Modern Agricultural Biotechnology
1.1K views | +0 today
Follow
 
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
onto Modern Agricultural Biotechnology
Scoop.it!

Crop Biotech Update (February 6, 2013) - ISAAA.org/KC

Crop Biotech Update (February 6, 2013) - ISAAA.org/KC | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
February 6, 2013 Issue: A weekly summary of world developments in agri-biotech for developing countries, produced by the Global Knowledge Center on Crop Biotechnology, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications SEAsiaCenter...
Kwame Ogero's insight:
GLOBAL[Top]

 

GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP TO BOOST AFRICA'S AG RESEARCH

 

 

The Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR Consortium) and the African Union Commission (AUC) have signed a Memorandum of Agreement in Nairobi, Kenya for a program that will boost agricultural research and productivity in Africa. Aimed to create a food secure future for Africa, the collaboration will support the efforts of research institutions in Kenya, and in continental Africa.

Piers Bocock, director of knowledge management and communications at the CGIAR Consortium said that the project will realize science-based agricultural transformations and advance science and technology agendas, and that research will focus on Africa's most pressing agricultural challenges.

More information about this is available at http://www.scidev.net/en/agriculture-and-environment/news/global-partnership-launched-to-drive-africa-s-agricultural-research-.html.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

US-INDIAN PROJECT TO DEVELOP IMPROVED PIGEONPEA CULTIVARS

 

 

A pigeonpea molecular breeding project between the United States and India was recently launched in Hyderabad to help boost food, nutrition and income security of the world's dryland poor. The three-year project, named "Pigeonpea Improvement Using Molecular Breeding," will receive support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) India Mission, and will be implemented by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) together with various government research institutions in India.

The project have research component during its first phase, and application component in the second phase. Dr. William Dar, ICRISAT Director General, said that under the CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes led by ICRISAT, genomic research plays a crucial role in speeding up the development of improved varieties for smallholder farmer crops such as pigeonpea.

The project team looks forward to enhancing pigeonpea productivity to help ensure food security in India, the world's largest producer, consumer, and importer of pigeonpea; and boost farmer income in Africa, where the crop is grown partly for export to India, but grown mostly in marginal environments.

To learn more about this partnership, read the ICRISAT news release available athttp://www.icrisat.org/newsroom/news-releases/icrisat-pr-2013-media4.htm.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

AFRICA[Top]

 

BURKINA FASO'S COTTON OUTPUT INCREASES BY 57% DUE TO GM

 

 

According to Burkina Faso National Cotton Producers' Union (UNPCB), Burkina Faso's cotton output for 2012 (which includes January 2013) has increased by 57.5 percent due to higher number of farmers who adoptgenetically modified (GM) cotton. Compared to its cotton output in the previous year (2011-2012) which accounted to 400,000 tonnes, the country's output for 2012-2013 rose to 630,000 tonnes .

Burkina Faso, which relies on cotton as one of its major exports, is one of the first countries in Africa to approve GM cotton. The government authorized the planting of Monsanto's Bt cotton in 2008. The country's greater-than-expected output could also boost the regional total for West Africa for the year. In an April survey in six West African countries, producers had a forecast  of 29 percent increase to 1,738,500 tonnes for 2012-2013.

For more information, go to http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/textile-news/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=120666 and http://www.sharenet.co.za/news/Burkina_Faso_cotton_output_soars_575_
pct_due_to_GMOs_producers/c1c24aabd780db9068e132867b233950.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

TANZANIA HOSTS KEY INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON PLANT VIRAL DISEASES

 

 

Tanzania recently hosted the week long 12th International Plant Virus Epidemiology (IPVE) symposium from January 28 to February 2. With the theme "Evolution, Ecology and Control of Plant Viruses," the conference brought together over 200 scientists and leading experts on plant viruses from 40 countries all around the world.

Dr. Lava Kumar, a virologist with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and chair of the 12thIPVE Symposium invited the participants to share experiences and the latest knowledge and technologies to control plant viruses. He also encouraged the development of a global strategy to combat emerging and reemerging plant virus diseases with a focus in Africa. An opening message from Dr. Fidelis Myaka, the Director for Research and Development at the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC), delivered by Dr. Elly Kafiriti, the Director of the Naliendele Research Institute, noted the negative impact of plant viruses on food security in the continent where they are fueled by poor agronomic practices of resource-poor small-holder farmers. They also assured that the Tanzanian government is supportive of all efforts aimed at finding solutions to control plant viruses in the country.  

The meeting was co-organized by IITA, MARI Tanzania, the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) of Uganda, AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center in Arusha, and CORAF under the auspices of the International Committee on Plant Virus Epidemiology (ICPVE), a specialist committee on plant virus epidemiology of the International Society of Plant Pathology (ISPP).

To read the full article, go to http://bit.ly/XneN2S.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

GHANA'S MINISTER SUGGESTS THE USE OF GMOS TO BOOST COUNTRY'S FOOD SECURITY

 

 

Clement Kofi Humado, Minister-designate for the Agricultural Committee in Ghana has advocated the utilization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in commercial farming to boost the country's food security. Humado gave the suggestion when he appeared before the Appointment Committee of Ghana's Parliament so that farmers who can afford to cultivate GMO seed varieties could do so.

Humado added that more youth should be encouraged to cultivate soybean and yellow maize, the staple feed of the country's poultry industry. He also vowed to incorporate more educated youth in the agricultural sector to aid the rapid modernization of Ghana's agriculture; and to pursue reforms aimed at improving subsidy regimes, the efficiency of distributing agricultural inputs and assessing the needed credit to farmers to increase yields for food security.

