The dramatic mineralogical consequences of life are reflected in the absence of Hadean biomineralization; for example, the lack of extensive carbonate deposits and the associated restricted development of skarn and cave minerals prior to 4 Ga. Most importantly, it was not until after the establishment via photosynthesis of significant near-surface redox gradients that supergene alteration, redox-controlled ore deposition, and subaerial weathering in an oxidizing environment could diversify Earth's near-surface mineralogy.
The authors extend a series of studies that examine pH-dependent surface potentials and electron-transfer properties of effectively perfect low-index crystal faces of hematite in contact with simple electrolyte. Zero-resistance amperometry (ZRA) was performed in a two electrode configuration to quantify spontaneous dark current between hematite crystal face pairs (001)/(012), (001)/(113), and (012)/(113) at pH 3.
Organically/inorganically functionalized reverse micelles are used to rapidly establish pathways relevant to calcium sulfate mineralization in solution (including long-term stabilization of poorly hydrated phases by organic moieties, dissolution−crystallization of rounded nanocrystals and oriented attachment of nanorods).Organically/inorganically functionalized reverse micelles are used to rapidly establish pathways relevant to calcium sulfate mineralization in solution (including long-term stabilization of poorly hydrated phases by organic moieties, dissolution−crystallization of rounded nanocrystals and oriented attachment of nanorods).
In the present work, the transformation of synthetic vernadite (δ-MnO 2 ) to synthetic cryptomelane under conditions analogous to those prevailing in soils (dry state, room temperature and ambient pressure, in the dark) and over a time scale of ~10 years was monitored using high-energy X-ray scattering (with both Bragg-rod and pair distribution function formalisms) and transmission electron microscopy.
The paper confirms that natural microporous gold can form via the replacement of telluride minerals. This replacement may take place under hydrothermal conditions, e.g., during the late stage of the ore-depositing event, explaining the wide distribution of “mustard gold” in some deposits.
The authors have analysed the nitrogen abundance, as well as the nitrogen and carbon isotopic signatures of Archaean placer diamonds from the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa, which formed in the upper mantle 3.1 to 3.5 billion years ago.
Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported.
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