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Crystal morphology of olivine included in diamond

Crystal morphology of olivine included in diamond | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors emphasize on the peculiar crystal morphology of olivine included in diamond and demonstrate that it cannot be considered as evidence of syngenesis (i.e., inclusion and host diamond formed at the same time).

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Surface Tension Alteration on Calcite Induced by Ion Substitution

Surface Tension Alteration on Calcite Induced by Ion Substitution | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors investigated the energy required to exchange Mg2+ and SO42– from aqueous solution into calcite {10-14} surfaces using density functional theory. Mg2+ substitution for Ca2+ is favored but only when SO42– is also present and MgSO4 incorporates preferentially as ion pairs at solution–calcite interfaces.

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Zinc Attenuation by Biogenic Manganese Oxides

Zinc Attenuation by Biogenic Manganese Oxides | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF) mapping, and chemical extraction.

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Enhanced magnetic coercivity of α-Fe2O3 obtained from carbonated 2-line ferrihydrite

Enhanced magnetic coercivity of α-Fe2O3 obtained from carbonated 2-line ferrihydrite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors report the physical properties of α-Fe2O3 (hematite), synthesized by dry-heating (350–1,000 °C) of a new, poorly ordered iron oxyhydroxide precursor compound that we name carbonated 2-line ferrihydrite. This precursor was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, whereas the α-Fe2O3 was studied with X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic techniques.

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KIT Synchrotron: ANKA

KIT Synchrotron: ANKA | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

KIT runs the Synchroton light source ANKA as a large scale facility as a part of the scientific infrastructure of the Helmholtz Association (Helmholtzgemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren HGF).

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Researchers from ITQ (UPV-CSIC) elucidate the structure of a new microporous zeolite using ALBA's Synchrotron X-rays

Researchers from ITQ (UPV-CSIC) elucidate the structure of a new microporous zeolite using ALBA's Synchrotron X-rays | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
ITQ-52 is a new zeolite that could find industrial applications in catalysis, gas adsorption and separation, encapsulation and controlled release of molecules, among others. It can be very useful to obtain high-quality petrol. The structure of ITQ-52 has been solved using high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction data collected at beamline 04-MSPD. This research has been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
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Aragonite Crystals Grown on Bones by Reaction of CO2 with Nanostructured Ca(OH)2 in the Presence of Collagen

Aragonite Crystals Grown on Bones by Reaction of CO2 with Nanostructured Ca(OH)2 in the Presence of Collagen | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

One simple way to harden and to strengthen demineralized bone remains could be the in situ growth of CaCO3 crystals in the aragonite polymorph – metastable at atmospheric pressure −which is known to have very strong mechanical strength in comparison with the stable calcite.

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High-Energy Surface X-ray Diffraction for Fast Surface Structure Determination

High-Energy Surface X-ray Diffraction for Fast Surface Structure Determination | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors demonstrate an X-ray-diffraction–based characterization method that uses high-energy photons (85 keV) to provide unexpected gains in data acquisition speed by several orders of magnitude and enables structural determinations of surfaces on time scales suitable for in-situ studies.

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Solved? Mystery of Atacama Desert's 'White Gold'

Solved? Mystery of Atacama Desert's 'White Gold' | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Researchers think they've finally solved the mystery of the Atacama Desert's massive nitrate deposits, known as white gold.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

"These are weird deposits that, from a geological perspective, shouldn't be there," said Martin Reich, a geochemist at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago. "Nitrogen is abundant in the Earth's atmosphere but is highly depleted in the [Earth's] crust. Therefore, the giant nitrate deposits of the Atacama Desert are one of the most extraordinary, yet enigmatic mineral occurrences on Earth,"

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Global Flows of Critical Metals Necessary for Low-Carbon Technologies: Neodymium, Cobalt and Platinum

Global Flows of Critical Metals Necessary for Low-Carbon Technologies: Neodymium, Cobalt and Platinum | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

This study, encompassing 231 countries and regions, quantifies the global transfer of three critical metals (neodymium, cobalt, and platinum) considered vital for low-carbon technologies by means of material flow analysis (MFA), using trade data (BACI) and the metal contents of trade commodities, resolving the optimization problem to ensure the material balance of the metals within each country and region.

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Electron Transfer from Humic Substances to Biogenic and Abiogenic Fe(III) Oxyhydroxide Minerals

Electron Transfer from Humic Substances to Biogenic and Abiogenic Fe(III) Oxyhydroxide Minerals | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Microbial humic substance (HS) reduction and subsequent abiotic electron transfer from reduced HS to poorly soluble Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, a process named electron shuttling, significantly increases microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction rates. The results of this study suggest that HS electron shuttling can also contribute to iron redox processes in environments where biogenic Fe(III) minerals are present.