For more information, visit http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=263246.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

NIGERIA TO HOST UNN BIOTECHNOLOGY SUMMIT

 

 

Nigeria will host the UNN Biotechnology Summit of the International Scientific Advisory Board for the International Institute for Biotechnology, at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka from 4 to 8 February 2013. The institute, a UNESCO Category II facility is the first Institute of its kind in Africa, established through an agreement between UNESCO and the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 15 October 2012 in Paris. 

Stakeholders and experts in biotechnology from the region and beyond are expected to attend the week-long meeting, which is expected to address critical issues of food security and tropical disease research in Africa. A highlight of the meeting of the Scientific Board will be a one-day seminar with the theme, Biotechnology: Prospects and Challenges for Africa, to be discussed by Professor M. Nalecz, director of the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and Director General of the International Basic Science Program (IBSP) at UNESCO HQ.

For more details on the event, go to http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/events/all-events/?tx_browser_pi1[showUid]=12315&cHash=37ae6b6b3d.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

AMERICAS[Top]

 

RESEARCH SHOWS NEW MEANS TO BOOST MAIZE YIELDS

 

 

Scientists at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) in New York have finally proven a simple hypothesis for making significant increases in maize yields. Led by CSHL Professor David Jackson, the team looked at how quantitative variation in the pathways regulating plant stem cells contributes to its growth and yield. According to Jackson, "Our simple hypothesis was that an increase in the size of the inflorescence meristem will provide more physical space for the development of the structures that mature into kernels."

Dr. Peter Bommert, a former postdoctoral fellow in the Jackson lab, performed an analytical technique on maize variants that revealed quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and the analysis pointed to a gene that Jackson has been interested in since 2001, when he was first to clone it, a maize gene called FASCIATED EAR2 (FEA2). The research has shown that by producing a weaker-than-normal version of the FEA2 gene, it is possible, to increase meristem size, and get a maize plant to produce ears with more rows and more kernels.

The news release about this research is available at http://www.cshl.edu/Article-Jackson/plant-scientists-at-cshl-demonstrate-new-means-of-boosting-maize-yields. Results of this research appear online in the February issue of Nature Genetics. The paper can be viewed at:http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/vaop/ncurrent/index.html.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

COSTA RICA APPROVES GM CORN CULTIVATION

 

 

The National Biosecurity Technical Commission of Costa Rica has authorized a local subsidiary of multinational biotechnology company Monsanto to grow genetically modified (GM) corn in the country. The decision was confirmed by Alejandro Hernández, a member of the commission representing the Ministry of Science and Technology, and by a locally-based NGO in the country Coecoceiba.

The ruling allows Monsanto to grow corn for obtaining seeds or for research purposes, but not for consumption or marketing in the country, as all seed to be produced will be exported. Currently there are 443.1 hectares ofbiotech crops in Costa Rica, of which 394.3 are of cotton, 44.6 are soybeans, 3.2 are pineapple and 1 is banana. They belong to Semillas Olson, D & PL Semillas, Bayer, Semillas del Trópico and Del Monte, according to data of Costa Rica's government agency Phytosanitary Service.

See the original article at http://www.ticotimes.net/Current-Edition/News-Briefs/Costa-Rica-OKs-genetically-modified-corn_Monday-January-21-2013.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

DRAFT OF CHILE GENOMIC SEQUENCE COMPLETED, HOPE TO IMPROVE CHILE BREEDS

 

 

A high resolution draft of the chile pepper genome has been completed by researchers from New Mexico State University's (NMSU) Chile Pepper Institute and Seoul University in South Korea.

"Having a sequenced genome will unlock the genetic secrets of the chile pepper providing a powerful tool to examine previously unimagined questions and will accelerate efforts to breed improved cultivars," said Paul Bosland, NMSU Regents Professor and director of the university's Chile Pepper Institute.

According to the draft sequence, the chile pepper has approximately 3.5 billion base pairs and an estimated 37,000 chile pepper genes. NMSU researchers plan to use the data to decipher genes for resistance to chile wilt and to look at carotenoid genes for fortification in crops as well as in the food coloring industry.

See the news article at http://newscenter.nmsu.edu/9188/nmsu-researchers-sequence-chile-genome-hope-unlock-genetic-secrets.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

ASIA AND THE PACIFIC[Top]

 

TWO SEASONS OF GOLDEN RICE TRIALS IN THE PHILIPPINES COMPLETED

 

 

The two seasons of multi-location field trials of Golden Rice have been completed in the Philippine province of Camarines Sur. Data generated from these multi-loc trials are now being compiled to be submitted to the  Bureau of Plant Industry under the Department of Agriculture (DA-BPI), who will evaluate the data as part of the government's biosafety regulatory process.

Golden Rice is a new type of rice that contains beta carotene, a source of vitamin A. Leading nutrition and agricultural research organizations are working together to further develop and evaluate Golden Rice as a potential new way to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Golden Rice will only be made available broadly to farmers and consumers in the Philippines if it is approved by DA-BPI and shown to reduce vitamin A deficiency. This process may take another two years or more.

View IRRI's news release http://www.irri.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=12466:two-seasons-of-golden-rice-trials-in-camarines-sur-concluded&lang=en.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

ILOILO AGRI EXTENSION OFFICERS GET UPDATES ON CROP BIOTECH

 

 

Around 80 municipal agriculture officers, agriculturists, and extension workers from the five districts of Iloilo province took part in the "Seminar on Crop Biotechnology for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture" last January 29, 2013 in Sarabia Manor Hotel and Convention Center, Iloilo City, Philippines.

