The recognition between disease resistance (R) genes in plants and their cognate avirulence (Avr) genes in pathogens can produce a hypersensitive response of localized programmed cell death. However, our knowledge of the early signaling events of the R gene–mediated hypersensitive response in plants remains limited. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xa10, a transcription activator–like (TAL) effector-dependent R gene for resistance to bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa). Xa10 contains a binding element for the TAL effector AvrXa10 (EBEAvrXa10) in its promoter, and AvrXa10 specifically induces Xa10 expression. Expression of Xa10 induces programmed cell death in rice, Nicotiana benthamiana, and mammalian HeLa cells. The Xa10 gene product XA10 localizes as hexamers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is associated with ER Ca2+ depletion in plant and HeLa cells. XA10 variants that abolish programmed cell death and ER Ca2+ depletion in N. benthamiana and HeLa cells also abolish disease resistance in rice. We propose that XA10 is an inducible, intrinsic terminator protein that triggers programmed cell death by a conserved mechanism involving disruption of the ER and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis.
Given the demonstrated importance of the non-RD class of kinases in the immune response, and the large number of these proteins in monocots (rice has approximately 10 times as many non-RD receptor kinases as Arabidopsis), there is great interest in exploring cereal PRR-mediated immunity.
This workshop will be modeled after the highly successful NSF-supported Plant Phosphorylation Workshop that serves as a forum for researchers from as many as 45 laboratories to interact and share research ideas and results.
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