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How Earth’s earliest life overcame a genetic paradox

How Earth’s earliest life overcame a genetic paradox | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
How complex nucleic acids originally formed, despite dilution and degradation reactions, is not clear. Thermal gradients in rock pores have now been shown to be capable of trapping and thermo-cycling genetic polymers during replication. In this system long oligonucleotide strands are seen to outcompete short strands — a prerequisite for the evolution of replicating systems towards increasing complexity.
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Messages from space - hidden magnetic messages uncovered in meteorite

Messages from space - hidden magnetic messages uncovered in meteorite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Geologists from the University of Cambridge uncover hidden magnetic messages from the early solar system in meteorites measured at BESSY II.

A team of scientists led by Dr. Richard Harrison from the University of Cambridge, has captured information stored inside tiny magnetic regions in meteorite samples using the PEEM-Beamline at BESSY II.
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Ancient books destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius ‘read’ for the very first time

Ancient books destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius ‘read’ for the very first time | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Prof. Jack Zussman speaking at the November 2013 launch of the 3rd edition of the 'Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals'

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GeoBlogy: Geochemistry brings societal benefits to sub-Saharan Africa

GeoBlogy: Geochemistry brings societal benefits to sub-Saharan Africa | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Geochemistry brings societal benefits to sub-Saharan Africa... by Michael Watts | GeoBlogy - science from the core http://t.co/OZhMDY4sIa
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Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea

Hydrothermal influence on nearshore sediments of Kos Island, Aegean Sea | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre is a long-active, Plio-Pleistocene magmatic system in the subduction zone along the easternmost edge of the active Hellenic volcanic arc in the Aegean Sea. Although today there are signs of relative quiescence in volcanic activity, active onshore fumaroles and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents persist on, amongst others, the island of Kos. The present study explores the large-scale imprint of hydrothermally sourced heavy metals and nutrients on the island’s coastal marine environment, based on geochemical data collected from hydrothermal waters and surficial nearshore sediments (<10 m water depth) at several vents in the Bros Thermi and Kephalos Bay hydrothermal fields.

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Apply For Doctoral Research Fellowship in Mineralogy at University of Oslo in Norway, 2015

Apply For Doctoral Research Fellowship in Mineralogy at University of Oslo in Norway, 2015 http://t.co/hkE8j8tFh8
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Iron toxicity for cyanobacteria delayed oxygen accumulation in early Earth's atmosphere

Iron toxicity for cyanobacteria delayed oxygen accumulation in early Earth's atmosphere | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Geomicrobiologists say that the first oxygen-producing bacteria were poisoned by abundant iron in ancient oceans. Three billion years ago, Earth's atmosphere contained less than 0.0001 percent oxygen. Today's atmosphere has around 20 percent oxygen -- and that is due to the work of tiny microorganisms in Earth's primeval oceans.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

See also: http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo2327.html

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Iron and Arsenic Speciation in Arsenic-Enriched Peatland

Iron and Arsenic Speciation in Arsenic-Enriched Peatland | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors investigated the speciation and distribution of Fe and As in flocs collected from low-flow streams (pH 5.3–6.3) of the naturally As-enriched peatland Gola di Lago (Switzerland) using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and Synchrotron X-ray techniques.

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Stable Hg Isotope Signatures in Creek Sediments Impacted by a Former Hg Mine

Stable Hg Isotope Signatures in Creek Sediments Impacted by a Former Hg Mine | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The goal of this study was to investigate the Hg stable isotope signatures of sediments in San Carlos Creek downstream of the former Hg mine New Idria, CA, USA and to relate the results to previously studied Hg isotope signatures of unroasted ore waste and calcine materials in the mining area.

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3D model of meteorite on the Martian surface

3D model of meteorite on the Martian surface | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Composition measurements by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity confirm that this rock on the Martian surface is an iron-nickel meteorite. Researchers have informally named the rock "Block Island." With a width of about two-thirds of a meter (2 feet), it is the largest meteorite yet found on Mars.

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New instrument succeeds at XANES mapping of meteor impact melt bearing breccias

New instrument succeeds at XANES mapping of meteor impact melt bearing breccias | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

A recent collaboration with geologist Alaura Singleton, from Dr. Gordon Osinski’s research group at Western University in London Ontario (Canada), and CHESS scientists Matthew Ward, Arthur Woll, and Margaret Koker, has utilized the new CHESS Maia detector to perform full spectrum iron K-edge x-ray absorption mapping experiments on impact melt bearing breccias. Melt bearing breccia samples were taken from the Mistastin impact structure, which was formed by a meteorite impact in Northern Labrador, Canada ~36 million years ago.