Philippine biotech experts and proponents of the University of the Philippines Los Baños' (UPLB) fruit and shoot borer resistant Bt eggplant, presented the significant global and local impacts of biotech crops, the science, safety, and potential benefits of Bt eggplant, and biosafety policies. 

The seminar was organized by the DA-Region 6, Provincial Agriculture Office of Iloilo, ISAAA, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture-Biotechnology Information Center (SEARCA BIC), and Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II (ABSPII).

For more information about crop biotech developments in the Philippines, visit http://www.bic.searca.org/, or e-mail bic@agri.searca.org.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

PHILIPPINE POLICY MAKERS RECOGNIZE LOCAL BIOTECH RESEARCHES AND PRODUCTS

 

 

Philippine policy makers including the House of Representatives Speaker Jose Belmonte, Jr. and Chair of the House Committee on Science and Technology Congressman Julio Ledesma IV recognized the potentials of biotechnology in improving the country's food security during a four-day biotech exhibit and seminars conducted at the House of Representatives last January 21-24, 2013.

The activity aimed to showcase local biotech efforts and raise awareness among policy makers and other constituents on the technology's benefits and potentials for the country. It involved biotech seminars for media practitioners and policy makers which served as an avenue to clarify the issues and concerns. The scientists and expert-resource speakers explained the importance of continuing public biotech researches such as the research and field trials on the insect resistant Bt eggplant. They said that these were government-funded projects, hence, the technology benefit should go back to the Filipino people. These upcoming biotech crops and technologies were also shown by studies to hold great potentials in bringing socio-economic benefits to its adopters.

The activity was organized by legislative committees in science and technology, and food security, public sector organizations, ISAAA, SEARCA - Biotechnology Information Center, and Philippine Science Journalists Association, Inc. (PSciJourn). 

For more information about crop biotech in the Philippines, visit SEARCA BIC's website,http://www.bic.searca.org/, or e-mail bic@agri.searca.org.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

SURVEY ON EXTENSION OFFICIALS' AWARENESS ON BT BRINJAL

 

 

Scientists at Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) conducted a survey to evaluate the awareness and knowledge level of extension officials in Eastern Uttar Pradesh about Bt brinjal (eggplant), a biotech crop nearing commercialization in India. Results showed that most of the respondents (77.12%) have inadequate basic knowledge about the crop. Thus, it is recommended that an awareness program would be implemented to increase the knowledge of extension officials on Bt brinjal. This is important because extension officials are the institutional mechanism of extension in the country and they are in direct contact with the farming community.

The research article is published at a special issue of Indian Research Journal of Extension Education:http://www.seea.org.in/special_issue/vol1/45.pdf.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

STUDENTS VISIT BIOTECH INSTITUTES IN BANGLADESH

 

 

Bangladesh Biotechnology Information Center (BdBIC) of ISAAA in collaboration with Biotechnology Department of Bangladesh Agricultural University organized a study tour for 30 biotech students last December 17-18, 2012. The visit was conducted in Jute and Macrophomina genome sequencing laboratories of Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, National Institute of Biotechnology, and Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute. Biotech facilities and on-going activities of the laboratories were shown and explained, including the Genome Sequencing Lab where Jute and Macrophomina have been sequenced and published recently.

For details, contact Prof. K. Nasirrudin of BdBIC at nasirbiotech@yahoo.com

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

KOREA APPROVES GM CORN STACKS FOR IMPORTATION

 

 

The Korean Regulatory Authorities have approved the importation of Syngenta's biotech corn Agrisure Viptera 3110 and 3220 trait stacks for food and feed use within Korea. The two stacked traits offer a broad spectrum of above-ground lepidopteran insects such the European corn borer and corn earworm. The same stacked traits have been given import approval from regulatory authorities in the Philippines, Japan,Mexico, South Africa, and Taiwan, and cultivation approval in the United States and Canada.

See the original news for details at http://www.syngentacropprotection.com/news_releases/news.aspx?id=171519

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

EUROPE[Top]

 

GM TOBACCO PRODUCES ANTIBODIES FOR POSSIBLE RABIES TREATMENT

 

 

A new research reports that scientists have produced a monoclonal antibody in genetically modified (GM)tobacco plants that can neutralize the rabies virus. This new antibody prevents the virus from traveling to the brain and from attaching to nerve endings around the bite site.

A group of scientists from the Hotung Molecular Immunology Unit at St. George's University of London led by Leonard Both "humanized" the antibody sequences so people can tolerate it. The antibody was then produced from purifying GM tobacco leaves, and is active in neutralizing a broad panel of rabies viruses.

According to Both, untreated virus infection is nearly 100 percent fatal, but producing an inexpensive antibody using GM plants makes rabies prevention possible, especially for low income families in developing countries.

The report appears in the January edition of the FASEB Journal, published by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB).

The abstract is available at http://www.fasebj.org/content/early/2013/01/31/fj.12-219964.abstract.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

BASF STOPS EU APPROVAL BID FOR GM POTATOES

 

 

The German plant biotech company BASF Plant Science has announced that it will "discontinue the pursuit of regulatory approvals for the Fortuna, Amadea, and Modena potato projects in Europe because continued investment cannot be justified due to uncertainty in the regulatory environment and threats of field destructions."

