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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes

Background: Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection. Results: Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso x Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2--6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance. Conclusions: The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso x Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. Furthermore, the analysis of the co-localization of resistance loci and functional markers provides a large list of candidate genes and opens up a new perspective for the fine mapping and isolation of resistance genes, and for the marker-assisted improvement of resistance in wheat.


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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Quantitative trait loci in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) reveal complex genetic architecture underlying variation in sex, yield and cone chemistry

Background

Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is cultivated for its cones, the secondary metabolites of which contribute bitterness, flavour and aroma to beer. Molecular breeding methods, such as marker assisted selection (MAS), have great potential for improving the efficiency of hop breeding. The success of MAS is reliant on the identification of reliable marker-trait associations. This study used quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis to identify marker-trait associations for hop, focusing on traits related to expediting plant sex identification, increasing yield capacity and improving bittering, flavour and aroma chemistry.

Results

QTL analysis was performed on two new linkage maps incorporating transferable Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Sixty-three QTL were identified, influencing 36 of the 50 traits examined. A putative sex-linked marker was validated in a different pedigree, confirming the potential of this marker as a screening tool in hop breeding programs. An ontogenetically stable QTL was identified for the yield trait dry cone weight; and a QTL was identified for essential oil content, which verified the genetic basis for variation in secondary metabolite accumulation in hop cones. A total of 60 QTL were identified for 33 secondary metabolite traits. Of these, 51 were pleiotropic/linked, affecting a substantial number of secondary metabolites; nine were specific to individual secondary metabolites.

Conclusions

Pleiotropy and linkage, found for the first time to influence multiple hop secondary metabolites, have important implications for molecular selection methods. The selection of particular secondary metabolite profiles using pleiotropic/linked QTL will be challenging because of the difficulty of selecting for specific traits without adversely changing others. QTL specific to individual secondary metabolites, however, offer unequalled value to selection programs. In addition to their potential for selection, the QTL identified in this study advance our understanding of the genetic control of traits of current economic and breeding significance in hop and demonstrate the complex genetic architecture underlying variation in these traits. The linkage information obtained in this study, based on transferable markers, can be used to facilitate the validation of QTL, crucial to the success of MAS.


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BMC Genomics | Abstract | High-throughput novel microsatellite marker of faba bean via next generation sequencing

"Large scale SSR marker development was successfully achieved using next generation sequencing of the V. faba genome. These novel markers are valuable for constructing genetic linkage maps, future QTL mapping, and marker-assisted trait selection in faba bean breeding efforts."


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Application of resistance gene analog markers to analyses of genetic structure and diversity in rice - Genome

Application of resistance gene analog markers to analyses of genetic structure and diversity in rice - Genome | molecular breeding | Scoop.it

Plant disease resistance gene analog (RGA) markers were designed according to the conserved sequence of known RGAs and used to map resistance genes. We used genome-wide RGA markers for genetic analyses of structure and diversity in a global rice germplasm collection. Of the 472 RGA markers, 138 were polymorphic and these were applied to 178 entries selected from the USDA rice core collection. Results from the RGA markers were similar between two methods, UPGMA and STRUCTURE. Additionally, the results from RGA markers in our study were agreeable with those previously reported from SSR markers, including cluster of ancestral classification, genetic diversity estimates, genetic relatedness, and cluster of geographic origins. These results suggest that RGA markers are applicable for analyses of genetic structure and diversity in rice. However, unlike SSR markers, the RGA markers failed to differentiate temperate japonica, tropical japonica, and aromatic subgroups. The restricted way for developing RGA markers from the cDNA sequence might limit the polymorphism of RGA markers in the genome, thus limiting the discriminatory power in comparison with SSR markers. Genetic differentiation obtained using RGA markers may be useful for defining genetic diversity of a suite of random Rgenes in plants, as many studies show a differentiation of resistance to a wide array of pathogens. They could also help to characterize the genetic structure and geographic distribution in crops, including rice, wheat, barley, and banana.


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Course on Wheat genetics | Landrace Pillar of the Wheat Pre-breeding LOLA /Wheat Improvement Strategic Programme/ consortium

The BBSRC funded Wheat Improvement Strategic Programme (WISP) aims to identify new and useful genetic variation to support the vital contribution of wheat breeding to food security.  The aim of this course is to offer training in the genetic analysis methodologies employed in WISP at the John Innes Centre.  The participants will gain the skills necessary to apply these methodologies in their own research.

TARGET AUDIENCE

The course is aimed at anyone with an interest in cereals research and crop breeding.  The course is an entry level introduction, giving a taste of wheat genetics, from field trials to QTL analysis.  Applications are welcome from UK and international undergraduates, junior breeders, PhD students, and postdocs. A total of 10 places are available for this course.

The four day course involves classroom lectures, hands-on lab exercises, and phenotyping methods appropriate for a wheat genetics programme. A guest speaker and a visit to a commercial breeding programme will expand the topics covered. There will also be opportunities for the whole group to enjoy social activities and discussions.


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Pinpointing genes underlying the quantitative trait loci for root-knot nematode resistance in palaeopolyploid soybean by whole genome resequencing

The objective of this study was to use next-generation sequencing technologies to dissect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for southern root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance into individual genes in soybean. Two hundred forty-six recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between Magellan (susceptible) and PI 438489B (resistant) were evaluated for RKN resistance in a greenhouse and sequenced at an average of 0.19x depth. A sequence analysis pipeline was developed to identify and validate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), infer the parental source of each SNP allele, and genotype the RIL population. Based on 109,273 phased SNPs, recombination events in RILs were identified, and a total of 3,509 bins and 3,489 recombination intervals were defined. About 50.8% of bins contain 1 to 10 genes. A linkage map was subsequently constructed by using bins as molecular markers. Three QTL for RKN resistance were identified. Of these, one major QTL was mapped to bin 10 of chromosome 10, which is 29.7 kb in size and harbors three true genes and two pseudogenes. Based on sequence variations and gene-expression analysis, the candidate genes underlying the major QTL for RKN resistance were pinpointed. They are Glyma10g02150 and Glyma10g02160, encoding a pectin methylesterase inhibitor and a pectin methylesterase inhibitor -pectin methylesterase, respectively. This QTL mapping approach not only combines SNP discovery, SNP validation, and genotyping, but also solves the issues caused by genome duplication and repetitive sequences. Hence, it can be widely used in crops with a reference genome to enhance QTL mapping accuracy.


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