morphogenesis and emergence
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morphogenesis and emergence
the emergence of form and shape, in Nature and culture
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Video Article: Embracing Complexity

Video Article: Embracing Complexity | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

from the deep study of networks

Brilliant, brilliant talk, watch the video

 

Your grade ten math teacher probably wrote this several times on your tests: SIMPLIFY. And, for much of science, that’s part of the work: SIMPLIFY. The universe can be broken down into smaller and smaller chunks in an attempt to find its most basic level and functions. But what do you do when that doesn’t work? Complex systems that defy reduction are all around us, from the elaborate workings of an ant colony—which could never be predicted from the physiology of a single ant—to fluctuations in the financial system that can send ripples around the globe. When broken into their constituent pieces, examined and put back together, such systems do not behave as expected. The sum of the parts does not equal the whole

 

Interview to Raissa D’Souza by Graeme Stemp Morlock

http://www.fqxi.org/community/articles/display/174

 


Via Complexity Digest, Eugene Ch'ng
starwalker's insight:

"I firmly believe networks become more interdependent in time," says D’Souza. "We see the global economy becoming more interdependent. We see Facebook making everyone more interconnected. We’re relying increasingly on technologies like the Internet and communications networks, for instance, the smart-grid, a cyber-physical system. All these networks that used to operate more independently are now becoming more interconnected, and to me that is really a signature of time."

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Simon Gifford's curator insight, January 31, 2013 3:37 AM

Lengthy but interesting

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marupaka_creativity_NN12.pdf

starwalker's insight:

The ‘‘train of thought’’ or the ‘‘stream of consciousness’’ is
an experience common to all humans – and probably to most
other complex animals. Thoughts can be mundane or creative,
transient or memorable, insignificant or salient – all emerging
somehow from the continuous activity of billions of neurons in
the brain influenced by the experience of the body embedded
in its environment. How does this happen, and what determines
the nature of the thoughts that arise in this way? Answering
these questions is fundamental to any understanding of human
cognition, and is the main motivation for the work reported in this
paper.
Current understanding in neuroscience suggests that perception, thought and action are essentially the same phenomenon—
a pattern of activity across complex networks of neural elements.
When these elements are connected to the musculoskeletal system, the result is action. If this connection is (temporarily and
voluntarily) disabled, one gets pure thought. This capability for
‘‘internal action’’ disconnected from overt behavior is the essential attribute that allows humans to think in the abstract, make
plans, evaluate choices, generate ideas and solve complex problems

 

(...)

1. How do the conceptual associations embedded in the brain’s
semantic network generate a ‘‘train of thought’’, including
creative thought?
2. How are the dynamical and functional characteristics of this
process related to the structure of the semantic network?

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World's Subways Converging on Ideal Form | Wired Science | Wired.com

World's Subways Converging on Ideal Form | Wired Science | Wired.com | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it
After decades of urban evolution, the world's major subway systems appear to be converging on an ideal form.

 

On the surface, these core-and-branch systems — evident in New York City, Tokyo, London or most any large metropolitan subway — may seem intuitively optimal. But in the absence of top-down central planning, their movement over decades toward a common mathematical space may hint at universal principles of human self-organization.

 

Patterns emerged: The core-and-branch topology, of course, and patterns more fine-grained. Roughly half the stations in any subway will be found on its outer branches rather than the core. The distance from a city’s center to its farthest terminus station is twice the diameter of the subway system’s core. This happens again and again.

 

“Many other shapes could be expected, such as a regular lattice,” said Barthelemy. “What we find surprising is that all these different cities, on different continents, with different histories and geographical constraints, lead finally to the same structure.”

Subway systems seem to gravitate towards these ratios organically, through a combination of planning, expedience, circumstance and socioeconomic fluctuation, say the researchers.

This is a crucial point: If the subways followed a predetermined path, their evolution would only reflect a set plan. Instead, the convergence “is a sign that there are some basic, profound mechanisms that drive the development of urban systems,” said Barthelemy.

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Wind Map

Wind Map | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

by Martin Wattenberg and Fernanda Viegas

 

An invisible, ancient source of energy surrounds us—energy that powered the first explorations of the world, and that may be a key to the future. This map shows you the delicate tracery of wind flowing over the US.

 

form emerging from process.

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Network Cosmology : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Network Cosmology : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.