In the same press release, the company said it will also no longer pursue research and development activities into nutritionally enhanced corn for strategic reasons. The company, however, intends to strengthen its effort in developing high yielding and stress resistant crops in its research headquarters in the United States. A key focus of its new plant biotech research strategy will be in delivering fungal resistant corn.

Read BASF's official press release at: http://www.basf.com/group/pressrelease/P-13-133. ; Follow related news article at: http://www.foodnavigator.com/Science-Nutrition/BASF-stops-seeking-EU-approval-of-GM-potatoes.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

Research[Top]

 

COMPARISON OF AGROBACTERIUM AND PARTICLE BOMBARDMENT FOR DEV'T OF HIGH-EXPRESSING, LOW-COPY TRANSGENIC PLANTS

 

 

Scientists at the University of Queensland in Australia conducted a study to compare two mechanisms used in genetic transformation of plants, the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) and particle bombardment using whole plasmid (WP) and excised minimal cassettes (MC). They aimed to compare the two in terms of transformation efficiency, transgene integration complexity, and transgene expression in plants.

For direct comparison, the researchers used identical expression cassette for the linked selectable marker and reporter genes in all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the transformation efficiencies of WP and MC when equal amounts of DNA were delivered. When the MC concentration was decreased, the transformation efficiency became equivalent with ATM, and thus both can be used efficiently to generate sugarcane lines with low transgene copy numbers and strong transgene expression.

Read the research article at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11248-012-9639-6#page-1.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

EXPRESSION OF AQUAPORIN GENE IN SALT-STRESSED RICE PRE-TREATED WITH DOPAMINE

 

 

One of the major problems in rice production is coping with saline soils. Thus, Amal Abdelkader from Ain Shams University in Egypt, together with other scientists, conducted a study to investigate the function of neurotransmitter dopamine in enhancing salinity tolerance of rice by adjusting the plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs).

Using RT-PCR, the expression of aquaporin gene (OsPIP1-s) was increased as a response to mild salt concentration. On the other hand, the expression of the gene was decreased in response to dopamine, which may imply that dopamine could have a regulatory role in water penetration. It was also observed that the content of pigment and proline was regulated significantly when the plants were pre-treated with dopamine before exposure to salt stress. Low membrane leakage was observed in salt stressed rice pre-treated with dopamine.

The researchers concluded that dopamine has a role in regulation of OsPIP1-s gene, which is concentration-dependent. It was recommended that pre-treatment of dopamine in low concentrations can be a cheap and potential mechanism to improve salt stress-tolerance in rice through the neurotransmitter's effect on plasma membrane aquaporins.

Read the abstract at http://www.pomics.com/abdelkader_5_6_2012_532_541.pdf.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

Beyond Crop Biotech[Top]

 

RNA FRAGMENTS FROM MICROVESICLE CAN BE USED FOR CANCER DIAGNOSIS

 

 

Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital discovered that strands of information preserved on microvesicles called exosomes may help detect and monitor progession of several types of cancers. Instead of conducting multiple biopsies, which could be life-threatening, new exosomal diagnostic tests can be done.

Through the new tests, the exosomes from bio-fluids can be used to extract information on the genetic changes that occurred. Once the specific cancer mutation is known, additional bio-fluids can be collected at certain periods of time to monitor mutation levels as well as the patient's response to therapy.

Read the original article at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=rna-fragments-may-yield-rapid.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

[Top]

 

MANIPULATION OF MOSQUITO GUT BACTERIA TO FIGHT MOSQUITO-BORNE DISEASES

 

 

Using metagenomics, an approach that studies different genomes of organisms in an ecosystem, a research group led by New Mexico State University assistant professor Jiannong Xu attempts to reduce the population of disease transmitting mosquitoes. Malaria, Dengue Fever and West Nile virus kill million of people in poor developing countries for decades and an effective control is yet to be discovered.

The team previously found that there is a dynamic bacterial community that exists in the mosquito gut. Recently, the team developed a protocol to be able to perform mosquito metagenomic RNA sequencing. Hence, they were able to characterize taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbiome. Moreover, the mosquito gut bacterial genome of Elizabethkigia which the group isolated was found to be identical with the one found in Europe, which means that the bacterium is very common with malaria transmitting mosquitos. Future collaborations and research is hoped to produce engineered bacterium that produce toxins in the mosquito gut.

For more details on this story, see http://newscenter.nmsu.edu/9187/nmsu-researchers-fight-mosquito-borne-diseases-manipulation-mosquito-gut.

 

[ Send to a Friend | Rate this Article ]

DOCUMENT REMINDERS[Top]

 

DEVELOPING SOYBEAN CULTIVARS, A VIDEO PRESENTATION

 

University of Maryland Emeritus Professor William J. Kenworthy discussed in a video presentation how the inheritance of soybean cultivar traits impacts the breeding program to develop new cultivars. Genetic principles that influence selection response and breeding techniques were discussed for the understanding of soybean growers. A 5-minute Executive Summary video and the Full Presentation video (27 minutes) can be viewed and downloaded athttp://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/edcenter/seminars/Soybean/DevelopingSoybeanCultivars/.

Do not hesitate to tell other colleagues/contacts about this mail list. If they wish to join, they may do so athttp://www.isaaa.org/subscribe

more...
No comment yet.
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Kwame Ogero from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review - Chavarriaga-Aguirre &al (2016) - In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant

The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review - Chavarriaga-Aguirre &al (2016) -  In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

Cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop… be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world… 


We analyze… knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at… resistance to viruses and whiteflies… The review also covers… nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally… the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. 


