Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience
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Nano-Tomography of Porous Geological Materials Using Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy

Nano-Tomography of Porous Geological Materials Using Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
This contribution serves as an introduction and overview of FIB-SEM tomography applied to porous materials. on
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Iron minerals within specific microfossil morphospecies of the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation

Iron minerals within specific microfossil morphospecies of the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors show that specific microfossil populations of the 1.88 Ga Gunflint Iron Formation contain Fe-silicate and Fe-carbonate nanocrystal concentrations in cell interiors.
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Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS.
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Aggregation-induced growth and transformation of β-FeOOH nanorods to micron-sized α-Fe2O3 spindles

Aggregation-induced growth and transformation of β-FeOOH nanorods to micron-sized α-Fe2O3 spindles | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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In this work, the authors studied the hydrothermal growth of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods and their transformation to micron-sized hematite (α-Fe2O3) spindles using high-resolution cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Only akaganeite particles and hematite spindles were detected in the samples. Further, cryo-electron 3D tomograms show that akaganeite nanorods were aggregated into loose three-dimensional networks with some embedded hematite spindles.
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Researchers pinpoint source of arsenic in Yangtze River

Researchers pinpoint source of arsenic in Yangtze River | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

“Generally, arsenic is a huge problem in Asian groundwater. A recent report estimated more than 19 million people in China are exposed to unsafe arsenic concentrations... Across Asia (as a whole) estimates suggest 100 million to 200 million people are exposed,” said Michael Schaefer from the Earth System Science Department at Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

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Understanding Uranium Behavior in Sediments | EMSL

Understanding Uranium Behavior in Sediments | EMSL | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Uranium accumulates in oxygen-depleted sediments such as ore deposits, marine basins and contaminated aquifers. Identifying chemical forms of uranium that dominate sediments is key to understanding how this contaminant reacts and moves in sediments.
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Cycles of nutrient trace elements in the Phanerozoic ocean

Cycles of nutrient trace elements in the Phanerozoic ocean | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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Process Mineralogy 2017

Process Mineralogy 2017 | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Petrolab are proud sponsors of Process Mineralogy 2017 in Cape Town and have the privilege of presenting two papers at the conference.
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Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae

Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors studied exquisitely preserved fossil communities from ~1.6 billion-year-old sedimentary rocks in central India representing a shallow-water marine environment characterized by photosynthetic biomats.
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International School on Biological Crystallization - ISBC Granada

International School on Biological Crystallization - ISBC Granada | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The ISBC2017 belong to a series of International Crystallization Schools organized yearly every last week of May since 2006 in Granada. The whole series of ISC and ISBC are sponsored by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr), The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain, The International University Menendez Pelayo, The University of Granada, and the Specialized Group of Crystallography and Crystal Growth (GE3C) of the Spanish Royal Society of Chemistry, and it is supported by the Working Party on Crystallization (WPC) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineers and the International Organization of Crystal Growth.
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The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry

The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
The micronutrient iron is now recognized to be important in regulating the magnitude and dynamics of ocean primary productivity, making it an integral component of the ocean’s biogeochemical cycles. In this Review, we discuss how a recent increase in observational data for this trace metal has challenged the prevailing view of the ocean iron cycle. Instead of focusing on dust as the major iron source and emphasizing iron’s tight biogeochemical coupling to major nutrients, a more complex and diverse picture of the sources of iron, its cycling processes and intricate linkages with the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles has emerged.
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The quest to crystallize time

The quest to crystallize time | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Bizarre forms of matter called time crystals were supposed to be physically impossible. Now they’re not.
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Seawater cycled throughout Earth/'s mantle in partially serpentinized lithosphere

Seawater cycled throughout Earth/'s mantle in partially serpentinized lithosphere | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors show that water and halogen enrichment is unexpectedly associated with trace element signatures characteristic of dehydrated oceanic crust, and that the most incompatible halogens have relatively uniform abundance ratios that are different from primitive mantle values.
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Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain

Two-stage opening of the Dover Strait and the origin of island Britain | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors combine analysis of a regional high-resolution bathymetric grid of the central and eastern English Channel shelf that includes new multibeam sonar data from the Dover Strait, with new high-resolution seismic-reflection data to investigate how the Strait was formed.
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Lecture: Speleothems as paleoclimate indicators

Lecture given by Prof. Miryam Bar-Matthews at the Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, as part of the EA
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Nanoscience in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Workshop @goldschmidt2017