Via A. J. Alvarez-Socorro
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BRAIN POWER: From Neurons to Networks

the mind of a child and the growing internet, an open-ended correlation

Directed by @tiffanyshlain Please share this film far and wide! Suggested ways below. Check out the #TEDBook that accompanies this film. Info at: http://www....


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The Evolution of Urban Planning in 10 Diagrams

The Evolution of Urban Planning in 10 Diagrams | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Shaping a city - the simple visualizations of complex ideas that have changed how we live.

The exhibition’s title – Grand Reductions – suggests a simple illustration’s power to encapsulate complex ideas. And for that reason the medium has always been suited to the city, an intricate organism that has been re-imagined (with satellite towns! in rural grids! in megaregions!) by generations of architects, planners and idealists.

In the urban context, diagrams can be powerful precisely because they make weighty questions of land use and design digestible in a single sweep of the eye. But as well-known plans, such as Le Corbusier’s, illustrates, they can also seductively oversimplify the problems of cities. These 10 diagrams have been tremendously influential – not always for the good...

 

View all the diagrams as well as their descriptions at the article link...


Via Lauren Moss
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Jay C. Estes's curator insight, April 16, 2013 3:41 PM

Fascinating article.  I love planning history.

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Cognitive Architecture

Cognitive Architecture | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it
"Cognitive architecture" questions of how evolving modalities - from bio-politics to noo-politics - can be mapped upon the city under contemporary conditions of urbanization and globalization.

Noo-politics, most broadly understood as a power exerted over the life of the mind, re-configures perception, memory and attention, and also implicates potential ways and means by which neurobiological architecture is undergoing reconfiguration. This volume, motivated by theories such as 'cognitive capitalism' and concepts such as 'neural plasticity', shows how architecture and urban processes and products commingle to form complex systems that produce novel forms of networks that empower the imagination and constitute the cultural landscape. This volume rethinks the relations between form and forms of communication, calling for a new logic of representation; it examines the manner in which information, with its non-hierarchical and distributed format is contributing both to the sculpting of brain and production of mind.

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Emergence, self–organization and morphogenesis in biological structures

Emergence, self–organization and morphogenesis in biological structures | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Our approach deals essentially with pattern formation in biological systems far from equilibrium state, trying to underline a connection between the general principles of morphogenesis, the dynamics of the reaction–diffusion systems and the fractal analysis as a tool for modeling such processes.

 

The order inherent in the busy complexity within the cell may be largely self–organized and spontaneous rather than the consequence of natural selection alone.

 

Emergence is a fundamental property of complex systems and can be thought of as a new property or behavior, which appears due to non–linear interactions within the system; emergence may be considered the ‘product’ or by–product of the system. As our world becomes increasingly more interconnected, understanding how emergence arises and how to design for it and manage specific types of emergence is ever more important.

 

For example, self–organization, while linked with the appearance of hierarchical structures and system wide properties does not account for the emergence of true novelty or semantics and meaning.

 

The principles of construction in complex integrated systems of elements that allow the systems to adapt their behavior in a complex environment can be summarized in two themes: first, the emergence of profound spontaneous order; second, a bold hypothesis that the target of selection is a characteristic type of adaptive system poised between order and chaos.

 

The problem of cell differentiation is one of the two most basic issues in developmental biology.

 

Morphology is a marriage of underlying laws of form and the agency of selection.

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UnderstandingSociety: The social world as morphogenesis

UnderstandingSociety: The social world as morphogenesis | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

She refers to her view as the "morphogenetic" approach. Here is how she explains this concept:
The 'morpho' element is an acknowledgement that society has no pre-set form or preferred state: the 'genetic' part is a recognition that it takes its shape from, and is formed by, agents, originating from the intended and unintended consequences of their activities.

 

So what is Archer's central notion, the idea of morphogenesis? It is the idea that processes of change occur for agents and social structures in interlocking and temporally complex ways. Agents are formed within a set of social structures -- norms, language communities, power relationships. The genesis of the agent occurs within the context of these structures. On a larger time scale, the structures themselves change as a result of the activities and choices of the historically situated individuals who make them up. She summarizes this ontology as a set of cycles with different time frames: structural conditioning => social interaction => structural elaboration (16). This notion leads Archer to a conception of the social and the actor that reflects a fundamentally historical understanding of social processes. Formation and transformation are the central metaphors (154).

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Design methods, emergence, and collective intelligence by Nikos A ...