During the last 30 years, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers. 


http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11627-016-9776-3



Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Crop Protection Partnership is a Game-Changer in Honduras

Crop Protection Partnership is a Game-Changer in Honduras | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
For Honduran farmer Salomón Lorenzo Vázquez, Tuesday has become the most important day of the week. Here's why.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

With This Genetic Engineering Technology, There’s No Turning Back

With This Genetic Engineering Technology, There’s No Turning Back | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
With This Genetic Engineering Technology, There’s No Turning Back (Technology Review) https://t.co/KbMEIVBj4s
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Queen's University research could help reduce global crop losses - Crop Protection News

Queen's University research could help reduce global crop losses - Crop Protection News | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Technology from researchers at Queen’s University Belfast could reduce crop losses around the world by combating parasitic "nematodes" that annually destroy approximately 12 percent of global agriculture productivity. ...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

UNL to lead $13.5 million sorghum biofuel research effort - KETV Omaha

UNL to lead $13.5 million sorghum biofuel research effort - KETV Omaha | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
The University of Nebraska-Lincoln will lead a $13.5 million research effort looking at sorghum as a sustainable source for biofuel production.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Science-deniers must be denied - Livemint

Science-deniers must be denied - Livemint | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Both anti-GMO and anti-climate change activists use the same kind of tactics to agitate and militate for their own purposes
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Seeds of ancient potatoes added to Arctic seed vault - Crop Protection News

Seeds of ancient potatoes added to Arctic seed vault - Crop Protection News | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Ancient potato varieties that were once believed to be lost will now be saved in the Arctic seed vault in Norway for future generations.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Ban on GM foods imports to be lifted in two months- Kenya's Deputy President, Hon. William Ruto

Ban on GM foods imports to be lifted in two months- Kenya's Deputy President, Hon. William Ruto | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Cabinet expected to discuss the matter before nodding to biotechnology products, says DP William Ruto.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Rice revolution? New rice could help feed world, fight climate change. - Christian Science Monitor

Rice revolution? New rice could help feed world, fight climate change. - Christian Science Monitor | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
A new strain of rice produces more and larger grains and reduces methane emissions from rice farming, perhaps the largest human-based source of the greenhouse gas. But it's genetically modified, which could lead to a backlash.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Give scientists space to deliver better products to farmers | The Star

Give scientists space to deliver better products to farmers | The Star | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Kwame Ogero's insight:

The debate on whether Kenya should adopt modern agricultural biotechnology continues to receive mixed reactions with anti-GMOs group calling for rejection of biotech products until the safety of such crops is proven. This controversy has given some politicians and anti-GM technology alike, a platform to spread propaganda with allegations that consumption of GMOs will have unknown health impacts on consumers.

Like their counterparts in the rest of the world, Kenyan scientists including biotech experts, continuously avoid plunging into the treacherous world of politics where lies and truth are the “same.”

In Kenya, the debate on agricultural biotechnology, which include unfounded statements that the country has inadequate capacity to appropriately handle GMOs, is the clearest indicator that some policymakers need to be encouraged to make informed opinions or decisions by visiting universities, research centres and regulatory institutions to familiarise themselves with progress that the country is making in the field of modern biotechnology.

- See more at: http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/give-scientists-space-deliver-better-products-farmers#sthash.vWuO8EOh.dpuf

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Trends in Global Approvals of Biotech Crops (1992–2014)- Crop Biotech Update ( 7/8/2015 ) | ISAAA.org/KC

Trends in Global Approvals of Biotech Crops (1992–2014)- Crop Biotech Update ( 7/8/2015 ) | ISAAA.org/KC | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Trends in Global Approvals of Biotech Crops (1992–2014): With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) crops, approval of these technologies may vary depending on the needs, demand, and trade inter...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Profiling the controversial organic-funded activist professor, Gilles-Éric Séralini

Profiling the controversial organic-funded activist professor, Gilles-Éric Séralini | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Gilles-Éric Séralini | | June 18, 2015 |
Kwame Ogero's insight:

Gilles-Éric Séralini is a French scientist who has been a professor of molecular biology at the University of Caen since 1991. Known for his research concluding that genetically modified food is unsafe for human consumption, his latest publication, released in PLOS ONE on July 2, 2015–“Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests”–maintains that all safety studies of pesticides and genetically modified foods are ‘invalid’ because, the researchers claim, the dried feeds used as control diets for lab animals are “contaminated” by GMOs, pesticides, heavy metals and other substances.

Funding for PLOS ONE Study and other Séralini Research

Funding for this study and much of Séralini’s previous research comes directly from one of the US organic industry’s leading figures, Anthony Rodale–chairman emeritus of Rodale’s Organic and founder of theRodale Institute, a 501c3 that bills itself as “advocating for policies that support farmers, and educating consumers about how going organic is the healthiest option for people and the planet.” Rodale works closely with former Patrick Holden, former director of the UK Soil Association, which calls itself a “charity campaigning for planet-friendly organic practices” and “healthy, humane and sustainable food, farming and land use.”

They two provide money via a U.S. NGO known as the Sustainable Food Alliance (SFA) to overseas organic and anti-GMO groups, including scientists such as Séralini, without having to make the grants public. About US$2 million appears to have gone from this NGO to research for “herbicide” and “toxic evaluations” between 2011-2013. Seralini’s research group acknowledged support from SFA in the PLOS ONE article. Séralini has previously received funding from Greenpeace, which financed a 2007 study that claimed that GM corn caused health problems in rats. The study was reviewed by the European Food Safety Authority, which concluded that all of the statistical anomalies cited by the study group were attributable to “normal biological variation.”