Nanoscience in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Workshop @goldschmidt2017 | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
A Pre-Meeting Workshop In Association with the Goldschmidt 2017 Conference Dates: August 12-13, 2017 Conveners: David Mogk, Montana State University (USA); Michael Hochella, Virginia Tech/PNNL (USA); Nancy Healy
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Mineralogists identify a group of minerals that owe their existence to human activity

Mineralogists identify a group of minerals that owe their existence to human activity | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
No other species in Earth's history has left a mark on the planet as profound and lasting as Homo sapiens. So much so that scientists are increasingly making a case for designating a new geological time period: the Anthropocene
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Journey to Mars Webinar (March2017)

Journey to Mars Webinar featuring NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Scientist Doug Ming from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX.
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Secrets hidden by the Fibonacci Number and Phi (Φ)

Secrets hidden by the Fibonacci Number and Phi (Φ) | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it

The Fibonacci numbers are the sequence of numbers defined by the linear recurrence equation.

 

The plot above shows the first 511 terms of the Fibonacci sequence represented in binary, revealing an interesting pattern of hollow and filled triangles (Pegg 2003). A fractal-like series of white triangles appears on the bottom edge, due in part to the fact that the binary representation of ends in zeros. Many other similar properties exist.

 

The Fibonacci numbers give the number of pairs of rabbits months after a single pair begins breeding (and newly born bunnies are assumed to begin breeding when they are two months old), as first described by Leonardo of Pisa (also known as Fibonacci) in his book Liber Abaci. Kepler also described the Fibonacci numbers (Kepler 1966; Wells 1986, pp. 61-62 and 65). Before Fibonacci wrote his work, the Fibonacci numbers had already been discussed by Indian scholars such as Gopāla (before 1135) and Hemachandra (c. 1150) who had long been interested in rhythmic patterns that are formed from one-beat and two-beat notes or syllables. The number of such rhythms having beats altogether is , and hence these scholars both mentioned the numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ... explicitly (Knuth 1997, p. 80).

 

The numbers of Fibonacci numbers less than 10, , , ... are 6, 11, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 39, 44, ... (OEIS A072353). For , 2, ..., the numbers of decimal digits in are 2, 21, 209, 2090, 20899, 208988, 2089877, 20898764, ... (OEIS A068070). As can be seen, the initial strings of digits settle down to produce the number 208987640249978733769..., which corresponds to the decimal digits of (OEIS A097348), where is the golden ratio. This follows from the fact that for any power function , the number of decimal digits for is given by .


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates

Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors describe putative fossilized microorganisms that are at least 3,770 million and possibly 4,280 million years old in ferruginous sedimentary rocks, interpreted as seafloor-hydrothermal vent-related precipitates, from the Nuvvuagittuq belt in Quebec, Canada.
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Biomimetic mineral self-organization from silica-rich spring waters

Biomimetic mineral self-organization from silica-rich spring waters | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Purely inorganic reactions of silica, metal carbonates, and metal hydroxides can produce self-organized complex structures that mimic the texture of biominerals, the morphology of primitive organisms, and that catalyze prebiotic reactions. To date, these fascinating structures have only been synthesized using model solutions. We report that mineral self-assembly can be also obtained from natural alkaline silica-rich water deriving from serpentinization. Specifically, we demonstrate three main types of mineral self-assembly: (i) nanocrystalline biomorphs of barium carbonate and silica, (ii) mesocrystals and crystal aggregates of calcium carbonate with complex biomimetic textures, and (iii) osmosis-driven metal silicate hydrate membranes that form compartmentalized, hollow structures. Our results suggest that silica-induced mineral self-assembly could have been a common phenomenon in alkaline environments of early Earth and Earth-like planets.
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Diamond formation in the deep lower mantle: a high-pressure reaction of MgCO3 and SiO2

Diamond formation in the deep lower mantle: a high-pressure reaction of MgCO3 and SiO2 | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
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The authors determined the phase relations in the MgCO3-SiO2 system up to 152 GPa and 3,100 K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.
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Manganese Oxide Reactions on Ni and Zn Speciation

Manganese Oxide Reactions on Ni and Zn Speciation | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Layered Mn oxide minerals (phyllomanganates) often control trace metal fate in natural systems. The strong uptake of metals such as Ni and Zn by phyllomanganates results from adsorption on or incorporation into vacancy sites.
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Iron entangled : Nature Geoscience : Nature Research

Iron entangled : Nature Geoscience : Nature Research | Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Mineral Surfaces & Nanogeoscience | Scoop.it
Iron is an essential fuel for life in the oceans. The influence of this element on biogeochemistry [mdash] and nitrogen cycling in particular [mdash] varies across environments and time.
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