Critics of contemporary architecture argue that a serious problem for mankind developed when design began to be driven by ideology, so that appearance, form, evaluation, and justification were no longer related to a building’s use by human beings. In this intellectual atmosphere, it is very easy to ignore the effect that built form has on human sensibilities, and to use abstract criteria to justify a particular building style. Those criteria can then be dictated by ideas that have nothing to do with either human beings, or their relationship to the built environment, and which frequently turn out to destroy this critical relationship [1].

 

The artistic/intuitive method is certainly valid within a culture of traditional buildings, but it fails totally when destructive influences act on design. There are indications that this is overwhelmingly the case today.

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Xaos: A becoming on the line painting and the genesis of form

Xaos: A becoming on the line painting and the genesis of form | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

A becoming on the line: painting and the genesis of form.

Xaos; Starwalker;

 

on SpaceCollective

to be published on OA  http://ojs.wpi.edu/index.php/orgaesthetics/index

starwalker's insight:

Art puts a question upon the world of ideas and perceptions. A question that artists pause upon in their every day practices with matter, mediums and minds. It is composed of the vivid sense of openness, unpredictability and chance that emerges with creativity: how open is the world around us – and in us? It comes to challenge the vision we have concerning the world and primarily the notion of strong determinism. Art is occupied in the generation of forms, from the times of its beginning in the caves of the Paleolithic. Ever since Art is declaring, and today more than ever, that aesthetic is not arrested in frozen objects but rooted in the open dynamics of life, in the complex activity through which forms emerge, sustaining and modifying themselves. The journey of an artist into morphogenesis and aesthetics happens between experimental exploration and selected constrains. Through the subtle interplay between the chaotic and the coherent, the artist understands aesthetic from within. The outcome is a work that confronts the constraints of what is the expected dénouement of painting, and explodes in a multiplicity of images and worlds.

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NASA Presents “The Earth as Art” in a Free eBook and Free iPad App

NASA Presents “The Earth as Art” in a Free eBook and Free iPad App | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

In 1960, NASA put its first 'Earth-observing environmental satellite' into orbit, and, ever since, these satellites have let us observe the dynamics of our planet in a new way.


Via lucas
starwalker's insight:

The satellites have also demonstrated again and again the Earth’s aesthetic beauty, revealed in the patterns, shapes, colors, and textures seen from space. That beauty is what gets celebrated in NASA Earth As Art, a new visual publication made available as a Free 160-Page eBook (PDF) and aFree iPad App.

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oliviersc's comment, December 22, 2012 9:49 AM
Shared in my Google+ (circles). Thanks for this !
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Cognitive Architecture. From Bio-Politics To Noo-Politics | Artbrain

Cognitive Architecture. From Bio-Politics To Noo-Politics | Artbrain | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Cognitive Architecture.From Bio-Politics To Noo-Politics Architecture & Mind in the Age of Communication & Information Edited by: Deborah Hauptmann and Warren Neidich...

 

Cognitive Architecture questions of how evolving modalities – from bio-politics to noo-politics – can be mapped upon the city under contemporary conditions of urbanization and globalization. Noo-politics, most broadly understood as a power exerted over the life of the mind, re-configures perception, memory and attention, and also implicates potential ways and means by which neurobiological architecture is undergoing reconfiguration. This volume, motivated by theories such as ‘cognitive capitalism’ and concepts such as ‘neural plasticity’, shows how architecture and urban processes and products commingle to form complex systems that produce novel forms of networks that empower the imagination and constitute the cultural landscape. This volume rethinks the relations between form and forms of communication, calling for a new logic of representation; it examines the manner in which information, with its non-hierarchical and distributed format is contributing both to the sculpting of brain and production of mind. Cognitive Architecture brings together renowned specialists in the areas of political and aesthetic philosophy, neuroscience, socio-cultural and architecture theory, visual and spatial theorists and practitioners; the contributions elucidate original ideas for thinking the city as a framework for possible gestations of noo-politics.

 

via Wildcat

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Eyeo2012 - Nervous System: Jessica Rosenkrantz & Jesse Louis-Rosenberg

Jessica and Jesse discuss Nervous System’s efforts to revolutionize product design through generative techniques, 3d-printing and web programming.

