introduction of the symbiotic plasmid of Cupriavidus taiwanensis, the Mimosasymbiont, into pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum we challenged transconjugants to become Mimosa symbionts through serial plant-bacteria co-cultures. We demonstrate that a mutagenesis imuABC cassette encoded on the C. taiwanensis symbiotic plasmid triggered a transient hypermutability stage in R. solanacearum transconjugants that occurred before the cells entered the plant. The generated burst in genetic diversity accelerated symbiotic adaptation of the recipient genome under plant selection pressure, presumably by improving the exploration of the fitness landscape. Finally, we show that plasmid imuABC cassettes are over-represented in rhizobial lineages harboring symbiotic plasmids. Our findings shed light on a mechanism that may have facilitated the dissemination of symbiotic competency among α- and β-proteobacteria in natura and provide evidence for the positive role of environment-induced mutagenesis in the acquisition of a complex lifestyle trait. We speculate that co-transfer of complex phenotypic traits with mutagenesis determinants might frequently enhance the ecological success of HGT.


See also Symbiosis Plasmids Bring Their Own Mutagen to the Wedding Party http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001943

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Molecular Plant Pathology: The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology (2014)

Molecular Plant Pathology: The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens that threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. The article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research.


See also [link below]:


Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology
Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology
Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology
The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1364-3703/homepage/free_poster.htm

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Keystone Symposia Conference: Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, February 8—13, 2015, Taos, New Mexico

Keystone Symposia Conference: Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, February 8—13, 2015, Taos, New Mexico | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
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MPMI: The HC-Pro and P3 Cistrons of an Avirulent Soybean mosaic virus Are Recognized by Different Resistance Genes at the Complex Rsv1 Locus (2014)

MPMI: The HC-Pro and P3 Cistrons of an Avirulent Soybean mosaic virus Are Recognized by Different Resistance Genes at the Complex Rsv1 Locus (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The complex Rsv1 locus in soybean plant introduction (PI) ‘PI96983’ confers extreme resistance (ER) against Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) strain N but not SMV-G7 and SMV-G7d. Both the SMV helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) and P3 cistrons can serve as avirulence factors recognized by Rsv1. To understand the genetics underlying recognition of the two cistrons, we have utilized two soybean lines (L800 and L943) derived from crosses between PI96983 (Rsv1) and Lee68 (rsv1) with distinct recombination events within the Rsv1 locus. L800 contains a single PI96983-derived member (3gG2) of an Rsv1-associated subfamily of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) genes. In contrast, although L943 lacks 3gG2, it contains a suite of five other NB-LRR genes belonging to the same family. L800 confers ER against SMV-N whereas L943 allows limited replication at the inoculation site. SMV-N-derived chimeras containing HC-Pro from SMV-G7 or SMV-G7d gained virulence on L943 but not on L800 whereas those with P3 replacement gained virulence on L800 but not on L943. In reciprocal experiments, SMV-G7- and SMV-G7d-derived chimeras with HC-Pro replacement from SMV-N lost virulence on L943 but retained virulence on L800 whereas those with P3 replacement lost virulence on L800 while remaining virulent on L943. These data demonstrate that distinct resistance genes at the Rsv1 locus, likely belonging to the NB-LRR class, mediate recognition of HC-Pro and P3.

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Planta: The phytotoxin coronatine is a multifunctional component of the virulence armament of Pseudomonas syringae (2014)

Planta: The phytotoxin coronatine is a multifunctional component of the virulence armament of Pseudomonas syringae (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plant pathogens deploy an array of virulence factors to suppress host defense and promote pathogenicity. Numerous strains of Pseudomonas syringae produce the phytotoxin coronatine (COR). A major aspect of COR function is its ability to mimic a bioactive jasmonic acid (JA) conjugate and thus target the JA-receptor COR-insensitive 1 (COI1). Biological activities of COR include stimulation of JA-signaling and consequent suppression of SA-dependent defense through antagonistic crosstalk, antagonism of stomatal closure to allow bacterial entry into the interior of plant leaves, contribution to chlorotic symptoms in infected plants, and suppression of plant cell wall defense through perturbation of secondary metabolism. Here, we review the virulence function of COR, including updates on these established activities as well as more recent findings revealing COI1-independent activity of COR and shedding light on cooperative or redundant defense suppression between COR and type III effector proteins.