Sources of funding listed for his current study:

CRIIGENJMG Foundation (formerly the Goldsmith Foundation, led by ecology environmental activist Ben Goldsmith)Lea Nature, an organic and natural products companyFoundations Charles Léopold Mayer for the Progress of HumankindNature Vivante, an ecological trade associationMalongo, a fair trade, organic coffee companyDenis Gouchard, a natural living foundationThe Sustainable Food Alliance,a non-profit organization run by Rodale Organic’s Anthony Rodale whose mission is “To educate the public about the positive health and environmental benefits of organic food and farming.” Board members include: Patrick Holden, Owsley Brown, Clair Peters and Ed Baldrige.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Download Genetic Engineering Ebook

___Browse And Download This Ebook now. ___Download now at : http://bit.ly/1Iwxe2t ___If you can't To download Registration First ...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change

Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
The National Academy of Sciences reaffirmed GMO safety and pointed to the potential for future improvements
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Samsung bets big on biotechnology

Samsung bets big on biotechnology | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
SONGDO, Incheon -- Samsung BioLogics broke ground on its third production plant in Songdo, Incheon, Monday, drawing closer toward its stated goal of becoming the world’s No. 1 contract manufacturer of biologic drugs by 2020. The new plant, to be constructed with an investment of 850 billion won ($740 million) will boast a production capacity of 180,000 liters to become the single largest biologics manufacturing fac...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Reduce Dengue Transmitters by 95 Percent

Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes Reduce Dengue Transmitters by 95 Percent | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
RT @mark_lynas: Genetic engineering reduces dengue-carrying mosquitos by 95%: http://t.co/2OTPVhtCFn PLOS paper: http://t.co/pXqypnVEM8 @Ox…
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kwame Ogero from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

Scope and Opportunities of Bioengineering and Biotechnology in Agriculture and Related Industries - APO (2015)

Scope and Opportunities of Bioengineering and Biotechnology in Agriculture and Related Industries - APO (2015) | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

p. 305-313: With Asia having some of the fastest-growing economies with over 60% of the world’s population, 34% of the world’s arable land, and 36% of the world’s water resources, the region’s need to overcome formidable challenges and improve its total agricultural production and agricultural productivity are urgent... 

 

Feeding and nourishing a larger, more urban, and increasingly affluent Asian population sustainably and equitably will be an unprecedented challenge in the coming years. It will require a more holistic approach to address agricultural production an

d productivity more effectively.

 

Increasing production of food, feed, and fiber through the use of modern biosciences and biotechnology is only one among many strategies needed to meet this challenge. Access to modern science and technology will need to be supported by more comprehensive policies on investment, regulations, and education. In addition, while rural areas currently hold most of the world’s poor and hungry, and will continue to do so for many years to come, the urban areas of Asia will require more attention and distinct focus from national governments... 

 

Increasing productivity is a development imperative, whether urban or rural, if more agricultural production is to be achieved with reduced arable land, labor, and water in Asia. And therein lies the huge potential for biotechnology as a “green” technology.

 

http://www.apo-tokyo.org/publications/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/Productivity-in-the-Asia-Pacific_Past-Present-and-Future-20151.pdf#page=320

 


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
ComplexInsight's curator insight, October 26, 2015 4:03 PM

Having grown up  in a northumberland mining village in the north east of England, surrounded by farming and small woodlands - agriculture is something i think of intimately interwound with industry and how we live. If you grew up in a city - it can seem distant, but its always fundamental. If you grew up around farms - you know they are places of high and low tech. Strains and breeds are early forms of bio-engineering, agricultural equipment gives access to pragmatic engineering principles early on. In the coming decades advanced in bioengineering and biotech will increasingly be larger components of modern agriculture in order to meet increasing population pressures and demands generated by increased urban living. This report clearly helps identify the opportunities and possibilities and policy requirements that exist. If you are tracking the technology aspects of modern agriculture or interested in how agriculture will ahve to change to address increasing social needs - this report is well worth reading.

Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Dealing with the rational fear about GMOs and global catastrophe

Dealing with the rational fear about GMOs and global catastrophe | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Nassim Taleb says that GMOs could doom the planet. He’s right. And the same could be said about all agriculture.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Should GMO drugs be perceived differently than GMO food? | Genetic Literacy Project

Should GMO drugs be perceived differently than GMO food? | Genetic Literacy Project | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

Should GMO drugs be perceived differently than transgenic food? Some anti-GMO activists say, ‘no,’ that anything derived from genetic modification should be rejected.

It’s abundantly clear that there is widespread support of transgenic healthcare therapies but far less so for genetic engineering in agriculture. As I’ve noted previously, public perception is divided on issues when emotion crowds the discussion. In cases where there is little patience for science to help the public decide, there tends to be almost no ambivalence in choosing a side. We have the so-called ‘bimodal distribution of public opinion’ where there are two sides, and not many in the middle. We see this not only in headlines but in pictures.

One example supporting this hypothesis can be found in the news explosion around the Ebola treatment, ZMapp, and its place in public perception compared with transgenic food. There was a global outcry to rush treatments (ZMapp in particular) to the market. Even the World Health Organization (WHO) gave support to fast-track it without the usual safety or efficacy tests having been completed, for example, as reflected in this headline:

Yet, while picketers in Africa were demanding treatments, picketers in the US were demanding that GM products be banned. They are determined to slow or even stop genetically-modified food from being further refined and developed. The venom against genetic modification is so strong that some supposedly mainstream anti-GMO activists–the Organic Consumers Association–even campaigned against the GMO Ebola drug on the grounds that the outbreak should have been addressed with “natural” treatments. Why this disconnect from science?