 

from their site:

We created Nervous System to explore a design approach that relates process and form in a context of interactivity and openness. Our trajectory focuses on generative design methods using both algorithmic and physical tools to create innovative products and environments.
Formally we are attracted to complex and unconventional geometries. Our inspirations are grounded in the natural forms and corresponding processes which construct the world around us. From coral aggregations to interference patterns, a study of natural phenomena is an essential ingredient to our design process.
To evolve such forms, we systematically engage in generative processes. Instead of designing a specific form, we craft a system whose result is a myriad of distinct creations. These systems are interactive, responding both to changes in specific variables and to physical inputs. There is no definitive, final product, instead the many designs created allow for mass customization.
Our studio exploits this possibility by releasing our work online as a series of interactive applets which customers can use to craft their own personalized products. We also release our source code under a creative commons license to encourage others to work in this manner.
Our products are designed to be affordably and ethically made. We use manufacturing methods that do not require large facilities or massive manual labor. Often we employ rapid prototyping methods by which all unique pieces can be manufactured at the same cost as cookie cutter ones. We use inexpensive materials and believe that the value of our designs comes from an intelligent and beautiful marriage of form and function, not the current price of currency standards.

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Philosophy of Complex Systems (Recommended - Recomendado)

Philosophy of Complex Systems (Recommended - Recomendado) | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Every essay in this book is original, often highly original, and they will be of interest to practising scientists as much as they will be to philosophers of  science.

 

This present essay and its matching closing essay ([Hooker-b, this volume]2 )
are intended to be complementary and between them provide at least a first pre-
sentation of an intellectual framework for understanding the foundational and
philosophical issues raised by the complex systems revolution. The present essay
is designed to introduce and broadly review the domain of complex systems, with
an eye to identifying the historical setting (section 2), the key systems properties
at issue (section 3) and a collection of sub-domains that do not receive treatment
in a dedicated essay (section 4). The closing essay is an attempt to systemati-
cally survey the specific components and issues that make up a scientific paradigm
(section 5) and philosophy of science (section 6) that together comprise a foun-
dational/philosophical analysis of the role of complex systems in science, as they
currently appear.
Readers at least somewhat familiar with complex systems should find the essays
to follow reasonably accessible, with references that invite further exploration.


Via A. J. Alvarez-Socorro
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Manuel DeLanda, Deleuze and the Open-ended Becoming of the World (1998)

Manuel DeLanda, Deleuze and the Open-ended Becoming of the World (1998) | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

With the final mathematization of classical physics in the nineteenth century, a certain picture of the world emerged dominant, one in which clockwork determinism reigned supreme and time played no creative role, so that the future was effectively closed, completely given in the past.

 

as the history of statistical mechanics makes it clear, much scientific effort has been spent in our century to reconcile time asymmetry at the level of large aggregates with the still accepted time symmetry at the level of individual interactions.

 

Thus, it would become the task of philosophers and social scientists to attempt to reconceptualize the world in order to give time and history a creative role, with the vision of an open future that this implies.

 

The distinction between the possible and the real assumes a set of predefined forms (or essences) which acquire physical reality as material forms that resemble them. From the morphogenetic point of view, realizing a possibility does not add anything to a predefined form, except reality. The distinction between the virtual and the actual, on the other hand, does not involve resemblance of any kind (e.g. our example above, in which a topological point becomes a geometrical sphere) and far from constituting the essential identity of a form, intensive processes subvert identity, since now forms as different as spheres and cubes emerge from the same topological point. As Deleuze writes, "Actualization breaks with resemblance as a process no less than it does with identity as a principle. In this sense, actualization or differenciation is always a genuine creation." {4}


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architecture primordial soup and the quest for units of synthetic life - neri oxman

To conceive of design as the ‘dry path’ of

biology in the generation of synthetic form

requires designers to fi nd the formula to

describe matter as generative. To do this,

they must fi rst abandon the conceptual

structure of a divided and hierarchical

process separating the analytic and the

synthetic, and arrive at their ultimate

integration. A new philosophy of design

is slowly emerging which anticipates and

supports the merging of matter and energy

on the way to proto-design.

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Morphogenesis and the Mathematics of Emergence

Michael Weinstock

insightful review article on process and form in complex systems and architecture

 

Form and behaviour emerge from process. It is process that produces, elaborates and maintains the form or structure of biological organisms (and non biological things). The process consists of a complex series of exchanges between the organism and its environment.

 

There is an argument that it is not the form of the organism that is genetically encoded but rather the process of self-generation of the form within an environment.

 

It is necessary to think of geometry not only as the description of the fully developed form, but also as the set of boundary constraints that acts as a local organizing principle for self-organization during morphogenesis. 

 

The feedback loops from pattern to form and from form to pattern construct a model of morphogenesis as a dynamic process from which form emerges.