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David Kuykendall's curator insight, August 27, 8:41 AM

This phytotoxin produced by a plant pathogen

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News: Hazelnut harvest — and the world's Nutella stock — threatened by blight (2014)

News: Hazelnut harvest — and the world's Nutella stock — threatened by blight (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

A hazelnut farm in Agassiz is determined not to let a rampant fungus hinder its ability to provide locally-grown nuts, even as damaged Turkish crops drive up prices and fears of a Nutella shortage around the world.


General manager Shelley Krahn of Agassiz’s Canadian Hazelnut Inc. said the Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) has ravaged a number of the farm’s trees, shrinking the size of this year’s hazelnut harvest and jeopardizing the future of B.C.-grown hazelnuts.


“It’s become very rampant in the last two years,” Krahn said. “Back in the early 2000s, it only affected a tree here or there and now it’s widespread throughout B.C. in every single orchard.”


According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the EFB was first discovered in 2001 at several non-commercial sites in Abbotsford. Since then, it has also been detected at orchards in Langley, and most recently, in 2008 at a commercial orchard in Yarrow.

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Donald Danforth Plant Science Center’s 16th annual Fall Symposium: Macroinfluence of Microogranisms: Host-Microbe Interactions and Inspired Technologies (September 2014)

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center’s 16th annual Fall Symposium: Macroinfluence of Microogranisms: Host-Microbe Interactions and Inspired Technologies (September 2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
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Mohmed Ali's curator insight, September 26, 2:57 AM
SOLUTIONS FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE AND COMMON GOOD ALLOVER THE WORLD. Kind attention to all Jewish,Christians,Muslims and all other communities in the world Holy Quran is containing of 6666 verses which are dedicated  to angles by God. Out of it 87% of verses are related to Histories of Prophets and Wars , Earthquakes, Floods and Famine which affected the people who were residing at the time of Prophets . Muslims in the world are reciting whole Quran verses  frequently in all the Muslim countries and countries wherein muslims  are residing . they are affecting by  wars , Disasters , Tsunami , Earthquakes , Climate changes , loss of business , terrorism and also creating other problems with other communities  on the reasons that 6666 Quranic verses are handled  by angles in the world in accordance with Quranic Verses 42:51,52 According to Quranic verses 39:17, 18  and 55 , It is revealed  that  whole quran verses cannot be recited except very important verses can be recited towards social justice and common good for the purpose of peace , unity , health , wealth , faith , inter-faith , climate changes , improving business and stopping off disasters and terrorism and accordingly we have posted messages of God and also our research paper at www.goldenduas.com for the same purpose in accordance with all the international laws as follows: Now, the people of Jewish and Christians are saying that Quran is False, which itself established enimity between Muslims and these two communities not to attain peace in the world that Muslim is the second largest population in the world and they are following Quran Versus in the world.                                             The above communities shall find out the Quran Versus 5:8, 5:33, 5:49, 5:72 and also Isaiah verse 27:6. In the Quran Versus 7:138 as follows:[7:138] And We caused the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, which we blessed. And the gracious word of thy Lord was fulfilled for the children of Israel because they were steadfast; and We destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had built and all that they had erected. Quran Verse- 7:168 - as follows:[7:168] And remember the time when thy Lord proclaimed that He would truly raise against them, till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with grievous torment. Surely, thy Lord is quick in retribution, and surely He is also Most Forgiving, Merciful. Zechariah Versus - 14.2 & 14.3 - as follows14:2                 For I will get all the nations together to make war against Jerusalem; and the town will be overcome, and the goods taken from the houses, and the women taken by force: and half the town will go away as prisoners, and the rest of the people will not be cut off from the town.14:3                 Then the Lord will go out and make war against those nations, as he did in the day of the fight. In the Quran Versus - 17:4 to 17:8 - as follows: [17:4] ‘O ye the progeny of those whom We carried in the Ark with Noah.’ He was indeed a grateful servant. [17:5] And We revealed to the children of Israel in the Book, saying, ‘You will surely do mischief in the land twice, and you will surely become excessively overbearing.’ [17:6] So when the time for the first of the two warnings came, We sent against you some servants of Ours possessed of great might in war, and they penetrated the innermost parts of your houses, and it was a warning that was bound to be carried out. [17:7] Then We gave you back the power against them, and aided you with wealth and children, and made you larger in numbers. [17:8] Now, if you do well, you will do well for your own souls; and if you do evil, it will only go against them. So when the time for the latter warning came, We raised a people against you to cover your faces with grief, and to enter the Mosque as they entered it the first time, and to destroy all that they conquered with utter destruction. In the above, versus of Zechariah and also Quran Versus which are similar in nature to solve social justice and common good between these communities. Please visit and view the messages and research paper posted at http://www.goldenduas.com in the interest of social justice and common good in the world and spread the same to each and every corner of the world for discussion and to attain peace and unity in the world.  