It seems the critical attribute is how far on the emotional see-saw one wants to be on the side of drug therapies versus food sources. In fact, to help clarify the situation for any reader, it should be noted that this is a bivariate problem (meaning there are opinions on both factors–GM foods and GM health therapies, and they don’t necessarily match–even from the same person), and so I have developed the matrix below to cover the possibilities in opinions:

On the x-axis is, moving from left to right, disfavor or favor of genetically-modified crops and food supplies; On the y-axis, moving from bottom to top, disfavor or favor of genetically-modified organisms (plants, bacterial, mammalian cells, etc.) for use in drug therapies for diseases. The bottom left quadrant represents disfavor of GM crops and GM drug therapies, and the top right represents favor of GM crops and GM drug therapies. In this two-way table, both polar decisions (no/no and yes/yes), and everything in-between (yes/no, no/yes) can be looked at to ask the following question:

What separates the decision to favor or disfavor?

Principally, there must be some distinction in the opinion-holders’ minds about why they are making the choices that they are. In consumer research, we call this anchoring, because it establishes the baseline stance from which all decisions about the topic use as a point of reference. For example, if it’s ok to be in the ‘top-left’ quadrant (favor GM therapies, disfavor GM food), why? It must be about how we decide.

We make decisions all the time about where to eat, what to eat, whether or not to take vitamins, how much to sleep, how often to drive, and what to do about our healthcare. Each of these is a decision founded in our individual assessments of risk and risk-based decision-making. For example, in his bookDo You Believe in Magic, Paul Offit, M.D. references the research underpinning echinacea; $130 million is spent on this herb in the United States every year for consumers hoping to bolster their health with it. But it is all a game of perception – After all was said and done studying echinacea, John Taylor and his team at the University of Washington in Seattle studied over 400 children with colds and gave half the group echinacea and half the group placebo. There was no difference in any measures of health or cold duration; The only difference was that the children in the echinacea group were more likely to develop a rash.

Another phenomenon to mention here is the ‘hot-hand fallacy,’ another place where human decision-making is (very) fallible: A majority of the population believes in winning ‘streaks’ and the ‘hot-hand’ when it comes to games of chance and sporting events (for example, that a casino table is ‘hot’ for a short time, or that a particular favorite player is more likely to score if he or she has just scored). However, the research tells a different tale – one of the population’s inability to accurately appraise random chance without finding patterns which don’t really exist (which Michael Shermer has called ‘patternicity’).

So not only do we often make decisions not based in grounded science or logic, but we’ll often choose one alternative over another for emotional reasons. The salient point here, though, is that a majority of the public favors transgenic technology to be used for therapies such as ZMapp to stem the Ebola crisis, and it seems that this includes a portion of overlap from those who otherwise reject the idea of GM foods. It seems then that this is an example of a risk-based decision, where the therapy for the emergent disease (acute treatment for Ebola) seems to present much greater benefit-to-risk than crops and foods which are modified to better meet certain demands (where maybe the benefit-to-risk profile seems less clear).

Let’s be clear: This is no ‘secret serum’—it’s an experimental therapy and its effects are similar to other antibodies already on the market.

Reductionism

If we look at some of the principal technologies used for transgenic plants for antibody therapies, we would see that they are the same technologies used in agriculture to modify food-based crops or animal products.

There are two major methods of inserting DNA into plants to have them produce disease treatment therapies. The first is by ballistic introduction of DNA into the plant: Metal particles are coated with the requisite DNA for transgenesis, then the plants are bombarded by these particles. The particles are halted mid-stream and the DNA is carried by its inertia into the plant cells, where it is incorporated by the plant cells and then replicated.

The other method is by taking advantage of highly-effective pathways Nature herself has already perfected for incorporating genetic material into plants: By specific viral targeting. In this way, viruses are used which are natural pathogens of the target plant, and insert copies of the requisite genome into the plant either directly, or often by infecting an intermediary microbe which then uses its DNA-splicing expertise to insert the genetic material into the plant. This occurs naturally in countless situations, including the tobacco mosaic virus (which is commonly used for the DNA splicing), agrobacterium—which is well-known for transferring DNA between itself and plants (causing crown gall disease), and so forth.

In fact, much of what we know about gene transfer and certain modes of viral function are due to studying the palette which Nature has provided us. Tobacco plants are commonly used for these research therapies because their biology is well-known, they’re well-characterized, and they grow quickly.

Effects of tobacco virus

Developing therapies from plants

Since I’ve addressed the ZMapp therapy and public perception to some degree, I’ll mention also how that therapy is refined for use: Three ‘humanized’ mouse antibodies are used (in the Ebola treatment specifically); Because mice are mammals, they can produce antibodies similar to what we humans produce. However, because it’s still a ‘non-human’ immune system producing them, there can be some rare adverse reactions to these, especially if used long-term for chronic therapy. In these cases, they ‘humanize’ the antibody by modifying the structure to even more closely match what we would make. This makes it more suitable for longer-term administration. These antibodies are targeted specifically to match only the target disease (in this case, the Ebola virus); they are so specific, that each antibody fits its target like a key to a specific lock. Antibody therapies such as this have had a tremendous track record of success treating very difficult diseases and those unresponsive to other therapies.