 

System theory is the study of organization, its structure and function.

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On growth and form : Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth, 1860-1948 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

Includes bibliographical references and index...

 

mechanism and teleology
are interwoven together, and we must not cleave to the one nor despise the other; for their union is rooted in the very nature of totality. We may grow shy or weary of looking to a final cause
for an explanation of our phenomena ; but after we have accounted for these on the plainest principles of mechanical causation it may be useful and appropriate to see how the final cause would tally wuth the other, and lead towards the same conclusion*.

 

The terms Growth and Form, which make up the title of this book, are to be understood, as I need hardly say, in their relation to the study of organisms. We want to see how, in some cases at least, the forms of living things, and of the parts of living things, can be explained by physical considerations,

 

In the Newtonian language* of elementary physics, force is recognised by its action in producing or in changing motion, or in preventing change of motion or in maintaining rest. When we
deal with matter in the concrete, force does not, strictly speaking, enter into the question, for force, unlike matter, has no independent objective existence. It is energy in its various forms, known or unknown, that acts upon matter. But when we abstract our thoughts from the material to its form, or from the thing moved to its motions, when we deal with the subjective conceptions of form, or movement, or the movements that change of form impHes, then Force is the appropriate term for our conception of the causes by which these forms and changes of form are brought about.

 

The form, then, of any portion of matter, whether it be living or dead, and the changes of form which are apparent in its movements and in its growth, may in all cases alike be described as due to the action of force. In short, the form of an object is a "diagram of forces," in this sense, at least, that from it we can judge of or deduce the forces that are acting or have acted upon it: in this strict and particular sense, it is a diagram — in the case of a sohd, of the forces which have been impressed upon it when its conformation was produced, together with those which enable it to retain its conformation; in the case of a liquid (or of a gas) of the forces which are for the moment acting on it to restrain or balance its own inherent mobility. In an organism, great or small, it is not merely the nature of the motions of the hving substance which we must interpret in terms of force (according to kinetics), but also the conformation of the organism itself.

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Evolution for free? Self-organization as driver of natural selection

Evolution for free? Self-organization as driver of natural selection | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

 In his book "The Origins of Order", Stuart Kauffman [3] uses the term "order for free". Order for free refers to the seeming lack of thermodynamic cost to the spontaneous generation of order observed in self-organizing systems. Of course, self-organizing processes must conform to thermodynamic constraints, but nevertheless result in highly ordered patterns. Two common examples of self- organization in biology are morphogenesis (a developmental process - [4]) and insect nest building (a behavioral process - [5]).

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Residential architecture

Residential architecture | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it
Metamorphosis is nothing more than a process of growth and change in a dynamic balance. It manifests itself in the development process from disorder to order, or from the simple collection of cells to complicated life forms-emergent behavior. Metamorphosis arises in intermediary spaces-the intermediary space of transitoriness, the zone between interior and exterior space, the zone between humans and nature. In this way, facades become membranes-half permeable, multilayered, with the ability, of bringing together heterogeneous element to the whole and allowing intermediate space to arise in the process.

 

The waves of the sea, the little ripples on the shore, the sweeping curve of the sand bay between the headlands, the outline of the hills, the shape of the clouds, all these are so many riddles of form, so many problems of morphology, and all of them the physicist can more or less easily read and adequately solve. (Thompson 1992)

 

Morphogenesis concerns the processes that control the organized spatial distribution of cells which arise during the embryonic development of an organism, producing the characteristic forms of tissues, organs and overall body anatomy. The idea of morphogenesis in design strategy is a form finding method that is controlled by stimuli.

 

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Turing’s next steps: the mechanochemical basis of morphogenesis Jonathon Howard, Stephan W. Grill and Justin S. Bois

Turing’s next steps:  the mechanochemical basis  of morphogenesis Jonathon Howard, Stephan W. Grill and Justin S. Bois | morphogenesis and emergence | Scoop.it

Nearly 60 years ago, Alan Turing showed theoretically how two chemical
species, termed morphogens, diffusing and reacting with each other can generate
spatial patterns. Diffusion plays a crucial part in transporting chemical signals
through space to establish the length scale of the pattern. When coupled to
chemical reactions, mechanical processes — forces and flows generated by motor
proteins — can also define length scales and provide a mechanochemical basis
for morphogenesis.

 

http://java-srv1.mpi-cbg.de/publications/getDocument.html?id=ff808081344e4471013465bdd363001d

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