Nowdays, all the governments in the world or collecting huge taxes from tax payers and the same are utilizing for the purpose of peace in the world, but no result. The tax payers are suffering to improve their business and life. The following points may be taken in account to solve all the world challenges and disbute.Proposal to the United Nations relating to International Peace and Security to authorize Under Article 96(2) of the Charter of the United Nations. Hello,Our research report  is in conformity with Under Article 1(1) and 7 of the Charter of United Nations and the same maybe authorized by the General Assembly of the United Nations  in accordance with U/A 96(2) of the present Charter and U/A 2(2), 5(1),6(2),11(2),13(1), 15(1) (a) (c), 16(2) (a),(b),& 18 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the basis of U/A 33(1), 55(c), 70, 71,73(a) of the present Charter and accordingly  the research paper ought to have been debated with Vatican, World Churches Council, Commission of Churches on International Affairs, Jewish Foundation, Islamic Supreme Councils , researchers of UN and all the International bodies for the following reasons:“Reporting of world peace solutions between Christians,Jews and Muslims in the worldWe are here with attached our research report towards international peace and security for perusal and considerationsSince we are the independent and voluntary  researchers with out dependency of finance either from the government or any other agency, on the reasons that we are following Social Justice and Common Goods - Policy Paper of World Council of Churches and also By-laws of the Commission of the Churches on international affairs. Our researchers mainly follow the principles and rules laid down by the above important policy and rules.Under Articles 2.4, 3.6, 3.10&11, 8.1(b) of the By-laws of the Commission of the Churches on international affairs, we have posted our research report in United Nations Global Compact which containing of solving of problems between Christians, Jews, Muslims and Hindus in the world. In accordance with Articles 3.12 of the above By-Laws, it is a duty of commission of Churches to maintain and provide for the maintenance of contacts with International bodies such as the United Nations and its agencies include regional bodies and other non governmental Organisations, which will assist in the attainment of the aims of the Commission. The matter has being brought it to the notice of the World Churches Council and the Commission of the Churches asked its notice on the matter to the United Nations for your appropriate decisions. ?The World Churches Council Policy Paper on Social Justice and Common Goods is the best policy to the World peace and unity solutions, which has been published on 22 March 2011 and the same is in accordance with Psalm 85. The Church cannot succeed if it, isolates itself, Not only must Christians reach out to Muslims and other faiths in the spirit of ecumenism, but there is a need to embrace other people of different philosophical convictions. This requires ideological tolerance, maturity and self assurance in what one believes in. Such coalition building is made easier by choosing issues that unite organizations and movements and which have less potential causing divisions. At the same time we need an honest and inventive method of dealing with differences. The global movement for economic justice relies considerably on policy analysis and research conducted by hundreds if not thousands of academics researchers and scholars. ?Our consequences of the changing power relations in today's world is that there is more room in the public sphere for the affirmation of collective values and principles, experience proves that an informed public opinion can be powerful today, and can change governments public and international agendas. Again Churches are challenged to make use of this opportunity. They need to read the signs of time and to make their voices heard by responding to peoples cries for justice and dignity, and by speaking truth to the powers- whoever and wherever their may be. ?Christians do not have ready made answers and solutions to propose. The Bible offers guidelines (love, sharing, justice for the poor) but does not defined one "Christian" economy or "Christian" politics. ?Churches and Church related organizations can initiate public debates and largely use media means to reach a broader constituency, furthermore, regional thematic discussions can be facilitated with the ecumenical family. WCC should develop specific analysis depending on the context. ?What are theological implications for commodification common goods? ?How shall we ensure the participation all people in managing common goods in the world? ?How do we deal with power imbalances in the world? ?How can the ecumenical family engage itself effectively and in a coherent and convincing way in addressing global power imbalance? ?How can WCC lead a climate change campaign with social justice as a focus? ?What kind of collective values can be draw for the Churches to guide them in addressing the problem of commodification of common goods? ?The above questions have been answered in our research materials available at http://www.goldenduas.com and alsohttp://www.facebook.com/research of international development solutions and the same are to be discussed by the Churches, public and all its organizations in the interest of public safety, peace, unity, health, wealth, faith, interfaith ?                 Under this circumstances, it is just and necessary that UK, USA, Cambridge, Churches on the International Affairs are requested to accept our research paper and also our research organization as an organization under other faith category to assist the commission to achieve its goal of International Peace and climate changes solutions for the benefit of world community especially Christians, Jewish and Muslims, under the by-law 3.11 of CCIA. In view of the aforementioned submissions in the interest of maintenance of International Peace and Security, UN may be pleased to authorize our organization in the name and style of` Research on International Development Solutions `and also our research report in confirmatory with U/A 96 of the present Charter read with U/A 23 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and thus render Justice.  Now, Palestine Muslims are fighting with Israel , both countries are affected and innocent people are killed frequently which is against the Quranic verses 7:137 & 5:33 that no one can claim Israel Government areas which is a place of Israel People but not Muslim or Christian and they can only Allow worship in the Holy Places of Israel . These facts has not been Discussed for amicable solutions of social justice and common good by United Nations to respect Gods word . It is pertinent to note that why the jewish people are affecting the Muslims is mention the Quran 7:167 ? And the same should be taken into consideration by jewish people in the world in the interest of social justice and common good on the light of the research paper posted  at our website www.goldenduas.com and render justice.  Your successU. Ibrahim Ali,Researcher International Development Solutions
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New Phytologist: Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defines (2014)