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Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Probe Microscopy (SXSPM) | Advanced Photon Source

Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Probe Microscopy (SXSPM) | Advanced Photon Source | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Advanced Photon Source - an Office of Science user facility
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Chemical analysis of ancient rocks reveals earliest record yet of Earth's atmosphere: Isotopic memory of atmospheric persistence

Chemical analysis of ancient rocks reveals earliest record yet of Earth's atmosphere: Isotopic memory of atmospheric persistence | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Chemical analysis of some of the world's oldest rocks has provided the earliest record yet of Earth's atmosphere. The results show that the air 4 billion years ago was very similar to that more than a billion years later, when the atmosphere -- though it likely would have been lethal to oxygen-dependent humans -- supported a thriving microbial biosphere that ultimately gave rise to the diversity of life on Earth today.

Via Ioannis Iliopoulos
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Ioannis Iliopoulos's curator insight, January 21, 3:35 AM

Ancient rocks as a proxy for the primary Earth's atmosphere

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▶ Seeing inside Herculaneum carbonized papyrus scrolls

This video shows the procedure to extract letters inside an Herculaneum papyrus scroll.
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How the Earth got its nitrogen

How the Earth got its nitrogen | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Nitrogen may have arrived on Earth in ancient meteorites after the planet had already formed, according to a new study.
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors used an electron microscope to study crystals from two ancient carbonaceous chondrite meteorites named Yamato-791198 and Yamato-793321 which were recovered from Antarctica in 1979.

They discovered an unusual mineralised form of nitrogen which matched Earth's nitrogen. "We found nitrogen with a similar isotopic composition to nitrogen found in people and in Earth's atmosphere, in a very unusual mineral which was detected in two meteorites," says Harries. "This mineral shows us that there was another type of nitrogen in the early solar system billions of years ago, and this molecule was probably responsible for making the building blocks of life and bringing the nitrogen of our atmosphere to Earth."

"The discovery of this mineralized form of nitrogen is telling us something about how Earth got its nitrogen."

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The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle

The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors explore the isotopic characteristics of the global uranium cycle. They show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high 238U/235U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. They also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have 238U/235U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium.

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In Memoriam: Robert Berner

In Memoriam: Robert Berner | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

Bob got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from the University of Michigan, and his Ph.D. from Harvard. He did a postdoc at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography before moving to the University of Chicago as an Assistant Professor in 1963. He came to Yale in 1965, and stayed here for the rest of his career.

Ath Godelitsas's insight:

We extend our deepest, heartfelt condolences to his family at this most difficult time.

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The First Synchrotron Light of Taiwan Photon Source Shined on New Year's Eve

The First Synchrotron Light of Taiwan Photon Source Shined on New Year's Eve | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

On the last day of 2014, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) has delivered its first synchrotron light at 13:58, an exciting news released by the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) in Hsinchu, Taiwan.

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LANL Space sur Twitter

LANL Space sur Twitter | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
#7: LANL's #Supercam laser instrument will provide imaging, chemical composition analysis, and mineralogy. #Mars2020 pic.twitter.com/Wr7JimtaHG
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Rare earth elements: Simple commodity or strategic vulnerability?

Ath Godelitsas's insight:

Are REEs best understood as simple commodities, or as strategic resources that can be  used as tools of statecraft? And can Australia play a part in the development of alternative  reliable sources of rare earths? To help understand the strategic importance of REEs the National Security College and Crawford School of Public Policy welcome two global experts in the field.

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Activation of Persulfate by Irradiated Magnetite

Activation of Persulfate by Irradiated Magnetite | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Ath Godelitsas's insight:

The authors showed that phenol can be effectively degraded by magnetite in the presence of persulfate (S2O82–) under UVA irradiation.

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EAG Council Elections « European Association of Geochemistry

EAG Council Elections « European Association of Geochemistry | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The European Association of Geochemistry, EAG, aims to promote geochemical research in Europe.
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16th International Conference on X‐ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015, Karlsruhe

16th International Conference on X‐ray Absorption Fine Structure, 23-28 August 2015, Karlsruhe | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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