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Mega-Doughnuts: CERN to Study Plan for 100-Kilometer Atom-Smashers

Mega-Doughnuts: CERN to Study Plan for 100-Kilometer Atom-Smashers | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Scientist will consider new strategy for the European particle physics labs' long-term future
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Elastic Instability of a Crystal Growing on a Curved Surface

Elastic Instability of a Crystal Growing on a Curved Surface | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors studied rigid, two-dimensional colloidal crystals growing on spherical droplets to understand how the elastic stress induced by Gaussian curvature affects the growth pathway. In contrast to crystals grown on flat surfaces or compliant crystals on droplets, these crystals formed branched, ribbon-like domains with large voids and no topological defects.

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Amorphous ammonia–water ice deposited onto silicate (forsterite) mineral surface

Amorphous ammonia–water ice deposited onto silicate (forsterite) mineral surface | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The interaction of molecules on the mineral surface is interesting in understanding the development of icy mantles on interstellar and interplanetary dust. The ice grains can freeze and cover the silicate cores, growing an amorphous ice mantle. The authors describe ammonia molecules in a model of amorphous dirty ice onto forsterite surface.

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Oxidation of Organosulfur-Coordinated Arsenic and Realgar in Peat

Oxidation of Organosulfur-Coordinated Arsenic and Realgar in Peat | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Organosulfur-coordinated As(III) and realgar (α-As4S4) have been identified as the dominant As species in the naturally As-enriched minerotrophic peatland Gola di Lago, Switzerland. Anoxic peat samples were collected from a near-surface (0–38 cm) and a deep peat layer (200–250 cm) and studied by bulk As, Fe, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy as well as selective extractions as a function of time.

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The Growing Problem of Stranded Used Nuclear Fuel

The Growing Problem of Stranded Used Nuclear Fuel | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors review and compare onsite storage, interim storage, and a geologic repository, as well as how these alternatives are presented to the public.

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The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation

The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Baziotis et al show that the Tissint meteorite, a 2011 meteorite fall, contains virtually all the high-pressure phases (seven minerals and two mineral glasses) that have been reported in isolated occurrences in other Martian meteorites.

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Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope

Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors demonstrate the control of magnetotactic bacteria through the application of magnetic field gradients with real-time visualization.

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Lecture: Oxygen isotope anomalies in the atmosphere

Lecture given by Prof. Thomas Röckmann, EAG Distinguished Lecturer 2013, at the Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences in Budapest, Hungary.
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Mosaic two-lengthscale quasicrystals

Mosaic two-lengthscale quasicrystals | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors investigated, theoretically, a family of quasicrystals with 10-, 12-, 18- and 24-fold bond orientational order which originate from mosaics of equilateral and isosceles triangles formed by particles arranged core-to-core and shoulder-to-shoulder.

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The Coming Copper Peak

The Coming Copper Peak | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

As consumption of copper has risen exponentially—reaching 17 million metric tons in 2012—miners have met the world's demand for 10,000 years. But that might soon change. A group of resource specialists has taken the first shot at projecting how much more copper miners will wring from the planet.

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Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium Carbonate Heteroepitaxial Growth at the Calcite Surface

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium Carbonate Heteroepitaxial Growth at the Calcite Surface | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The AFM results indicate that the heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate proceeds via three different mechanisms depending on the initial supersaturation of the aqueous solution: advancement of existing steps, nucleation and growth of three-dimensional (3D) islands, and nucleation and spread of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that the atomic structure of the interface between the cadmium carbonate coating and calcite shows perfect, dislocation-free epitaxy.

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Stable U(IV) Complexes Form at High-Affinity Mineral Surface Sites

Stable U(IV) Complexes Form at High-Affinity Mineral Surface Sites | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron imaging analysis the authors found that at low surface loading, UIV forms inner-sphere complexes with two metal oxides, TiO2 (rutile) and Fe3O4 (magnetite) (at <1.3 U nm–2 and <0.037 U nm–2, respectively).

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Depleted uranium speciation using Synchrotron X-rays

Depleted uranium speciation using Synchrotron X-rays | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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In this study depleted uranium (DU) particles exposed to the surface terrestrial environment for longer than 30 years at a U.K. firing range were characterized using Synchrotron X-rays.

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Could Volcanoes Power the World?

Could Volcanoes Power the World? | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Researchers drill into magma to harness powerful new energy source
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

To use the magma for energy, workers wouldn’t drill directly into it. Instead, they could either tap into superhot water in nearby magma-heated rock and use its steam to turn turbines, or make artificial steam by injecting water from the surface. In 2011, the researchers finished the well just above the magma, where the temperature didn’t quite reach 900°C. Even so, the well generated superheated steam and 35 MW of electricity at 500°C, Elders and his colleagues report in the current issue of Geothermics. For the first time, researchers proved it was possible to create supercritical geothermal wells enhanced by magma.

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