New Phytologist: Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defines (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Ever since their discovery as key regulators of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007; Yan et al., 2007), repressor proteins of the JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) family have been rising stars in research on hormonal regulation of plant growth and defense. In plant cells, JAZ repressor proteins interact with an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (SCFCOI1) that together function as a JA receptor. In resting cells, JAZs block the activity of transcriptional regulators of JA responses by physically binding to them. Upon perception of bioactive JAs, JAZ proteins are rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome-dependent proteolytic pathway. This releases the JAZ-bound transcription factors, resulting in the activation of downstream JA responses (Fig. 1a). JAs play a dominant role in regulating defense responses against herbivorous insects and necrotrophic pathogens, and in adaptive responses to beneficial soilborne microbes (Wasternack & Hause, 2013; Pieterse et al., 2014). In addition, JAs have a signal function in a myriad other processes, including abiotic stress reactions and plant growth responses to environmental cues (Wasternack & Hause, 2013). The JA pathway functions in the context of a complex network of hormone-regulated signaling pathways that, depending on the environmental or developmental condition, can act antagonistically or synergistically on each other to finely balance resource allocation between growth and defense and minimize fitness tradeoffs (Pieterse et al., 2012; Vos et al., 2013). In the process of balancing plant growth and defense, gibberellins (GAs) have emerged as dominant antagonists of the JA signaling output (Hou et al., 2013).


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David Kuykendall's curator insight, September 20, 4:30 PM

This is something I was interested in studying.

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Global Ecology and Biogeography: The global spread of crop pests and pathogens (2014)

Global Ecology and Biogeography: The global spread of crop pests and pathogens (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Aim - To describe the patterns and trends in the spread of crop pests and pathogens around the world, and determine the socioeconomic, environmental and biological factors underlying the rate and degree of redistribution of crop-destroying organisms.


Location - Global.


Methods - Current country- and state-level distributions of 1901 pests and pathogens and historical observation dates for 424 species were compared with potential distributions based upon distributions of host crops. The degree of ‘saturation’, i.e. the fraction of the potential distribution occupied, was related to pest type, host range, crop production, climate and socioeconomic variables using linear models.


Results - More than one-tenth of all pests have reached more than half the countries that grow their hosts. If current trends continue, many important crop-producing countries will be fully saturated with pests by the middle of the century. While dispersal increases with host range overall, fungi have the narrowest host range but are the most widely dispersed group. The global dispersal of some pests has been rapid, but pest assemblages remain strongly regionalized and follow the distributions of their hosts. Pest assemblages are significantly correlated with socioeconomics, climate and latitude. Tropical staple crops, with restricted latitudinal ranges, tend to be more saturated with pests and pathogens than temperate staples with broad latitudinal ranges. We list the pests likely to be the most invasive in coming years.


Main conclusions - Despite ongoing dispersal of crop pests and pathogens, the degree of biotic homogenization of the globe remains moderate and regionally constrained, but is growing. Fungal pathogens lead the global invasion of agriculture, despite their more restricted host range. Climate change is likely to influence future distributions. Improved surveillance would reveal greater levels of invasion, particularly in developing countries.