So far, the only drug treatment generated by genetically-modified plants (as opposed to bacteria or mammalian cells) which has been approved for use by the FDA is Elelyso (using a novel vector with carrot cells), used to treatGaucher’s disease – a rare disorder where lipids accumulate in cells and body organs, leading to failure and systemic disease.

Despite the claims by extremists on the anti-GMO fringe, there is little difference in the technologies or principles between GM foods and GM drugs. Handled wisely, genetic engineering can yield powerful advances for society. It seems that the measure of agreeableness of a paradigm is related to how well it suits current or emergent needs. And we can always check ourselves to see where we fit on the opinion matrix.

Ben Locwin, PhD, MBA is a contributor to the Genetic Literacy Project and is an author of a wide variety of scientific articles for books and magazines. He is also a researcher and consultant for a variety of industries including behavioral and psychological, food and nutrition, pharmaceutical, and academic. Follow him at @BenLocwin. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Time to transform the agriculture sector is now

Time to transform the agriculture sector is now | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it

For agriculture to make its rightful contribution to the development of Kenya, transforming smallholder farming from subsistence to an innovative, commercially oriented and modern sector is critical.

But this is only possible if farmers, producers, processors and marketers employ the most contemporary methods.

Drought and pests have adversely affected the productivity of maize, the staple food for more than 80 per cent of the population.

The problem of pest attack is further compounded by the high cost of, and occasional adulteration, of pesticides found in the market making them ineffective.

In Kenya, stem borers alone are known to reduce maize production by an average of 13 per cent or 400,000 tonnes, equivalent to the normal yearly quantity the country imports to meet recurrent deficits.

The good news is that it is possible to reverse the trend. Indeed, tripling national average yields of major crop and livestock production systems is easily achievable as demonstrated by the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project. WEMA brings together seven partners including national agricultural research systems of Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda; the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and Monsanto.

For the last five years, the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (Kalro), together with national and international research organisations through the WEMA project, has been conducting trials on a genetically-modified maize that is resistant to stem borers. This Bt maize has the ability to protect itself from insect pests because it contains a gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacteria that is naturally present in soil and widely used as a biological pesticide by organic crop producers.

The Bt gene protects the plant from stem borers because it produces a protein that cannot be digested by the insects, but is harmless to humans.

In addition, the maize reduces the need for frequent spraying with expensive insecticide chemicals that are harmful to humans and the environment.

Results from tests carried out in Kenya show that the WEMA Bt maize effectively controls stem borers without the need for insecticides.

Even better news is that the varieties also recorded a yield increase of 3.7 tonnes per hectare above the best commercial hybrid used in the trials.

Following successful confined field trials carried out by Kalro in Kenya, WEMA Project has gathered sufficient performance and safety data on Bt maize, and proceeded to file an application for consideration for approval for environmental release by the National Biosafety Authority.

If the authority grants approval for environmental release of Bt maize in Kenya, further trials will proceed in accordance with existing national policy, legislation, guidelines and procedures governing  variety testing, release and gazettement new plant varieties.

Dr Francis Nang’ayo is Senior Manager for Regulatory Affairs at the African Agricultural Technology Foundation

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

BASF’s Crop Protection Products Offer Full Range Of Solutions

BASF's Joe Lara talks about innovative technologies such as Intrinsic Brand fungicides and Sultan miticide.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

Anti-GMO Activist Campaign is "Full of Errors, Fallacies, Misconceptions ... - Reason (blog)

Anti-GMO Activist Campaign is "Full of Errors, Fallacies, Misconceptions ... - Reason (blog) | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Slate article "Unhealthy Fixation" debunk activist campaign against GMOs.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

New Letters Added to the Genetic Alphabet - Quanta Magazine

New Letters Added to the Genetic Alphabet - Quanta Magazine | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
Scientists hope that new genetic letters, created in the lab, will endow DNA with new powers.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Kwame Ogero
Scoop.it!

AgBiome, Genective team up to develop insect-resistant crops - Crop Protection News

AgBiome, Genective team up to develop insect-resistant crops - Crop Protection News | Modern Agricultural Biotechnology | Scoop.it
AgBiome, a leading agricultural research firm, and Genective, a top developer of biotechnology crops, said on Wednesday that the two companies have established a strategic partnership that will speed their development of insect-resistant innovation...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kwame Ogero from Ag Biotech News
Scoop.it!

How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modifie organisms in Italy - Ventura & Frisio (2015) - Food Syst Dynam

In the economics literature many studies investigate the factors that drive public resistance: ethical concerns, low public trust in regulatory institution, risk misperception, absence of perceived benefits and media bias.

 

In particular, public attitudes and risk perception about agricultural biotechnology are proved to be influenced by press media communication. This paper aims at gaining insight into the visual communication to which Italian population is exposed about GMOs, in order to investigate if images could have contributed to shape their negative public perception.

 

 

A set of 500 images collected through Google search for “GMO” in Italy are classified considering fearful attributes (i.e. alteration of color, shape or size of plants or animals, mention to death or war, presence of DNA double helix or syringe) and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then the relationship between the index and a set of variables that refer to the context in which images appear is estimated.

 

Preliminary results reveal that the order of appearance of images negatively affect index, namely that the first (and most viewed) Google result pages contain the most frightful images. It suggests that Italian population is subject to overstated negative inputs about GMOs. In addition, it emerges that web contents that show positive or neutral GMO attitudes are barely accompanied with objective and balanced visual communication... 

 

http://centmapress.ilb.uni-bonn.de/ojs/index.php/proceedings/article/view/474

 


Via Alexander J. Stein
more...
No comment yet.