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Nature Biotechnology: Wheat rescued from fungal disease (2014)

Nature Biotechnology: Wheat rescued from fungal disease (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Knockout of all six alleles of a gene in the large wheat genome confers resistance to powdery mildew --- Genetic engineering to improve crops is entering a new era as conventional transgenesis technology, which involves random insertion of genes into the genome, is superseded by newer approaches that enable precise genetic alterations. A particular technological challenge in carrying out targeted genome modification in crops is that many plant genomes are polyploid, including such important species as wheat, potato and canola1. In this issue, Wang et al.2 report engineering of the hexaploid wheat genome using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs)—the first demonstration in a polyploid crop of SSN-mediated genetic alterations that are stably transmitted to the next generation. By knocking out all six alleles encoding the MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) protein, the authors generated a mutant line that shows strong resistance to powdery mildew, a devastating fungal disease. This is a remarkable feat, given the ploidy and enormous size (17.1 Gb) of the wheat genome, and showcases the power of SSNs for engineering complex plant genomes and for creating crops with valuable traits.

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Storify: #NPW10 Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi. 9–10 September 2014

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Biology Letters: The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi (2011)

Biology Letters: The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi (2011) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

The colonization of land by plants relied on fundamental biological innovations, among which was symbiosis with fungi to enhance nutrient uptake. Here we present evidence that several species representing the earliest groups of land plants are symbiotic with fungi of the Mucoromycotina. This finding brings up the possibility that terrestrialization was facilitated by these fungi rather than, as conventionally proposed, by members of the Glomeromycota. Since the 1970s it has been assumed, largely from the observation that vascular plant fossils of the early Devonian (400 Ma) show arbuscule-like structures, that fungi of the Glomeromycota were the earliest to form mycorrhizas, and evolutionary trees have, until now, placed Glomeromycota as the oldest known lineage of endomycorrhizal fungi. Our observation that Endogone-like fungi are widely associated with the earliest branching land plants, and give way to glomeromycotan fungi in later lineages, raises the new hypothesis that members of the Mucoromycotina rather than the Glomeromycota enabled the establishment and growth of early land colonists.

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PLOS Pathogens: The Secreted Peptide PIP1 Amplifies Immunity through Receptor-Like Kinase 7 (2014)

PLOS Pathogens: The Secreted Peptide PIP1 Amplifies Immunity through Receptor-Like Kinase 7 (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

In plants, innate immune responses are initiated by plasma membrane-located pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of elicitors, including exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Arabidopsis thaliana produces more than 1000 secreted peptide candidates, but it has yet to be established whether any of these act as elicitors. Here we identified an A. thaliana gene family encoding precursors of PAMP-induced secreted peptides (prePIPs) through an in-silicoapproach. The expression of some members of the family, including prePIP1 and prePIP2, is induced by a variety of pathogens and elicitors. Subcellular localization and proteolytic processing analyses demonstrated that the prePIP1 product is secreted into extracellular spaces where it is cleaved at the C-terminus. Overexpression of prePIP1 and prePIP2, or exogenous application of PIP1 and PIP2 synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal conserved regions in prePIP1 and prePIP2, enhanced immune responses and pathogen resistance in A. thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that the receptor-like kinase 7 (RLK7) functions as a receptor of PIP1. Once perceived by RLK7, PIP1 initiates overlapping and distinct immune signaling responses together with the DAMP PEP1. PIP1 and PEP1 cooperate in amplifying the immune responses triggered by the PAMP flagellin. Collectively, these studies provide significant insights into immune modulation by Arabidopsis endogenous secreted peptides.

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Tweet from @CristobalUauy: have a look at the local newspapers in Kenya last week (2014)

Tweet from @CristobalUauy: have a look at the local newspapers in Kenya last week (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
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David Kuykendall's curator insight, September 20, 4:26 PM

A bad disease of corn hits Kenya in Africa.

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New Phytologist: A novel Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) mutant with enhanced pathogen-induced cell death and altered receptor processing (2014)

New Phytologist: A novel Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) mutant with enhanced pathogen-induced cell death and altered receptor processing (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it
  • Plants detect pathogens by sensing microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors. Pattern recognition receptor complexes also have roles in cell death control, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report isolation of cerk1-4, a novel mutant allele of the Arabidopsis chitin receptor CERK1 with enhanced defense responses.
  • We identified cerk1-4 in a forward genetic screen with barley powdery mildew and consequently characterized it by pathogen assays, mutant crosses and analysis of defense pathways. CERK1 and CERK1-4 proteins were analyzed biochemically.
  • The cerk1-4 mutation causes an amino acid exchange in the CERK1 ectodomain. Mutant plants maintain chitin signaling capacity but exhibit hyper-inducible salicylic acid concentrations and deregulated cell death upon pathogen challenge. In contrast to chitin signaling, the cerk1-4 phenotype does not require kinase activity and is conferred by the N-terminal part of the receptor. CERK1 undergoes ectodomain shedding, a well-known process in animal cell surface proteins. Wild-type plants contain the full-length CERK1 receptor protein as well as a soluble form of the CERK1 ectodomain, whereas cerk1-4 plants lack the N-terminal shedding product.
  • Our work suggests that CERK1 may have a chitin-independent role in cell death control and is the first report of ectodomain shedding in plants.
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The Independent: Potatoes could be off the menu as crop pests threaten UK (2014)

The Independent: Potatoes could be off the menu as crop pests threaten UK (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Britain has “significantly underestimated” the risk that crop pests pose to its food supply. Fungi and viruses present so great a danger to staples such as wheat and potatoes that they may force the nation to change its diet, an academic has warned. The rise of deadly pests poses a threat to the world’s entire food system, but the UK is among the most vulnerable countries, according to a new study from the University of Exeter. It forecasts that food-growing nations, including the UK, will be “overwhelmed” by pests within the next 30 years as climate change, inadequate biosecurity measures and new variants help them spread. “The UK has significantly underestimated the scale of the threat. This is a huge problem that is lacking in public and political awareness. People are absolutely paralysed with fear of diseases like Ebola, but while they are extremely dangerous, the need to tackle crop diseases is just as pressing,” said Professor Sarah Gurr, of the University of Exeter and Rothamsted Research. “We are not spending enough on research, on training, on surveillance and on biosecurity. Unless we significantly step up our efforts we could be forced to change our diets in the future as crops come and go,” she added. Crop pests include fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, nematodes (worms) and viroids (plant viruses).

Fungi pose the biggest threat globally and in the UK, where they threaten the country’s wheat and potato harvests. Zymoseptoria tritici – or Septoria leaf blotch – and Blumeria graminis, a powdery mildew, are a danger to wheat, while the potato cyst nematode and new variants of Phytophthora infestans threaten the potato. The report warns that if crop pests continue to spread at their current rate a significant portion of the world’s biggest food-producing countries will be “saturated” with pests – the crops simply wouldn’t be able to accommodate any more.

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Nature Communications: Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis (2014)

Nature Communications: Unconventionally secreted effectors of two filamentous pathogens target plant salicylate biosynthesis (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes pose an increasing threat to food security and ecosystem health worldwide. These filamentous pathogens, while taxonomically distinct, modulate host defense responses by secreting effectors, which are typically identified based on the presence of signal peptides. Here we show that Phytophthora sojae and Verticillium dahliaesecrete isochorismatases (PsIsc1 and VdIsc1, respectively) that are required for full pathogenesis. PsIsc1 and VdIsc1 can suppress salicylate-mediated innate immunity in plantaand hydrolyse isochorismate in vitro. A conserved triad of catalytic residues is essential for both functions. Thus, the two proteins are isochorismatase effectors that disrupt the plant salicylate metabolism pathway by suppressing its precursor. Furthermore, these proteins lack signal peptides, but exhibit characteristics that lead to unconventional secretion. Therefore, this secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for delivering effectors and might play an important role in host–pathogen interactions.

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New Phytologist: TAL effectors – pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering (2014)

New Phytologist: TAL effectors – pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering (2014) | Plants and Microbes | Scoop.it

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. and the related RipTALs from Ralstonia solanacearum are DNA-binding proteins with a modular DNA-binding domain. This domain is both predictable and programmable, which simplifies elucidation of TALE function in planta and facilitates generation of DNA-binding modules with desired specificity for biotechnological approaches. Recently identified TALE host target genes that either promote or stop bacterial disease provide new insights into how expression of TALE genes affects the plant–pathogen interaction. Since its elucidation the TALE code has been continuously refined and now provides a mature tool that, in combination with transcriptome profiling, allows rapid isolation of novel TALE target genes. The TALE code is also the basis for synthetic promoter-traps that mediate recognition of TALE or RipTAL proteins in engineered plants. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in plant-focused TALE research. In addition, we will provide an outline of the newly established gene isolation approach for TALE or RipTAL host target genes with an emphasis on potential pitfalls.


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